Diverse, Novel Mycoviruses From the Virome of a Hypovirulent Sclerotium rolfsii Strain.
ABSTRACT: Sclerotium rolfsii, which causes southern blight in a wide variety of crops, is a devastating plant pathogen worldwide. Mycoviruses that induce hypovirulence in phytopathogenic fungi are potential biological control resources against fungal plant diseases. However, in S. rolfsii, mycoviruses are rarely reported. In a previous study, we found a hypovirulent strain carrying a diverse pattern of dsRNAs. Here, we utilized the RNA_Seq technique to detect viral sequences. Deep sequencing, RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing validation analyses revealed that this strain harbors various new viral species that show affinity to the distinctly established and proposed families Benyviridae, Endornaviridae, Fusariviridae, Hypoviridae, and Fusagraviridae. Moreover, some viral sequences that could not be assigned to any of the existing families or orders were also identified and showed similarities to the Alphavirus, Ourmiavirus, phlegivirus-like and Curvularia thermal tolerance virus-like groups. In addition, we also conducted deep sequencing analysis of small RNAs in the virus-infecting fugal strain. The results indicated that the Dicer-mediated gene silencing mechanism was present in S. rolfsii. This is the first report of viral diversity in a single S. rolfsii fungal strain, and the results presented herein might provide insight into the taxonomy and evolution of mycoviruses and be useful for the exploration of mycoviruses as biocontrol agents.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Mycoviruses can have a marked effect on natural fungal communities and influence plant health and productivity. However, a comprehensive picture of mycoviral diversity is still lacking. To characterize the viromes of five widely dispersed plant-pathogenic fungi, Colletotrichum truncatum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Diaporthe longicolla, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a high-throughput sequencing-based metatranscriptomic approach was used to detect viral sequences. Total RNA and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from mycelia and RNA from samples enriched for virus particles were sequenced. Sequence data were assembled de novo, and contigs with predicted amino acid sequence similarities to viruses in the nonredundant protein database were selected. The analysis identified 72 partial or complete genome segments representing 66 previously undescribed mycoviruses. Using primers specific for each viral contig, at least one fungal isolate was identified that contained each virus. The novel mycoviruses showed affinity with 15 distinct lineages: Barnaviridae, Benyviridae, Chrysoviridae, Endornaviridae, Fusariviridae, Hypoviridae, Mononegavirales, Narnaviridae, Ophioviridae, Ourmiavirus, Partitiviridae, Tombusviridae, Totiviridae, Tymoviridae, and Virgaviridae More than half of the viral sequences were predicted to be members of the Mitovirus genus in the family Narnaviridae, which replicate within mitochondria. Five viral sequences showed strong affinity with three families (Benyviridae, Ophioviridae, and Virgaviridae) that previously contained no mycovirus species. The genomic information provides insight into the diversity and taxonomy of mycoviruses and coevolution of mycoviruses and their fungal hosts. IMPORTANCE:Plant-pathogenic fungi reduce crop yields, which affects food security worldwide. Plant host resistance is considered a sustainable disease management option but may often be incomplete or lacking for some crops to certain fungal pathogens or strains. In addition, the rising issues of fungicide resistance demand alternative strategies to reduce the negative impacts of fungal pathogens. Those fungus-infecting viruses (mycoviruses) that attenuate fungal virulence may be welcome additions for mitigation of plant diseases. By high-throughput sequencing of the RNAs from 275 isolates of five fungal plant pathogens, 66 previously undescribed mycoviruses were identified. In addition to identifying new potential biological control agents, these results expand the grand view of the diversity of mycoviruses and provide possible insights into the importance of intracellular and extracellular transmission in fungus-virus coevolution.
Project description:Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a devastating plant pathogen that attacks numerous economically important broad acre and vegetable crops worldwide. Mycoviruses are widespread viruses that infect fungi, including S. sclerotiorum. As there were no previous reports of the presence of mycoviruses in this pathogen in Australia, studies were undertaken using RNA_Seq analysis to determine the diversity of mycoviruses in 84 Australian S. sclerotiorum isolates collected from various hosts. After RNA sequences were subjected to BLASTp analysis using NCBI database, 285 contigs representing partial or complete genomes of 57 mycoviruses were obtained, and 34 of these (59.6%) were novel viruses. These 57 viruses were grouped into 10 distinct lineages, namely Endornaviridae (four novel mycoviruses), Genomoviridae (isolate of SsHADV-1), Hypoviridae (two novel mycoviruses), Mononegavirales (four novel mycovirusess), Narnaviridae (10 novel mycoviruses), Partitiviridae (two novel mycoviruses), Ourmiavirus (two novel mycovirus), Tombusviridae (two novel mycoviruses), Totiviridae (one novel mycovirus), Tymovirales (five novel mycoviruses), and two non-classified mycoviruses lineages (one Botrytis porri RNA virus 1, one distantly related to Aspergillus fumigatus tetramycovirus-1). Twenty-five mitoviruses were determined and mitoviruses were dominant in the isolates tested. This is not only the first study to show existence of mycoviruses in S. sclerotiorum in Australia, but highlights how they are widespread and that many novel mycoviruses occur there. Further characterization of these mycoviruses is warranted, both in terms of exploring these novel mycoviruses for innovative biocontrol of Sclerotinia diseases and in enhancing our overall knowledge on viral diversity, taxonomy, ecology, and evolution.
Project description:Various mycoviruses have been isolated from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Here, we identified a viral RNA sequence contig, representing a novel virus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum deltaflexivirus 2 (SsDFV2), from an RNA_Seq database. We found that SsDFV2 was harbored in the hypovirulent strain, 228, which grew slowly on potato dextrose agar, produced a few sclerotia, and could not induce typical lesions on detached rapeseed (Brassica napus) leaves. Strain 228 was also infected by Botrytis porri RNA Virus 1 (BpRV1), a virus originally isolated from Botrytis porri. The genome of SsDFV2 comprised 6711 nucleotides, excluding the poly (A) tail, and contained a single large predicted open reading frame encoding a putative viral RNA replicase. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SsDFV2 is closely related to viruses in the family Deltaflexiviridae; however, it also differs significantly from members of this family, suggesting that it may represent a new species. Further we determined that SsDFV2 could be efficiently transmitted to host vegetative incompatible individuals by dual culture. To our best knowledge, this is the first report that a (+) ssRNA mycovirus can overcome the transmission limitations of the vegetative incompatibility system, a phenomenon that may facilitate the potential use of mycoviruses for the control of crop fungal diseases.
Project description:Mycoviruses associated with hypovirulence are potential biological control agents and could be useful to study the pathogenesis of fungal host pathogens. Sclerotium rolfsii, a pathogenic fungus, causes southern blight in a wide variety of crops. In this study, we isolated a series of dsRNAs from a debilitated S. rolfsii strain, BLH-1, which had pronounced phenotypic aberrations including reduced pathogenicity, mycelial growth and deficient sclerotia production. Virus-curing and horizontal transmission experiments that eliminated or transmitted, respectively, all dsRNA elements showed that the dsRNAs were involved in the hypovirulent traits of BLH-1. Ultrastructure examination also showed hyphae fracture and cytoplasm or organelle degeneration in BLH-1 hyphal cells compared to the virus-free strain. Three assembled cDNA contigs generated from the cDNA library cloned from the purified dsRNA indicated that strain BLH-1 was infected by at least three novel mycoviruses. One has similarity to the hypovirulence-associated Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 2 (SsHV2) in the family Hypoviridae, and the other two are related to two different unclassified dsRNA mycovirus families. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. rolfsii hypovirulence that was correlated with its associated dsRNA.
Project description:Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an important phytopathogenic fungus, harbors rich diversity of mycoviruses. Lately, more mycoviruses can be successfully and accurately discovered by deep sequencing, especially those that could not be detected by traditional double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extraction. Previously, we reported that the hypovirulent S. sclerotiorum strain SZ-150 is coinfected by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV1) and its related satellite RNA. Here, aside from SsHV1, we detected two other mycoviruses, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum botybirnavirus 3 (SsBV3/SZ-150) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycotymovirus 1 (SsMTV1/SZ-150), coinfecting strain SZ-150, by deep sequencing and assembly of mycovirus-derived small RNAs and determined their full-length genomes. The genome of SsBV3/SZ-150 was found to be composed of two linear dsRNA segments, 6,212, and 5,880 bp in size, respectively. Each dsRNA segment of SsBV3/SZ-150 contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a hypothetical protein. The whole genome of SsBV3/SZ-150 shares more than 95% sequence identity with Botrytis porri botybirnavirus 1 (BpBV1) at the nucleotide (nt) or amino acid level. Thus, SsBV3/SZ-150 was assumed to be a strain of BpBV1. The genome of SsMTV1/SZ-150 consists of 6,391 nt excluding the poly(A) tail. SsMTV1/SZ-150 was predicted to contain a large ORF that encodes a putative replication-associated polyprotein (RP) with three conserved domains of viral RNA methyltransferase, viral RNA helicase, and RdRp. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that SsMTV1/SZ-150 is related, albeit distantly, to members of the family Tymoviridae. Analysis of the small RNAs derived from SsBV3/SZ-150 and SsMTV1/SZ-150 revealed that small-RNA lengths mainly range from 20 to 24 nt, with a peak at 22 nt, and the most abundant 5'-terminal nucleotide is uridine, suggesting that the Dicer 2 and Argonaute 1, two key components in the RNA inference pathway, may play important roles in the resistance to mycoviral infection in S. sclerotiorum. Neither SsBV3/SZ-150 nor SsMTV1/SZ-150 is a causal agent of hypovirulence in strain SZ-150.
Project description:Fusarium sacchari and Fusarium andiyazi are two devastating sugarcane pathogens that cause pokkah boeng disease (PBD) in China. RNA_Seq was conducted to identify mycoviruses in F. sacchari and F. andiyazi isolates collected from PBD symptom-showing sugarcane plants across China. Fifteen isolates with a normal, debilitated, or abnormal phenotype in colony morphology were screened out for the existence of dsRNA from 104 Fusarium isolates. By sequencing the mixed pool of dsRNA from these Fusarium isolates, a total of 26 contigs representing complete or partial genome sequences of ten mycoviruses and their strains were identified, including one virus belonging to Hypoviridae, two mitoviruses with seven strains belonging to Narnaviridae, one virus of Chrysoviridae, and one alphavirus-like virus. RT-PCR amplification with primers specific to individual mycoviruses revealed that mitoviruses were the most prevalent and the alphavirus-like virus and chrysovirus were the least prevalent. In terms of host preference, more mitoviruses were found in F. andiyazi than in F. sacchari. Fusarium sacchari hypovirus 1 with a 13.9 kb genome and a defective genome of 12.2 kb, shares 54% identity at the amino acid level to the Wuhan insect virus 14, which is an unclassified hypovirus identified from insect meta-transcriptomics. The alphavirus-like virus, Fusarium sacchari alphavirus-like virus 1 (FsALV1), seemed to hold a distinct status amid fungal alphavirus-like viruses, with the highest identity of 27% at the amino acid level to Sclerotium rolfsii alphavirus-like virus 3 and 29% to a hepevirus, Ferret hepatitis E virus. While six of the seven mitoviruses shared 72-94% identities to known mitoviruses, Fusarium andiyazi mitovirus 2 was most similar to Alternaria brassicicola mitovirus with an identity of only 49% between the two viruses. Transmission of FsALV1 and Fusarium sacchari chrysovirus 1 (FsCV1) from F. sacharri to F. commune was observed and the characterization of the four-segment dsRNA chrysovirus was performed with aid of electron microscopy and analysis of the encapsidated RNAs. These findings provide insight into the diversity and spectrum of mycoviruses in PBD pathogens and should be useful for exploring agents to control the disease.
Project description:Zoysia japonica, in Brazil, is commonly infected by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) in humid and cool weather conditions. Eight isolates of R. solani, previously identified as belonging to the AG2-2 LP anastomosis group, isolated from samples from large path symptoms, were collected from three counties in São Paulo state (Brazil) and investigated for the presence of mycoviruses. After detection of double-strand RNA (dsRNA) in all samples, RNA_Seq analysis of ribosomal RNA-depleted total RNA from in vitro cultivated mycelia was performed. Forty-seven partial or complete viral unique RNA dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequences were obtained with a high prevalence of positive sense ssRNA viruses. Sequences were sufficiently different from the first match in BLAST searches suggesting that they all qualify as possible new viral species, except for one sequence showing an almost complete match with Rhizoctonia solani dsRNA virus 2, an alphapartitivirus. Surprisingly four large contigs of putative viral RNA could not be assigned to any existing clade of viruses present in the databases, but no DNA was detected corresponding to these fragments confirming their viral replicative nature. This is the first report on the occurrence of mycoviruses in R. solani AG2-2 LP in South America.
Project description:Fungal viruses (mycoviruses) have attracted more attention for their possible hypovirulence (attenuation of fungal virulence) trait, which may be developed as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most discovered mycoviruses are asymptomatic in their hosts. In most cases, mycovirus hypovirulent factors have not been explored clearly. In this study, we characterized a ssRNA mycovirus in Fusarium graminearum strain HB56-9. The complete nucleotide genome was obtained by combining random sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full genome was 6621-nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail. The mycovirus was quite interesting because it shared 95.91% nucleotide identities with previously reported Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain DK21 (FgV1-DK21), while the colony morphology of their fungal hosts on PDA plates were very different. The novel virus was named Fusarium graminearum virus 1 Chinese isolate (FgV1-ch). Like FgV1-DK21, FgV1-ch also contains four putative open reading frames (ORFs), including one long and three short ORFs. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that FgV1-ch is clustered into a proposed family Fusariviridae. FgV1-ch, unlike FgV1-DK21, had mild or no effects on host mycelial growth, spore production and virulence. The nucleotide differences between FgV1-ch and FgV1-DK21 will help to elucidate the hypovirulence determinants during mycovirus-host interaction.
Project description:Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a notorious plant fungal pathogen, causes yield loss of many crops and vegetables, and is a natural host of a diverse viruses with positive-sense RNA (+ssRNA), negative-sense RNA (-ssRNA), double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), or DNA genomes. Mixed-infection with multiple related or unrelated mycoviruses is a common phenomenon in S. sclerotiorum. However, a single strain co-infected with dsRNA and + ssRNA viruses has not been reported in S. sclerotiorum.We report two unrelated viruses, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum botybirnavirus 2 (SsBRV2) with a bipartite dsRNA genome and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mitovirus 4 (SsMV4/AH16) with a + ssRNA genome, which were originally detected in a single hypovirulent strain AH16 of S. sclerotiorum. SsMV4/AH16 has a typical genome of mitovirus and is a strain of mitovirus SsMV4. The genome of SsBRV2 consists of two separated dsRNA segments. The large dsRNA segment is 6159 bp in length and only has a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative 1868-aa polyprotein with a conserved RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. The small dsRNA segment is 5872 bp in length and encodes a putative 1778-aa protein. Phylogenetic analysis using RdRp conserved domain sequences revealed that SsBRV2 is phylogenetically related to the previously reported three bipartite viruses SsBRV1, Botrytis porri RNA virus 1 (BpRV1), and soybean leaf-associated botybirnavirus 1 (SlaBRV1). Electron microscopy demonstrated that SsBRV2 forms rigid spherical virions with a diameter of approximately 40 nm in infected mycelia. The virion of SsBRV2 was successfully introduced into a virus-free strain, which provides conclusive evidence that SsBRV2 confers hypovirulence on phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum.A bisegmented dsRNA virus (SsBRV2/AH16) and a nonsegmented + ssRNA virus (SsMV4/AH16) were characterized in a hypovirulent strain AH16 of S. sclerotiorum. SsMV4/AH16 is a strain of a reported mitovirus, whereas SsBRV2 is a new botybirnavirus. SsBRV2 is the causal agent of hypovirulence on S. sclerotiorum. Our findings supplied a first evidence that a single S. sclerotiorum strain is co-infected by dsRNA and + ssRNA mycoviruses.
Project description:Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus causing disease on many important agricultural crops. Two novel mycoviruses, namely Botrytis cinerea hypovirus 1 (BcHV1) and Botrytis cinerea fusarivirus 1 (BcFV1), were fully sequenced. The genome of BcHV1 is 10,214 nt long excluding a poly-A tail and possesses one large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein possessing several conserved domains including RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), showing homology to hypovirus-encoded polyproteins. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that BcHV1 may belong to the proposed genus Betahypovirus in the viral family Hypoviridae. The genome of BcFV1 is 8411 nt in length excluding the poly A tail and theoretically processes two major ORFs, namely ORF1 and ORF2. The larger ORF1 encoded polypeptide contains protein domains of an RdRp and a viral helicase, whereas the function of smaller ORF2 remains unknown. The BcFV1 was phylogenetically clustered with other fusariviruses forming an independent branch, indicating BcFV1 was a member in Fusariviridae. Both BcHV1 and BcFV1 were capable of being transmitted horizontally through hyphal anastomosis. Infection by BcHV1 alone caused attenuated virulence without affecting mycelial growth, significantly inhibited infection cushion (IC) formation, and altered expression of several IC-formation-associated genes. However, wound inoculation could fully rescue the virulence phenotype of the BcHV1 infected isolate. These results indicate the BcHV1-associated hypovirulence is caused by the viral influence on IC-formation-associated pathways.