Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance Syndrome among Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study from Central Vietnam.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies among reproductive-age women. Its metabolic features often overlap with those associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) and insulin resistance syndrome (IRS). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of MS and IRS in infertile Vietnamese women with PCOS. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary fertility centre at Hue University Hospital from June 2016 to November 2017. A total of 441 infertile women diagnosed with PCOS based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam consensus criteria were enrolled. MS and IRS were defined based on the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association Adult Treatment Panel III 2005 and American College of Endocrinology IRS 2003 criteria, respectively. Complete clinical and biochemical measurements of 318 women were available for analysis. Independent predictors of MS and IRS were identified using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS:The overall prevalence of MS and IRS in women with PCOS was 10.4% and 27.0%, respectively. We identified older age (>30 years) and obesity as independent predictors of MS and IRS. Elevated anti-Müllerian hormone levels increased the risk of IRS, but not that of MS. CONCLUSION:MS and IRS are prevalent disorders among infertile Vietnamese women with PCOS. PCOS is not solely a reproductive problem. Screening and early intervention for MS and/or IRS based on anthropometric, metabolic, and reproductive hormone risk factors should be an integral part of fertility care.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age. Lifestyle change is considered the first line treatment for the management of infertile anovulatory women with PCOS, and weight loss for those who are overweight or obese. First line medical ovulation induction therapy to improve fertility outcomes is letrozole, whilst other less efficacious ovulation induction agents, such as clomiphene citrate, metformin, and metformin combined with clomiphene citrate, may also be considered. Metformin combined with clomiphene citrate is more effective than clomiphene citrate alone. In obese women with PCOS, clomiphene citrate could be used in preference to metformin alone whilst clomiphene citrate could be added to metformin alone in order to improve reproductive outcome in all women with PCOS. Gonadotrophins, which are more effective than clomiphene citrate in therapy naïve women with PCOS, can be considered a first line therapy in the presence of ultrasound monitoring, following counselling on the cost and the potential risk of multiple pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine women's disorders in reproductive age. Hyperandrogenism has a critical role in the etiology of PCOS and it can cause fault in Steroidogenesis process. During steroidogenesis, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) seems to increase the delivery of cholesterol through mitochondrial membrane. Therefore, polymorphisms of StAR might effect on this protein and play a role in the etiology of PCOS. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate the association between StAR SNPs with PCOS. Thus, seven polymorphisms in this gene: rs104894086, rs104894089, rs104894090, rs137852689, rs10489487, rs104894085 were detected. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this case control study, 45 PCOS women, 40 male factor/unexplained infertile women, and 40 fertile women as two control groups were participated from 2008-2012. Polymorphisms were detected using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. RESULTS:Heterozygote genotyping for rs137852689 SNP (amino acid 218 C > T) was only seen in seven PCOS patients, one in normal ovulatory women, and five in male factor/unexplained infertile women (15.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%, respectively) (p= 0.12). While, it has shown no association between other SNPS with PCOs. CONCLUSION:The RFLP results for seven chosen SNPs, which located in exon 5 and 7 showed normal status in three groups, it means no heterozygous or homozygous forms of selected SNPs were observed. So, it seems evaluation of the active amino acid sites should be investigated and also the study population should be increased.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the first common cause of anovulatory infertility. Currently, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) is recommended when conventional attempts have failed. In vitro maturation (IVM) of human oocytes is an emerging treatment option in infertile women with PCOS. It is a patient-friendly intervention, avoiding the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, which is a serious complication of controlled ovarian stimulation in the standard IVF procedure. We plan a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate whether IVM is non-inferior to the standard IVF for live birth in women with PCOS. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a single-centre, open-label, non-inferiority RCT performed in a large reproductive medicine centre in China. Infertile women with PCOS will be randomised to receive either IVM or standard IVF in a 1:1 treatment ratio after informed consent. IVF procedures used in our study are all standard treatments and other standard-assisted reproductive technologies will be similar between the two groups. The primary outcome is ongoing pregnancy leading to live birth within 6 months of the first oocyte retrieval cycle after randomisation. Pregnancy outcome, maternal safety and obstetric and perinatal complications will be secondary outcomes. The planned sample size is 350 (175 per group). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical permission was acquired from the Ethics Committee of Peking University Third Hospital. The results will be issued to publications through scientific journals and conference reports. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03463772.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To study the role of selected serum inflammatory cytokines and berberine in the insulin signaling pathway among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS:Selected serum inflammatory cytokines were analyzed in the particle cells, which were interfered by berberine, from 78 infertile women who were to be treated with In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) /Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection-Embryo Transfer (icsi-et). Among them, 49 patients had PCOS infertility, and 29 were non-PCOS patients whose infertility resulted from fallopian tube and male factors. The elisa method was used to detect the changes in the expression levels of inflammatory factors in the cells. The correlations between the serum inflammatory cytokine expression levels and the corresponding clinical hormones were analyzed. The changes in the expression (mRNA and protein) levels of the serum inflammatory cytokines were studied by real-time quantitative PCR and protein printing. Fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry were used to detect the glucose uptake capacity of ovarian granulosa cells in PCOS patients under the action of insulin after berberine. RESULTS:In the PCOS group, IL-17a (P = 0.001), IL-1Ra (P<0.0001), and IL-6 (P = 0.035) were significantly higher than those in the non-PCOS group. In the non-PCOS group, AMH level was negatively correlated with inflammatory cytokines IL-17a (r = -0.819;P = 0.004), IL-1a (r = -0.716;P = 0.0.02), IL-1b (r = -0.678;P = 0.031), IL-2 (r = -0.765;P = 0.01), and IL-8 (r = -0.705;P = 0.023). However, in the PCOS group, AMH levels were not significantly correlated with the levels of the examined inflammatory cytokines. Berberine significantly reduced the expression level of mTOR mRNA (P = 0.001), and increased the expression level of IRS-1 mRNA (P = 0.009) in the PCOS granule cells. CONCLUSION:In this study, we find that the elevated levels of serum inflammatory factors IL-17a, IL-1Ra, and IL-6 cause women to be in a subclinical inflammatory state for a long time. Abnormal changes in inflammatory factors alter their original negative correlations with AMH levels, thereby weakening the metabolism of glycolipids, promoting insulin resistance, destroying the normal ovulation and fertilization system of women, leading to polycystic ovary syndrome characterized by menstrual thinning and abnormal ovulation. Berberine can improve the sensitivity of insulin by regulating the signal pathway of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in PCOS patients and achieve a therapeutic effect of treating PCOS.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinologic disease in women. In the present study, we examined the relationship of the IRS-1 Gly972Arg and IRS-2 Gly1057Asp polymorphisms to PCOS and phenotypic features of PCOS in a Chinese population from Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of three hundred and forty genetically unrelated women with age from 18 to 45 years, including two hundred and forty-eight PCOS patients and ninety-two control subjects, were recruited. The hormone and biochemical measurements were evaluated for each woman. Genotyping of the IRS-1 gene Gly972Arg variant and IRS-2 gene Gly1057Asp variant were performed by using direct sequencing. RESULTS: We found significant difference in the genotypic distribution of IRS-2 gene Gly1057Asp between the PCOS group and the control group (p?=?0.004). The carriers of homozygous IRS-2 Asp had an increased risk of PCOS compared with the carriers of Gly/Gly (OR 4.08, 95% C.I. 1.60-10.41, p?=?0.003). No significant difference in genotype frequencies of IRS-1 Gly972Arg was observed between two groups. We further investigated the effect of interaction of IRS-1 Gly972Arg and IRS-2 Gly1057Asp on the risk of PCOS and found that women carried IRS-1 Gly/Arg or IRS-2 Asp/Asp or carried both IRS-1 Gly/Arg and IRS-2 Asp/Asp had a much higher risk of PCOS compared with their counterpart, respectively (OR 2.49, 95% C.I. 1.16-5.37, p?=?0.019; OR 11.87, 95% C.I. 1.21-116.84, p?=?0.034). We further found, the non-obese PCOS patients carried significantly higher frequency of IRS-2 Asp/Asp as compared with the control group (p?=?0.004). A significant effect of interaction of carrying both IRS-1 Gly/Arg and IRS-2 Asp/Asp was also observed in the non-obese PCOS patients (p?=?0.003), but not in the obese PCOS patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found significant association of the variant of IRS-2 gene as well as the interaction of IRS-1 and IRS-2 genes with PCOS, especially in non-obese women. Women with IRS-2 homozygous Asp variant may be considered as a risk factor for PCOS that needs early detection to prevent further complication in the Chinese population from Taiwan.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of the reproductive age women globally. PCOS is diagnosed by the presence of hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation, and polycystic morphology of at least one ovary. Insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia and associated metabolic abnormalities including metabolic syndrome play a significant role in the development of PCOS. The chances of developing MS in PCOS women was shown to increase by almost 14-fold in patients with increasing body mass index. Even in the absence of overt obesity, a preferential deposition of intra-abdominal fat is noted in PCOS women and this intra-abdominal fat leads to impaired insulin action and functional IR and hyperandrogenism. Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism of ovaries was suggested to be a consequence of IR, which activates androgen synthesizing enzyme, cytochrome p450-c17α-hydroxylase, in ovarian theca cells and causes elevated oxidative stress accompanied by lower antioxidant status in ovaries, which contribute to PCOS pathogenesis. The elevated levels of luteinizing hormone that accompany the early stages of hyperandrogenemia, accelerate ovarian functional deterioration, which is further aggravated by hyperinsulinemia, in PCOS women. The risk of developing gestational diabetes in PCOS women is approximately three times greater, as compared to non-PCOS women, due to IR and hyperinsulinemia. Typical insulin-sensitizing drugs such as metformin, have been used to curtail IR and hyperinsulinemia in pregnant PCOS women, with varying results indicating the complexity of the disease and the need for better controlled studies and additional efforts for PCOS-specific drug discovery.
Project description:Background:Infertility is a critical condition in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), caused not only by anovulation but also by endometrial abnormality. Objective:This study aimed to evaluate and compare the hysteroscopic and histological findings of endometrial biopsies in infertile women with PCOS and normal endometrial thickness and women with unexplained infertility (UI). Materials and Methods:This cross-sectional study compared the initial hysteroscopy and endometrial histological findings of 70 infertile women with PCOS and normal endometrial thickness with those of 35 women with UI. The relationship between endometrial histology and clinical parameters such as including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone, prolactin, fasting blood sugar, body mass index (BMI), and infertility duration was analyzed. Results:The mean age of women with PCOS was significantly lower than that of women with UI (27.5 ± 4.1 vs. 30 ± 4.5 years, respectively) (p < 0.001). The mean BMI was higher in women with PCOS than in women with UI (28.7 ± 4.4 vs. 25.1 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) (p < 0.001). The hysteroscopic findings of all women with PCOS were normal, whereas 91.4% of women with UI had normal hysteroscopic findings, 2.9% had a polyp, and 5.7% had endometrial thickening. The histological findings of women with PCOS revealed proliferative endometrium in 54.3%, disordered proliferative endometrium in 17.1%, secretory endometrium in 8.6%, and endometrial polyp in 17.1%, whereas these percentages in women with UI were 28.6%, 0%, 54.3%, and 20%, respectively. Conclusion:The hysteroscopic evaluation alone of infertile women might not detect all probable endometrial pathologies in women with PCOS.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynaecological disorder, with a prevalence of up to 12% of women of reproductive age, and is in part characterised by elevated circulating androgens and aberrant expression of androgen receptor (AR) in the endometrium. A high percentage of PCOS patients suffer from infertility, a condition that appears to be linked to mistimed and incomplete decidualisation critically affecting events surrounding embryo implantation. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of MAGEA11, and the genome-wide role of AR in PCOS. We determined that elevated androgen levels on PCOS cells had an impact on the delayed and incomplete decidual transformation of endometrial cells. The AR co-regulator MAGEA11, a known enhancer of AR function, was constitutively overexpressed throughout the menstrual cycle of PCOS patients, co-localised in the nucleus of PCOS stromal tissue and cells and formed a molecular complex with AR. Genome-wide AR analysis in PCOS stromal cells revealed that AR targets included genes involved in cell death and apoptosis, as well as genes commonly dysregulated in endometrial cancer. Enhanced MAGEA11 and AR-mediated transcriptional regulation may impact on a correct endometrial decidualisation response, subsequently affecting endometrial receptivity in these infertile women. KEY MESSAGES: MAGEA11 and AR are overexpressed in hyperandrogenic PCOS patients. MAGEA11-AR overexpression in PCOS correlates with delayed decidualisation. AR and MAGEA11 associate in a molecular complex. AR directly regulates a unique set of genes controlling gene differentiation.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of women at reproductive age. Although the aetiology of PCOS remains unclear, potential effects of environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds on the development of PCOS have drawn increasing attention. The aim of the current study was to examine the association between triclosan (TCS) and PCOS, and explore possible mechanisms on how TCS may contribute to the development of clinical manifestations of PCOS. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:This study was conducted in one tertiary-level hospital located in Zhejiang, China. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 674 infertile women at 18-45 years of age were recruited in 2014-2015. Participants with (n=84) and without (n=212) PCOS with urinary TCS concentration available were included in the analyses. METHODS:Urinary TCS concentration was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association between TCS and PCOS. Fractional polynomial regression models were built to fit the potential non-linear relationship between TCS concentrations and luteinising hormone (LH) and LH/follicle stimulate hormone (FSH). RESULTS:The PCOS group had significantly higher level of TCS concentration than the non-PCOS group (the median of TCS (IQR), ?g/g creatinine: 1.49 (0.68-3.80) vs 1.06 (0.52-3.02), p=0.0407). Compared with the lowest tertile, the highest tertile of TCS concentration was associated with an increased odd of PCOS (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.99). After adjusting for potential confounders, the significant association remained (OR 1.99, 95%?CI 1.05 to 3.79). Positive relationships were found between TCS levels and LH and LH/FSH ratio in non-PCOS participants. CONCLUSIONS:TCS exposure at a relatively low level is associated with PCOS in Chinese women. Further epidemiological studies are needed to confirm our finding, which may have important public health implications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases for women. Acupuncture is widely used for the infertile female because of it is non-invasive and has fewer side effects, but the powerful evidence for the clinic is still insufficient. Our study intends to explore the effect of manual acupuncture (MA) in the infertile female with PCOS. METHODS:This study is a randomized, sham-controlled, patient-and assessor-blinded trial and aims to evaluate the effect of MA in women with PCOS and infertility. We will recruit 86 women aged 20-40 years with a diagnosis of infertility with PCOS. Participants will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to the MA group and the sham acupuncture (SA) group. Both groups will receive real herbal medicine treatment as a basic treatment twice a day for three menstrual cycles, the MA group receive real acupuncture treatment and the SA group received placebo acupuncture treatment (non-penetrating). All patients will receive acupuncture treatment twice per week for three menstrual cycles. The primary outcome is pregnancy rate and secondary outcomes include ovulation rate, sex hormones, insulin resistance index (IRI), PCOS symptoms, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome scores. Outcome measures will be collected at baseline, each menstrual cycle, the end of treatments, and six months after the last acupuncture treatment. The present protocol followed the SPIRIT guidelines and fulfilled the SPIRIT checklist. DISCUSSION:This study will be conducted to compare the efficacy of MA versus SA. This trial will help to evaluate whether MA is effective in increasing pregnancy and ovulation rates of the infertile female with polycystic ovary syndrome. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1800014997 . Registered on 27 February 2018.