BackgroundAntimicrobial resistance is a global concern of increasing significance. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is spreading worldwide. It is important to monitor trends of antimycobacterial resistance. This is particularly true for high TB burden countries such as Ethiopia where disproportionally less drug sensitivity data are reported from.
MethodsThe prevalence of drug resistance was assessed with the line probe assay GenoType MTBDRplus in a set of 161?M. tuberculosis strains that were selected from four common lineages and sub-lineages previously identified in Ethiopia. Most of the tested M. tuberculosis isolates had been genotyped by established Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing methods.
ResultsThe proportion of MDR-TB among the isolates was 3.1%. Mono-resistance was 1.2% to rifampicin and 4.3% to isoniazid, and resistance to either of the two first line drugs was 8.7%. Strains of Lineage 4 had the highest resistance rate (13.6%) followed by Lineage 3 (4.9%). None of the isolates representing Lineages 1 and Lineage 7 were drug resistant. Multidrug resistance among pulmonary TB and TB lymphadenitis clinical isolates was 2.8 and 3.7%, respectively. Drug resistance of strains carrying the most prevalent spoligotype in Ethiopia - SIT149 - was further explored. Stratification by MIRU-VNTR identified one genotype with a high rate of drug resistance against Rifampicin and Isoniazid and circulation of a potential MDR-TB clone is proposed.
ConclusionAlthough the strain selection was not fully randomized, the overall M. tuberculosis drug resistance rate in this strain set was 8.7% while the rate of MDR was 3.1%. In parallel, we identified a sub-lineage that showed a high rate of resistance to both rifampicin and isoniazid. These resistant strains may belong to a clone of M. tuberculosis that is circulating in the highlands of Ethiopia.
SUBMITTER: Bekele S