Genetic insights into fetal growth and measures of glycaemic regulation and adiposity in adulthood: a family-based study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The genetics of fetal insulin release and/or action have been suggested to affect fetal growth, adult insulin resistance and adult body composition. The genetic correlation between body composition at birth versus glycaemic regulation and body composition in adulthood have, however, not been well studied. We therefore aimed to investigate these genetic correlations in a family-based cohort. METHODS:A Danish family cohort of 434 individuals underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with subsequent calculation of surrogate measures of serum insulin response and insulin sensitivity. Measures of fetal growth were retrieved from midwife journals. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component model. RESULTS:A high heritability of 0.80 was found for birth weight, whereas ponderal index had a heritability of 0.46. Adult insulin sensitivity measured as Matsuda index was genetically correlated with both birth weight and ponderal index (?G?=?0.36 (95% CI: 0.03; 0.69) and ?G?=?0.52 (95% CI, 0.15; 0.89), respectively). Only birth weight showed a significant genetic correlation with adult weight (?G?=?0.38 (95% CI: 0.09; 0.67)) whereas only ponderal index was genetically inversely correlated with fasting insulin (?G?=?-?0.47 (95% CI: -?0.86; -?0.08) and area under the curve for insulin release during the oral glucose tolerance test (?G?=?-?0.66 (95% CI: -?1.13; -?0.19)). Individual as well as combined adjustment for 45 selected birth weight, obesity and type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants did not affect the correlations. CONCLUSIONS:The genetics of both birth weight and ponderal index appear to be under the same genetic influence as adult insulin resistance. Furthermore, ponderal index and adult insulin release seem to be partly shared, as well as the genetics of birth weight and adult weight. Word count abstract: 281.
Project description:To investigate the association between proportionality of fetal and placental growth measured at birth and the risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP).We identified all live-born singletons born in Denmark between 1995 and 2003 and followed them from 1 year of age until December 31st, 2008. Information on four indices of fetal growth: ponderal index, head circumference/ abdominal circumference ratio, cephalization index and birth weight/ placenta weight ratio was collected. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). All measurements were evaluated as gestational age and sex specific z-scores and in z-score percentile groups, adjusted for potential confounders, and stratified on gestational age groups (<32, 32-36, 37-38, 39, 40, ? 41 weeks).We identified 503,784 singleton births, of which 983 were confirmed cases of CP. Head/ abdominal circumference ratio (aHR:1.12; 95%CI:1.07-1.16) and cephalization index (aHR:1.14; 95%CI:1.11-1.16) were associated with the risk of CP irrespective of gestational age. Birth weight-placental weight ratio was also associated with CP in the entire cohort (aHR:0.90; 95%CI:0.83-0.97). Ponderal index had a u-shaped association with CP, where both children with low and high ponderal index were at higher risk of CP.CP is associated with disproportions between birth weight, birth length, placental weight and head circumference suggesting pre and perinatal conditions contribute to fetal growth restriction in children with CP.
Project description:Methylmercury (MeHg) may affect fetal growth; however, prior research often lacked assessment of mercury speciation, confounders, and interactions.Our objective was to assess the relationship between MeHg and fetal growth as well as the potential for confounding or interaction of this relationship from speciated mercury, fatty acids, selenium, and sex.This cross-sectional study includes 271 singletons born in Baltimore, Maryland, 2004-2005. Umbilical cord blood was analyzed for speciated mercury, serum omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs), and selenium. Multivariable linear regression models controlled for gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, parity, prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, selenium, n-3 HUFAs, and inorganic mercury (IHg).Geometric mean cord blood MeHg was 0.94 ?g/L (95% CI: 0.84, 1.07). In adjusted models for ponderal index, ?ln(MeHg) = -0.045 (g/cm(3)) × 100 (95% CI: -0.084, -0.005). There was no evidence of a MeHg × sex interaction with ponderal index. Contrastingly, there was evidence of a MeHg × n-3 HUFAs interaction with birth length [among low n-3 HUFAs, ?ln(MeHg) = 0.40 cm, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.81; among high n-3 HUFAs, ?ln(MeHg) = -0.15, 95% CI: -0.54, 0.25; p-interaction = 0.048] and head circumference [among low n-3 HUFAs, ?ln(MeHg) = 0.01 cm, 95% CI: -0.27, 0.29; among high n-3 HUFAs, ?ln(MeHg) = -0.37, 95% CI: -0.63, -0.10; p-interaction = 0.042]. The association of MeHg with birth weight and ponderal index was affected by n-3 HUFAs, selenium, and IHg. For birth weight, ?ln(MeHg) without these variables was -16.8 g (95% CI: -75.0, 41.3) versus -29.7 (95% CI: -93.9, 34.6) with all covariates. Corresponding values for ponderal index were -0.030 (g/cm(3)) × 100 (95% CI: -0.065, 0.005) and -0.045 (95% CI: -0.084, -0005).We observed an association of increased MeHg with decreased ponderal index. There is evidence for interaction between MeHg and n-3 HUFAs; infants with higher MeHg and n-3 HUFAs had lower birth length and head circumference. These results should be verified with additional studies.
Project description:Several obesity risk alleles affecting adult adiposity have been identified by the recent wave of genome wide association studies. We aimed to examine the potential effect of these variants on fetal body composition by investigating the variants in relation to birth weight and ponderal index of the newborn.Midwife records from the Danish State Archives provided information on mother's age, parity, as well as birth weight, birth length and prematurity of the newborn in 4,744 individuals of the population-based Inter99 study. Twenty-four risk alleles showing genome-wide associations with adult BMI and/or waist circumference were genotyped. None of the 24 risk variants tested showed an association with birth weight or ponderal index after correction for multiple testing. Birth weight was divided into three categories low (?10(th) percentile), normal (10(th)-90(th) percentile) and high birth weight (?90th percentile) to allow for non-linear associations. There was no difference in the number of risk alleles between the groups (p?=?0.57). No interactions between each risk allele and birth weight in the prediction of adult BMI were observed. An obesity risk score was created by summing up risk alleles. The risk score did not associate with fetal body composition. Moreover there was no interaction between the risk score and birth weight/ponderal index in the prediction of adult BMI.24 common variants associated with adult adiposity did not affect or interact with birth weight among Danes suggesting that the effects of these variants predominantly arise in the post-natal life.
Project description:Studies suggest that arsenic exposure influences birth outcomes; however, findings are mixed.We assessed in utero arsenic exposure in relation to birth outcomes and whether maternal prepregnancy weight and infant sex modified the associations.Among 706 mother-infant pairs exposed to low levels of arsenic through drinking water and diet, we assessed in utero arsenic exposure using maternal second-trimester urinary arsenic, maternal prepregnancy weight through self-report, and birth outcomes from medical records.Median (interquartile range) of total urinary arsenic [tAs; inorganic arsenic (iAs) + monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) + dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] was 3.4 ?g/L (1.7-6.0). In adjusted linear models, each doubling of tAs was associated with a 0.10-cm decrease (95% CI: -0.19, -0.01) in head circumference. Results were similar for MMA and DMA. Ln(tAs) and ln(DMA) were positively associated with birth length in infant males only; among males, each doubling of tAs was associated with a 0.28-cm increase (95% CI: 0.09, 0.46) in birth length (pinteraction = 0.04). Results were similar for DMA. Additionally, arsenic exposure was inversely related to ponderal index, and associations differed by maternal weight. Each ln(tAs) doubling of tAs was associated with a 0.55-kg/m3 lower (95% CI: -0.82, -0.28, p < 0.001) ponderal index for infants of overweight/obese, but not normal-weight, mothers (pinteraction < 0.01). Finally, there was a significant interaction between maternal weight status, infant sex, and arsenic exposure on birth weight (pinteraction = 0.03). In girls born of overweight/obese mothers, each doubling of tAs was associated with a 62.9-g decrease (95% CI: -111.6, -14.2) in birth weight, though the association was null in the other strata.Low-level arsenic exposure may affect fetal growth, and the associations may be modified by maternal weight status and infant sex.Gilbert-Diamond D, Emond JA, Baker ER, Korrick SA, Karagas MR. 2016. Relation between in utero arsenic exposure and birth outcomes in a cohort of mothers and their newborns from New Hampshire. Environ Health Perspect 124:1299-1307;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510065.
Project description:Prenatal cadmium (Cd) exposure has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but the findings of previous studies are inconsistent. We measured Cd concentrations in urine samples at or near 13, 24, and 35 gestational weeks from 282 women in Wuhan, China. We used generalized estimating equation models to assess the associations between maternal creatinine adjusted urinary Cd concentrations at each trimester and birth size. A significant inverse association was observed between higher maternal Cd levels measured during the 1st trimester and birth size in girls. For each log unit increase in Cd (µg/g creatinine) levels from the 1st trimester, there was a decrease in birth weight by 116.99 g (95% confidence interval (CI): -208.87, -25.11 g). The Cd levels from the 1st and 2nd trimesters were also borderline significantly associated with ponderal index in girls. Joint estimation of trimester-specific effects suggested that associations with Cd levels for ponderal index (pint = 0.02) were significantly different across trimesters, and differences for effects across trimesters for birth weight were marginally significant (pint = 0.08) in girls. No significant associations were observed between Cd levels from any trimester and birth size in boys. Maternal Cd exposure during earlier periods of pregnancy may have a larger impact on delayed fetal growth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prenatal overexposure to manganese (Mn), an essential micronutrient, is related to impaired fetal growth and development. Fetuses appear to be highly sensitive to Mn during short periods of gestation. However, little is known about the critical windows of susceptibility to Mn for humans. OBJECTIVES:Our objective was to estimate trimester-specific associations of exposure to Mn with size at birth. METHODS:Urine samples of 3,022 women were collected repeatedly in the first, second, and third trimesters in Wuhan, China. Urinary concentrations of Mn and other toxic metals were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Trimester-specific associations of specific gravity–adjusted urinary Mn concentrations with birth weight, birth length, and ponderal index were estimated using multivariable linear regressions with generalized estimating equations. Linear mixed models were applied to evaluate the windows of susceptibility to Mn exposure by comparing the pattern of Mn exposure among newborns with restricted size at birth to those without. RESULTS:When compared with the third quintile of urinary Mn concentrations, both higher and lower quintiles of urinary Mn concentrations in the second and third trimesters were related to reduced birth weight, birth length, and ponderal index. But the observed associations for higher quintiles were stronger and more likely to be statistically significant [e.g., for women who were in the fifth quintile of Mn concentration in the third trimester, the reduction in birth weight was [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) g and in birth length was [Formula: see text] (95% CI: [Formula: see text], 0.00) cm]. Moreover, newborns with restricted size at birth, compared with those without, had higher levels of Mn exposure in the second and third trimesters. CONCLUSIONS:This prospective prenatal cohort study revealed an association of exposure to Mn during pregnancy, especially late pregnancy, with restricted size at birth. Replications are needed. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3423.
Project description:The role of genes in normal birth-weight variation is poorly understood, and it has been suggested that the genetic component of fetal growth is small. Type 2 diabetes genes may influence birth weight through maternal genotype, by increasing maternal glycemia in pregnancy, or through fetal genotype, by altering fetal insulin secretion. We aimed to assess the role of the recently described type 2 diabetes gene TCF7L2 in birth weight. We genotyped the polymorphism rs7903146 in 15,709 individuals whose birth weight was available from six studies and in 8,344 mothers from three studies. Each fetal copy of the predisposing allele was associated with an 18-g (95% confidence interval [CI] 7-29 g) increase in birth weight (P=.001) and each maternal copy with a 30-g (95% CI 15-45 g) increase in offspring birth weight (P=2.8x10-5). Stratification by fetal genotype suggested that the association was driven by maternal genotype (31-g [95% CI 9-48 g] increase per allele; corrected P=.003). Analysis of diabetes-related traits in 10,314 nondiabetic individuals suggested the most likely mechanism is that the risk allele reduces maternal insulin secretion (disposition index reduced by ~0.15 standard deviation; P=1x10-4), which results in increased maternal glycemia in pregnancy and hence increased offspring birth weight. We combined information with the other common variant known to alter fetal growth, the -30G-->A polymorphism of glucokinase (rs1799884). The 4% of offspring born to mothers carrying three or four risk alleles were 119 g (95% CI 62-172 g) heavier than were the 32% born to mothers with none (for overall trend, P=2x10-7), comparable to the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy. In conclusion, we have identified the first type 2 diabetes-susceptibility allele to be reproducibly associated with birth weight. Common gene variants can substantially influence normal birth-weight variation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The "fetal programming" hypothesis has been evaluated in many adult diseases including cancer, but not for Wilms tumor. Wilms tumor has been related to high birthweight, but little is known about other growth metrics such as a baby's birth length, ponderal index, or placenta size, which can shed additional light on growth patterns. METHODS:Cases of Wilms tumor (N = 217) were taken from the Danish Cancer Registry, and controls (N = 4340) were randomly selected from the Population Register and matched to cases by sex and age. Linkage to the Medical Births Registry provided information on gestational factors and fetal growth measurements, while linkage to the Patient Register provided information on maternal and child health conditions. RESULTS:Despite having typically normal to higher birthweights, Wilms tumor cases had smaller placentas (?540 g; odds ratio (OR) = 4.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.84-9.78) and a lower placenta-to-birthweight ratio (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.17-2.82, per 1 SD decrease). Small placentas were more common among Wilms cases without congenital anomalies (OR = 6.43; 95% CI, 1.95-21.21). Wilms tumor cases had a higher prevalence of high birthweight (>4000 g; OR = 1.57; 95% CI, 1.11-2.22), birth length 55 cm or longer (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.09-2.78), and being large for gestational age (OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.08-2.96). CONCLUSIONS:Our study corroborates earlier studies showing associations with high birthweight and suggests associations between Wilms tumor and decreased placental size and low placenta-to-birthweight ratio.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log2-transformed Cd (log2-Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29?g/g creatinine, middle 0.29-0.42?g/g creatinine, high?0.43?g/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [?(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=-0.59cm (-1.37, 0.19), high=-0.83cm (-1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18cm (-0.59, 0.95), high=0.78cm (-0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log2-Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; ?(95% CI): female=0.25kg/m(3) (-0.20, 0.70); male=-0.63kg/m(3) (-1.01, -0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; ?(95% CI): female=-0.47cm (-0.74, -0.20), male=0.32cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd's associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that affects fetal growth in experimental studies. Bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), which have been substituted for BPA in some consumer products, have also shown endocrine-disrupting effects in experimental models. However, the effects of BPF and BPS on fetal growth in humans are unknown. OBJECTIVES:Our goal was to investigate trimester-specific associations of urinary concentrations of BPA, BPF, and BPS with size at birth. METHODS:The present study included 845 pregnant women from Wuhan, China (2013-2015), who provided one urine sample in each of the first, second, and third trimesters. Linear regressions with generalized estimating equations were applied to estimate trimester-specific associations of urinary bisphenol concentrations with birth weight, birth length, and ponderal index. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify potential critical windows of susceptibility to bisphenols by comparing the exposure patterns of newborns in the 10th percentile of each birth anthropometric measurement to that of those in the 90th percentile. RESULTS:Medians (25th-75th percentiles) of urinary concentrations of BPA, BPF, and BPS were 1.40 (0.19-3.85), 0.65 (0.34-1.39), and 0.38 (0.13-1.11) ng/mL, respectively. Urinary BPA concentrations in different trimesters were inversely, but not significantly, associated with birth weight and ponderal index. Urinary concentrations of BPF and BPS during some trimesters were associated with significantly lower birth weight, birth length, or ponderal index, with significant trend p-values (ptrend<0.05) across quartiles of BPF and BPS concentrations. The observed associations were unchanged after additionally adjusting for other bisphenols. In addition, newborns in the 10th percentile of each birth anthropometry measure had higher BPF and BPS exposures during pregnancy than newborns in the 90th percentile of each outcome. CONCLUSIONS:Prenatal exposure to BPF and BPS was inversely associated with size at birth in this cohort. Replication in other populations is needed. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4664.