Genetic Properties of a Nested Association Mapping Population Constructed With Semi-Winter and Spring Oilseed Rapes.
ABSTRACT: Nested association mapping (NAM) populations have been widely applied to dissect the genetic basis of complex quantitative traits in a variety of crops. In this study, we developed a Brassica napus NAM (BN-NAM) population consisting of 15 recombination inbred line (RIL) families with 2,425 immortal genotypes. Fifteen high-density genetic linkage maps were constructed by genotyping by sequencing (GBS) based on all RIL families, with further integration into a joint linkage map (JLM) having 30,209 unique markers in common with multiple linkage maps. Furthermore, an ultra-density whole-genome variation map was constructed by projecting 4,444,309 high-quality variants onto the JLM. The NAM population captured a total of 88,542 recombination events (REs). The uneven distribution of recombination rate along chromosomes is positively correlated with the densities of genes and markers, but negatively correlated with the density of transposable elements and linkage disequilibrium (LD). Analyses of population structure and principal components revealed that the BN-NAM population could be divided into three groups with weak stratification. The LD decay distance across genome varied between 170 and 2,400 Kb, with LD decay more rapid in the A than in the C sub-genome. The pericentromeric regions contained large LD blocks, especially in the C sub-genome. This NAM population provides a valuable resource for dissecting the genetic basis of important traits in rapeseed, especially in semi-winter oilseed rape.
Project description:Chilean Farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations were established with individuals of both European and North American origins. These populations are expected to be highly genetically differentiated due to evolutionary history and poor gene flow between ancestral populations from different continents. The extent and decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD) among single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) impacts the implementation of genome-wide association studies and genomic selection and provides relevant information about demographic processes of fish populations. We assessed the population structure and characterized the extent and decay of LD in three Chilean commercial populations of Atlantic salmon with North American (NAM), Scottish (SCO), and Norwegian (NOR) origin. A total of 123 animals were genotyped using a 159 K SNP Axiom® myDesignTM Genotyping Array. A total of 32 K SNP markers, representing the common SNPs along the three populations after quality control were used. The principal component analysis explained 78.9% of the genetic diversity between populations, clearly discriminating between populations of North American and European origin, and also between European populations. NAM had the lowest effective population size, followed by SCO and NOR. Large differences in the LD decay were observed between populations of North American and European origin. An r 2 threshold of 0.2 was estimated for marker pairs separated by 7,800, 64, and 50 kb in the NAM, SCO, and NOR populations, respectively. In this study we show that this SNP panel can be used to detect association between markers and traits of interests and also to capture high-resolution information for genome-enabled predictions. Also, we suggest the feasibility to achieve similar prediction accuracies using a smaller SNP data set for the NAM population, compared with samples with European origin which would need a higher density SNP array.
Project description:Linkage and association mapping populations are crucial public resources that facilitate the characterization of trait genetic architecture in natural and agricultural systems. We define a large nested association mapping panel (NAM) from 14 publicly available recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) of Arabidopsis thaliana, which share a common recurrent parent (Col-0). Using a genotype-by-sequencing approach (GBS), we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; range 563-1525 per population) and subsequently built updated linkage maps in each of the 14 RIL sets. Simulations in individual RIL populations indicate that our GBS markers have improved power to detect small effect QTL and enhanced resolution of QTL support intervals in comparison to original linkage maps. Using these robust linkage maps, we imputed a common set of publicly available parental SNPs into each RIL linkage map, generating overlapping markers across all populations. Though ultimately depending on allele frequencies at causal loci, simulations of the NAM panel suggest that surveying between 4 to 7 of the 14 RIL populations provides high resolution of the genetic architecture of complex traits, relative to a single mapping population.
Project description:The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population by backcrossing 25 wild barley accessions to the six-rowed malting barley cultivar Rasmusson. The 25 wild barley parents were selected from the 318 accession Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) to maximize allelic diversity. The resulting 796 BC2F4:6 lines were genotyped with 384 SNP markers, and an additional 4022 SNPs and 263,531 sequence variants were imputed onto the population using 9K iSelect SNP genotypes and exome capture sequence of the parents, respectively. On average, 96% of each wild parent was introgressed into the Rasmusson background, and the population exhibited low population structure. While linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay (r(2) = 0.2) was lowest in the WBDC (0.36 cM), the AB-NAM (9.2 cM) exhibited more rapid LD decay than comparable advanced backcross (28.6 cM) and recombinant inbred line (32.3 cM) populations. Three qualitative traits: glossy spike, glossy sheath, and black hull color were mapped with high resolution to loci corresponding to known barley mutants for these traits. Additionally, a total of 10 QTL were identified for grain protein content. The combination of low LD, negligible population structure, and high diversity in an adapted background make the AB-NAM an important tool for high-resolution gene mapping and discovery of novel allelic variation using wild barley germplasm.
Project description:We discovered 26785 and 16573 high-quality SNPs differentiating two parental genotypes of a RIL mapping population using reference desi and kabuli genome-based GBS assay. Of these, 3625 and 2177 SNPs have been integrated into eight desi and kabuli chromosomes, respectively in order to construct ultra-high density (0.20-0.37 cM) intra-specific chickpea genetic linkage maps. One of these constructed high-resolution genetic map has potential to identify 33 major genomic regions harbouring 35 robust QTLs (PVE: 17.9-39.7%) associated with three agronomic traits, which were mapped within <1 cM mean marker intervals on desi chromosomes. The extended LD (linkage disequilibrium) decay (~15 cM) in chromosomes of genetic maps have encouraged us to use a rapid integrated approach (comparative QTL mapping, QTL-region specific haplotype/LD-based trait association analysis, expression profiling and gene haplotype-based association mapping) rather than a traditional QTL map-based cloning method to narrow-down one major seed weight (SW) robust QTL region. It delineated favourable natural allelic variants and superior haplotype-containing one seed-specific candidate embryo defective gene regulating SW in chickpea. The ultra-high-resolution genetic maps, QTLs/genes and alleles/haplotypes-related genomic information generated and integrated strategy for rapid QTL/gene identification developed have potential to expedite genomics-assisted breeding applications in crop plants, including chickpea for their genetic enhancement.
Project description:Napier grass is an important tropical forage-grass and of growing potential as an energy crop. One-hundred-five Napier grass accessions, encompassing two independent collections, were subjected to genotyping by sequencing which generated a set of high-density genome-wide markers together with short sequence reads. The reads, averaging 54 nucleotides, were mapped to the pearl millet genome and the closest genes and annotation information were used to select candidate genes linked to key forage traits. 980 highly polymorphic SNP markers, distributed across the genome, were used to assess population structure and diversity with seven-subgroups identified. A few representative accessions were selected with the objective of distributing subsets of a manageable size for further evaluation. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses revealed a fast LD-decay, on average 2.54 kbp, in the combined population with a slower LD-decay in the ILRI collection compared with the EMBRAPA collection, the significance of which is discussed. This initiative generated high-density markers with a good distribution across the genome. The diversity analysis revealed the existence of a substantial amount of variation in the ILRI collection and identified some unique materials from the EMBRAPA collection, demonstrating the potential of the overall population for further genetic and marker-trait-association studies.
Project description:The Ethiopian plateau hosts thousands of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) farmer varieties (FV) with high adaptability and breeding potential. To harness their unique allelic diversity, we produced a large nested association mapping (NAM) population intercrossing fifty Ethiopian FVs with an international elite durum wheat variety (Asassa). The Ethiopian NAM population (EtNAM) is composed of fifty interconnected bi-parental families, totalling 6280 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) that represent both a powerful quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping tool, and a large pre-breeding panel. Here, we discuss the molecular and phenotypic diversity of the EtNAM founder lines, then we use an array featuring 13 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to characterize a subset of 1200 EtNAM RILs from 12 families. Finally, we test the usefulness of the population by mapping phenology traits and plant height using a genome wide association (GWA) approach. EtNAM RILs showed high allelic variation and a genetic makeup combining genetic diversity from Ethiopian FVs with the international durum wheat allele pool. EtNAM SNP data were projected on the fully sequenced AB genome of wild emmer wheat, and were used to estimate pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) measures that reported an LD decay distance of 7.4 Mb on average, and balanced founder contributions across EtNAM families. GWA analyses identified 11 genomic loci individually affecting up to 3 days in flowering time and more than 1.6 cm in height. We argue that the EtNAM is a powerful tool to support the production of new durum wheat varieties targeting local and global agriculture.
Project description:The fluctuation of population size has not been well studied in the previous studies of theoretical linkage disequilibrium (LD) expectation. In this study, an improved theoretical prediction of LD decay was derived to account for the effects of changes in effective population sizes. The equation was used to estimate effective population size (N(e)) assuming a constant N(e) and LD at equilibrium, and these N(e) estimates implied the past changes of N(e) for a certain number of generations until equilibrium, which differed based on recombination rate. As the influence of recent population history on the N(e) estimates is larger than old population history, recent changes in population size can be inferred more accurately than old changes. The theoretical predictions based on this improved expression showed accurate agreement with the simulated values. When applied to human genome data, the detailed recent history of human populations was obtained. The inferred past population history of each population showed good correspondence with historical studies. Specifically, four populations (three African ancestries and one Mexican ancestry) showed population growth that was significantly less than that of other populations, and two populations originated from China showed prominent exponential growth. During the examination of overall LD decay in the human genome, a selection pressure on chromosome 14, the gephyrin gene, was observed in all populations.
Project description:Two hundred and fifty bread wheat lines, mainly Chinese mini core accessions, were assayed for polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on 512 whole-genome microsatellite loci representing a mean marker density of 5.1 cM. A total of 6,724 alleles ranging from 1 to 49 per locus were identified in all collections. The mean PIC value was 0.650, ranging from 0 to 0.965. Population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that landraces and modern varieties were two relatively independent genetic sub-groups. Landraces had a higher allelic diversity than modern varieties with respect to both genomes and chromosomes in terms of total number of alleles and allelic richness. 3,833 (57.0%) and 2,788 (41.5%) rare alleles with frequencies of <5% were found in the landrace and modern variety gene pools, respectively, indicating greater numbers of rare variants, or likely new alleles, in landraces. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that A genome had the largest genetic differentiation and D genome the lowest. In contrast to genetic diversity, modern varieties displayed a wider average LD decay across the whole genome for locus pairs with r(2)>0.05 (P<0.001) than the landraces. Mean LD decay distance for the landraces at the whole genome level was <5 cM, while a higher LD decay distance of 5-10 cM in modern varieties. LD decay distances were also somewhat different for each of the 21 chromosomes, being higher for most of the chromosomes in modern varieties (<5 ? 25 cM) compared to landraces (<5 ? 15 cM), presumably indicating the influences of domestication and breeding. This study facilitates predicting the marker density required to effectively associate genotypes with traits in Chinese wheat genetic resources.
Project description:The rate of meiotic recombination is one of the central factors determining genome-wide levels of linkage disequilibrium which has important consequences for the efficiency of natural selection and for the dissection of quantitative traits. Here we present a new, high-resolution linkage map for Populus tremula that we use to anchor approximately two thirds of the P. tremula draft genome assembly on to the expected 19 chromosomes, providing us with the first chromosome-scale assembly for P. tremula (Table 2). We then use this resource to estimate variation in recombination rates across the P. tremula genome and compare these results to recombination rates based on linkage disequilibrium in a large number of unrelated individuals. We also assess how variation in recombination rates is associated with a number of genomic features, such as gene density, repeat density and methylation levels. We find that recombination rates obtained from the two methods largely agree, although the LD-based method identifies a number of genomic regions with very high recombination rates that the map-based method fails to detect. Linkage map and LD-based estimates of recombination rates are positively correlated and show similar correlations with other genomic features, showing that both methods can accurately infer recombination rate variation across the genome. Recombination rates are positively correlated with gene density and negatively correlated with repeat density and methylation levels, suggesting that recombination is largely directed toward gene regions in P. tremula.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between molecular markers impacts genome-wide association studies and implementation of genomic selection. The availability of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms makes it possible to investigate LD at an unprecedented resolution. In this work, we characterised LD decay in breeds of beef cattle of taurine, indicine and composite origins and explored its variation across autosomes and the X chromosome. FINDINGS: In each breed, LD decayed rapidly and r2 was less than 0.2 for marker pairs separated by 50 kb. The LD decay curves clustered into three groups of similar LD decay that distinguished the three main cattle types. At short distances between markers (<10 kb), taurine breeds showed higher LD (r2=0.45) than their indicine (r2=0.25) and composite (r2=0.32) counterparts. This higher LD in taurine breeds was attributed to a smaller effective population size and a stronger bottleneck during breed formation. Using all SNPs on only the X chromosome, the three cattle types could still be distinguished. However for taurine breeds, the LD decay on the X chromosome was much faster and the background level much lower than for indicine breeds and composite populations. When using only SNPs that were polymorphic in all breeds, the analysis of the X chromosome mimicked that of the autosomes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of LD mirrored some aspects of the history of breed populations and showed a sharp decay with increasing physical distance between markers. We conclude that the availability of the HD chip can be used to detect association signals that remained hidden when using lower density genotyping platforms, since LD dropped below 0.2 at distances of 50 kb.