Curvulin and Phaeosphaeride A from Paraphoma sp. VIZR 1.46 Isolated from Cirsium arvense as Potential Herbicides.
ABSTRACT: Phoma-like fungi are known as producers of diverse spectrum of secondary metabolites, including phytotoxins. Our bioassays had shown that extracts of Paraphoma sp. VIZR 1.46, a pathogen of Cirsium arvense, are phytotoxic. In this study, two phytotoxically active metabolites were isolated from Paraphoma sp. VIZR 1.46 liquid and solid cultures and identified as curvulin and phaeosphaeride A, respectively. The latter is reported also for the first time as a fungal phytotoxic product with potential herbicidal activity. Both metabolites were assayed for phytotoxic, antimicrobial and zootoxic activities. Curvulin and phaeosphaeride A were tested on weedy and agrarian plants, fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and on paramecia. Curvulin was shown to be weakly phytotoxic, while phaeosphaeride A caused severe necrotic lesions on all the tested plants. To evaluate phaeosphaeride A's herbicidal efficacy, the phytotoxic activity of this compound in combination with five different adjuvants was studied. Hasten at 0.1% (v/v) was found to be the most potent and compatible adjuvant, and its combination with 0.5% (v/v) semi-purified extract of Paraphoma sp. VIZR 1.46 solid culture exhibited maximum damage to C. arvense plants. These findings may offer significant importance for further investigation of herbicidal potential of phaeosphaeride A and possibly in devising new herbicide of natural origin.
Project description:Bioactive herbicidal compounds produced by soil microorganisms might be used to creating a bioherbicide for biological weed control. A total of 1,300 bacterial strains were isolated and screened for herbicidal activity against grass and broadleaf weeds. Among primarily selected 102 strains, the herbicidal activity of bacterial fermentation broths from the following three isolates strain-101, strain-128, and strain-329 reduced the growth of D. sanguinalis by 66.7%, 78.3%, and 100%, respectively as compared with control. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing determined that the strain-329 has 99% similarity to Streptomyces anulatus (HBUM 174206). The potential bioherbicidal efficacy of Streptomyces strain-329 was tested on grass and broadleaf weeds for phytotoxic activity through pre- and post-emergence applications. At pre-emergence application, the phytotoxic efficacy to D. sanguinalis and S. bicolor on seed germination were 90.4% and 81.3%, respectively at the 2x concentration, whereas in the case of Solanum nigrum, 85.2% phytotoxic efficacy was observed at the 4x concentration. The efficacy of Streptomyces strain-329 was substantially higher at post-emergence application, presenting 100% control of grass and broadleaf weeds at the 1x concentration. Two herbicidal compounds coded as 329-C1 and 329-C3 were extracted and purified by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The active compound 329-C3 slightly increased leaf electrolytic leakage and MDA production as concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that new Streptomyces sp. strain-329 produced bioherbicidal metabolites and may provide a new lead molecule for production an efficient bioherbicide to regulate grass and broadleaf weeds.
Project description:Production of a bioherbicide for biological control of weeds requires a series of steps, from selection of a suitable microbial strain to final formulation. Thus, this study aimed to select fungi for production of secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity using biological resources of the Brazilian Pampa biome. Phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from infected tissues of weeds in the Pampa biome. A liquid synthetic culture medium was used for production of metabolites. The phytotoxicity of fungal metabolites was assessed via biological tests using the plant Cucumis sativus L., and the most promising strain was identified by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine fungi were isolated, and 28 presented some phytotoxic symptoms against the target plant. Fungus VP51 belonging to the genus Diaporthe showed the most pronounced herbicidal activity. The Brazilian Pampa biome is a potential resource for the development of new and sustainable chemical compounds for modern agriculture.
Project description:Fungal phytotoxins used as ecofriendly bioherbicides are becoming efficient alternatives to chemical herbicides for sustainable weed management. Previous study found that cultures of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides BWH-1 showed phytotoxic activity. This study further isolated the major phytotoxin from cultures of the strain BWH-1 using bioactivity-guided isolation, by puncturing its host plant for an activity test and analyzing on the HPLC-DAD-3D mode for a purity check. Then, the active and pure phytotoxin was characterized as a dirhamnolipid (Rha-Rha-C10-C10) using the NMR, ESIMS, IR and UV methods. The herbicidal activity of dirhamnolipid was evaluated by the inhibition rate on the primary root length and the fresh plant weight of nine test plants, and the synergistic effect when combining with commercial herbicides. Dirhamnolipid exhibited broad herbicidal activity against eight weed species with IC50 values ranging from 28.91 to 217.71 mg L-1 and no toxicity on Oryza sativa, and the herbicidal activity could be synergistically improved combining dirhamnolipid with commercial herbicides. Thus, dirhamnolipid that originated from C. gloeosporioides BWH-1 displayed the potential to be used as a bioherbicide alone, or as an adjuvant added into commercial herbicides, leading to a decrease in herbicides concentration and increased control efficiency.
Project description:Defoliation has frequently been proposed as a means of controlling Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Californian thistle, Canada thistle, creeping thistle, perennial thistle), an economically damaging pastoral weed in temperate regions of the world, but its optimization has remained obscure. We developed a matrix model for the population dynamics of C. arvense in sheep-grazed pasture in New Zealand that accounts for the effects of aerial shoot defoliation on a population's photosynthetic opportunity and consequential overwintered root biomass, enabling mowing regimes varying in the seasonal timing and frequency of defoliation to be compared. The model showed that the long-term population dynamics of the weed is influenced by both the timing and frequency of mowing; a single-yearly mowing, regardless of time of year, resulted in stasis or population growth, while in contrast, 14 of 21 possible twice-yearly monthly mowing regimes, mainly those with mowing in late spring, summer, and early autumn, resulted in population decline. Population decline was greatest (with population density halving each year) with twice-yearly mowing either in late spring and late summer, early summer and late summer, or early summer and early autumn. Our results indicate that mowing can be effective in reducing populations of C. arvense in pasture in the long term if conducted twice each year when the initial mowing is conducted in mid spring followed by a subsequent mowing from mid summer to early autumn. These mowing regimes reduce the photosynthetic opportunity of the C. arvense population and hence its ability to form the overwintering creeping roots upon which population growth depends.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a system for the coordinated secretion of a variety of molecular cargo including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and metabolites. They have an essential role in intercellular communication in multicellular organisms and have more recently been implicated in host-pathogen interactions. Study of the role for EVs in fungal biology has focused on pathogenic yeasts that are major pathogens in humans. In this study we have expanded the investigation of fungal EVs to plant pathogens, specifically the major cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. EVs isolated from F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum culture medium have a morphology and size distribution similar to EVs from yeasts such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. A unique feature of the EVs from F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum is their purple color, which is predicted to arise from a napthoquinone pigment being packaged into the EVs. Proteomic analysis of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum EVs revealed that they are enriched in proteins that function in synthesis of polyketides as well as proteases and proteins that function in basic cellular processes. Infiltration of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum EVs into the leaves of cotton or N. benthamiana plants led to a phytotoxic response. These observations lead to the hypothesis that F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum EVs are likely to play a crucial role in the infection process.
Project description:Four metabolites (1?4), including a new macrolide, O-demethylated-zeaenol (2), and three known compounds, zeaenol (1), adenosine (3), and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3b-ol (4) were isolated and purified from Curvularia crepinii QTYC-1, a fungus residing in the gut of Pantala flavescens. The structures of isolated compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of the corresponding data with those reported in the literature previously. The new compound 2 showed good phytotoxic activity against Echinochloa crusgalli with an IC50 value of less than 5 µg/mL, which was comparable to that of positive 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Compound 1 exhibited moderate herbicidal activity against E. crusgalli with an IC50 value of 28.8 μg/mL. Furthermore, the new metabolite 2 was found to possess moderate antifungal activity against Valsa mali at the concentration of 100 µg/mL, with the inhibition rate of 50%. These results suggest that the new macrolide 2 and the known compound 1 have potential to be used as biocontrol agents in agriculture.
Project description:Microbes produce a variety of secondary metabolites to be explored for herbicidal activities. We investigated an endophyte Pseudomonas viridiflava CDRTc14, which impacted growth of its host Lepidium draba L., to better understand the possible genetic determinants for herbicidal and host-interaction traits. Inoculation tests with a variety of target plants revealed that CDRTc14 shows plant-specific effects ranging from beneficial to negative. Its herbicidal effect appeared to be dose-dependent and resembled phenotypically the germination arrest factor of Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6. CDRTc14 shares 183 genes with the herbicidal strain WH6 but the formylaminooxyvinylglycine (FVG) biosynthetic genes responsible for germination arrest of WH6 was not detected. CDRTc14 showed phosphate solubilizing ability, indole acetic acid and siderophores production in vitro and harbors genes for these functions. Moreover, genes for quorum sensing, hydrogen cyanide and ACC deaminase production were also found in this strain. Although, CDRTc14 is related to plant pathogens, we neither found a complete pathogenicity island in the genome, nor pathogenicity symptoms on susceptible plant species upon CDRTc14 inoculation. Comparison with other related genomes showed several unique genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance in CDRTc14 like genes responsible for heavy metal and herbicide resistance indicating recent adaptation to plant protection measures applied in vineyards.