Coincident molecular auxeticity and negative order parameter in a liquid crystal elastomer.
ABSTRACT: Auxetic materials have negative Poisson's ratios and so expand rather than contract in one or several direction(s) perpendicular to applied extensions. The auxetics community has long sought synthetic molecular auxetics - non-porous, inherently auxetic materials which are simple to fabricate and avoid porosity-related weakening. Here, we report, synthetic molecular auxeticity for a non-porous liquid crystal elastomer. For strains above ~0.8 applied perpendicular to the liquid crystal director, the liquid crystal elastomer becomes auxetic with the maximum negative Poisson's ratio measured to date being -0.74?±?0.03 - larger than most values seen in naturally occurring molecular auxetics. The emergence of auxeticity coincides with the liquid crystal elastomer backbone adopting a negative order parameter, QB?=?-0.41?±?0.01 - further implying negative liquid crystal ordering. The reported behaviours consistently agree with theoretical predictions from Warner and Terentjev liquid crystal elastomer theory. Our results open the door for the design of synthetic molecular auxetics.
Project description:Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.
Project description:Auxetics comprise a rare family of materials that manifest negative Poisson's ratio, which causes an expansion instead of contraction under tension. Most known homogeneously auxetic materials are porous foams or artificial macrostructures and there are few examples of inorganic materials that exhibit this behavior as polycrystalline solids. It is now possible to accelerate the discovery of materials with target properties, such as auxetics, using high-throughput computations, open databases, and efficient search algorithms. Candidates exhibiting features correlating with auxetic behavior were chosen from the set of more than 67?000 materials in the Materials Project database. Poisson's ratios were derived from the calculated elastic tensor of each material in this reduced set of compounds. We report that this strategy results in the prediction of three previously unidentified homogeneously auxetic materials as well as a number of compounds with a near-zero homogeneous Poisson's ratio, which are here denoted "anepirretic materials".There are very few inorganic materials with auxetic homogenous Poisson's ratio in polycrystalline form. Here authors develop an approach to screening materials databases for target properties such as negative Poisson's ratio by using stability and structural motifs to predict new instances of homogenous auxetic behavior as well as a number of materials with near-zero Poisson's ratio.
Project description:The design and the combination of innovative metamaterials are attracting increasing interest in the scientific community because of their unique properties that go beyond the ones of natural materials. In particular, auxetic materials and phononic crystals are widely studied for their negative Poisson's ratio and their bandgap opening properties, respectively. In this work, auxeticity and phononic crystals bandgap properties are properly combined to obtain a single phase periodic structure with a tridimensional wide tunable bandgap. When an external tensile load is applied to the structure, the auxetic unit cells change their configurations by exploiting the negative Poisson's ratio and this results in the tuning, either hardening or softening, of the frequencies of the modes limiting the 3D bandgap. Moreover, the expansion of the unit cell in all the directions, due to the auxeticity property, guarantees a fully 3D bandgap tunability of the proposed structure. Numerical simulations and analytical models are proposed to prove the claimed properties. The first experimental evidence of the tunability of a wide 3D bandgap is then shown thanks to the fabrication of a prototype by means of additive manufacturing.
Project description:Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson's ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson's ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners.
Project description:Highly stretchable sensors that can detect large strains are useful in deformable systems, such as soft robots and wearable devices. For stretchable strain sensors, two types of sensing methods exist, namely, resistive and capacitive. Capacitive sensing has several advantages over the resistive type, such as high linearity, repeatability, and low hysteresis. However, the sensitivity (gauge factor) of capacitive strain sensors is theoretically limited to 1, which is much lower than that of the resistive-type sensors. The objective of this study is to improve the sensitivity of highly stretchable capacitive strain sensors by integrating hierarchical auxetic structures into them. Auxetic structures have a negative Poisson's ratio that causes increase in change in capacitance with applied strains, and thereby improving sensitivity. In order to prove this concept, we fabricate and characterize two sensor samples with planar dimensions 60 mm × 16 mm. The samples have an acrylic elastomer (3M, VHB 4905) as the dielectric layer and a liquid metal (eutectic gallium-indium) for electrodes. On both sides of the sensor samples, hierarchical auxetic structures made of a silicone elastomer (Dow Corning, Sylgard 184) are attached. The samples are tested under strains up to 50% and the experimental results show that the sensitivity of the sensor with the auxetic structure exceeds the theoretical limit. In addition, it is observed that the sensitivity of this sensor is roughly two times higher than that of a sensor without the auxetic structure, while maintaining high linearity (<i>R</i> <sup>2</sup> = 0.995), repeatability (?10<sup>4</sup> cycles), and low hysteresis.
Project description:Materials with a negative Poisson's ratio, also known as auxetic materials, exhibit unusual and counterintuitive mechanical behaviour-becoming fatter in cross-section when stretched. Such behaviour is mostly attributed to some special re-entrant or hinged geometric structures regardless of the chemical composition and electronic structure of a material. Here, using first-principles calculations, we report a class of auxetic single-layer two-dimensional materials, namely, the 1T-type monolayer crystals of groups 6-7 transition-metal dichalcogenides, MX2 (M=Mo, W, Tc, Re; X=S, Se, Te). These materials have a crystal structure distinct from all other known auxetic materials. They exhibit an intrinsic in-plane negative Poisson's ratio, which is dominated by electronic effects. We attribute the occurrence of such auxetic behaviour to the strong coupling between the chalcogen p orbitals and the intermetal t2g-bonding orbitals within the basic triangular pyramid structure unit. The unusual auxetic behaviour in combination with other remarkable properties of monolayer two-dimensional materials could lead to novel multi-functionalities.
Project description:Anisotropic materials form inside living tissue and are widely applied in engineered structures, where sophisticated structural and functional design principles are essential to employing these materials. This paper presents a candidate laminated open-cell framework, which is an anisotropic material that shows remarkable mechanical performance. Using additive manufacturing, artificial frameworks are fabricated by lamination of in-plane orthotropic microstructures made of elbowed beam and column members; this fabricated structure features orthogonal anisotropy in three-dimensional space. Uniaxial loading tests reveal strong auxeticity (high negative Poisson's ratios) in the out-of-plane direction, which is retained reproducibly up to the nonlinear elastic region, and is equal under tensile and compressive loading. Finite element simulations support the observed auxetic behaviors for a unit cell in the periodic framework, which preserve the theoretical elastic properties of an orthogonal solid. These findings open the possibility of conceptual materials design based on geometry.
Project description:Mechanical metamaterials are man-made rationally-designed structures that present unprecedented mechanical properties not found in nature. One of the most well-known mechanical metamaterials is auxetics, which demonstrates negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) behavior that is very beneficial in several industrial applications. In this study, a specific type of auxetic metamaterial structure namely idealized 3D re-entrant structure is studied analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The noted structure is constructed of three types of struts-one loaded purely axially and two loaded simultaneously flexurally and axially, which are inclined and are spatially defined by angles ? and ?. Analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson's ratio of the 3D re-entrant unit cell are derived based on two well-known beam theories namely Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko. Moreover, two finite element approaches one based on beam elements and one based on volumetric elements are implemented. Furthermore, several specimens are additively manufactured (3D printed) and tested under compression. The analytical results had good agreement with the experimental results on the one hand and the volumetric finite element model results on the other hand. Moreover, the effect of various geometrical parameters on the mechanical properties of the structure was studied, and the results demonstrated that angle ? (related to tension-dominated struts) has the highest influence on the sign of Poisson's ratio and its extent, while angle ? (related to compression-dominated struts) has the lowest influence on the Poisson's ratio. Nevertheless, the compression-dominated struts (defined by angle ?) provide strength and stiffness for the structure. The results also demonstrated that the structure could have zero Poisson's ratio for a specific range of ? and ? angles. Finally, a lightened 3D re-entrant structure is introduced, and its results are compared to those of the idealized 3D re-entrant structure.
Project description:Auxetic materials exhibiting a negative Poisson's ratio are of great research interest due to their unusual mechanical responses and a wide range of potential deployment. Efforts have been devoted to exploring novel 2D and 3D auxetic structures through rational design, optimization, and taking inspiration from nature. Here we report a 3D architected lattice system showing a negative Poisson's ratio over a wide range of applied uniaxial stretch. 3D printing, experimental tests, numerical simulation, and analytical modeling are implemented to quantify the evolution of the Poisson's ratio and reveal the underlying mechanisms responsible for this unusual behavior. We further show that the auxetic behavior can be controlled by tailoring the geometric features of the ligaments. The findings reported here provide a new routine to design architected metamaterial systems exhibiting unusual properties and having a wide range of potential applications.
Project description:Auxetics (negative Poisson's ratio) and materials with negative linear compressibility (NLC) exhibit the anomalous mechanical properties of getting wider rather than thinner when stretched and expanding in at least one direction under hydrostatic pressure, respectively. A novel mechanism-termed the 'triangular elongation mechanism'-leading to such anomalous behavior is presented and discussed through an analytical model. Amongst other things, it is shown that this novel mechanism, when combined with the well-known 'rotating squares' model, can generate giant negative Poisson's ratios when the system is stretched.