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Benign Thyroid Diseases and Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Nationwide Cohort Study.


ABSTRACT: Context:Thyroid nodules, adenomas, and goiter have consistently been associated with thyroid cancer risk. Few studies have assessed whether thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity influence this risk. Objective:To examine thyroid cancer risk after diagnoses of a wide range of benign thyroid conditions. Design:Hospital and cancer registry linkage cohort study for the years 1978 to 2013. Setting:Nationwide (Denmark). Participants:Patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism (n = 85,169), hypothyroidism (n = 63,143), thyroiditis (n = 12,532), nontoxic nodular goiter (n = 65,782), simple goiter (n = 11,582), other/unspecified goiter (n = 21,953), or adenoma (n = 6,481) among 8,258,807 residents of Denmark during the study period. Main Outcome Measures:We computed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for differentiated thyroid cancer, excluding the first 12 months of follow-up after benign thyroid disease diagnosis. Results:SIRs were significantly elevated for all benign thyroid diseases apart from hypothyroidism. SIRs were higher for men than women and in the earlier follow-up periods. Elevated SIRs were observed for localized and regional/distant thyroid cancer. After excluding the first 10 years of follow-up, hyperthyroidism [n = 27 thyroid cancer cases; SIR = 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 2.92], nontoxic nodular goiter (n = 83; SIR = 4.91; 95% CI: 3.91 to 6.09), simple goiter (n = 8; SIR = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.87 to 8.53), other/unspecified goiter (n = 20; SIR = 3.94; 95% CI: 2.40 to 6.08), and adenoma (n = 9; SIR = 6.02; 95% CI: 2.76 to 11.5) remained positively associated with thyroid cancer risk. Conclusions:We found an unexpected increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer, including regional/distant disease, following diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis that could not be solely attributed to increased medical surveillance. Hypothyroidism was less clearly associated with thyroid cancer risk.

SUBMITTER: Kitahara CM 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6276704 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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