An unusual cardiac mass: Echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
ABSTRACT: Cardiac tuberculosis is rare. We report an unusual case of cardiac tuberculoma diagnosed in vitam in a 38-year-old woman, with end-stage renal disease and discovered to have mediastinal tuberculosis in 2013. She presented to the emergency department complaining of fever and chills during hemodialysis. A cardiac mass suggestive of tuberculoma was found in the right atrium using echocardiography, computed tomography scan, and cardiac magnetic resonance. Sputum culture was positive for acid fast bacilli. The patient received anti-tuberculosis therapy with improvement of symptoms and reduction of the mass. .
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Tuberculosis can affect any organ of the body, including the heart.<h4>Presentation of case</h4>An 18-year old woman presented with a multifocal tuberculosis infection involving abdominal lymph nodes, a sternotomy wound, an abscess of the abdominal wall and most notably a myocardial tuberculoma. Establishing the diagnosis of the myocardial tuberculoma was challenging mainly due to the location within the heart. Initially a diagnostic percutaneous femoral vascular catheter guided biopsy of the right atrial mass was performed, but later open surgery involving median sternotomy was needed. The patient recovered fully after surgery and nine months treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs.<h4>Discussion</h4>The optimal length of treatment for myocardial tuberculoma is unknown. Medical treatment for six months might be enough regardless whether surgery is performed or not.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Myocardial tuberculoma requires culture from the infected tissue for confirmed diagnosis and might be successfully treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs only. Indications for surgery include uncertain diagnosis, poor response to medical treatment or cardiac complications.
Project description:Highlights•Ectopic hepatic tissue is an uncommon cause of intracardiac mass on echocardiography.•These masses have been reported only in the right atrium.•There is no clear pathogenesis, but two proposed hypotheses are discussed.•Clinical sequelae include IVC obstruction and pulmonary embolization.•Echocardiography and cardiac MRI can narrow the differential diagnosis.
Project description:Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm accounts for only 1% of congenital cardiac anomalies. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm can cause aortic insufficiency, coronary artery flow compromise, cardiac arrhythmia, or aneurysm rupture. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) represents an adjunctive tool to demonstrate the ruptured sinus of Valsalva with better delineation. We present an adult patient with rupture of noncoronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm into the right atrium (RA). 3DTEE accurately delineated the site of rupture into the RA and showed the exact size and shape of the defect, which helped in the successful transcatheter closure of the defect with a duct occluder device.
Project description:Currently available fetal echocardiographic reference values are derived mainly from North American and European population studies, and there is a lack of reference z-score for fetal echocardiographic measurement in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to establish normal ranges of echocardiographic measurements and z-scores in healthy Asian fetuses. A total of 575 healthy pregnant Taiwanese with an estimated gestational age from 14 to 38 weeks were enrolled voluntarily for this observational study. Standard two-dimensional echocardiography was performed to obtain measurements of the cardiac chambers and great arteries of the developing fetuses. In contrast to past studies, our sample was more evenly distributed for estimated gestational age (p<0.001). We present percentile graphs for 13 fetal echocardiographic measurements from the knowledge of estimated gestational age, biparietal distance, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length. Most cardiac structures and developmental markers had linear models as the best-fitting, except for transverse aortic isthmus by estimated gestational age and transverse ductus arteriosus by femur length. Our findings indicate that estimated gestational age was generally the best model for fetal heart development, while head circumferences could be used as an optimal developmental marker to predict left atrium, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary annulus, and ductus arteriosus. Lastly, we developed nomograms for each of the 13 fetal heart measurements by each developmental markers. This is the first study providing echocardiographic reference ranges and nomograms for Asian fetuses. Computing z-scores from nomograms helps in standardizing comparisons and adds additional prognostic information to the diagnosis of congenital heart disease.
Project description:A 64-year-old male patient underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation via the axillary venous approach. Two weeks later, the patient started complaining of "electric shock-like" pain in the left axillary area. During physical examination, typical pain in the left axillary area was reproduced whenever his left shoulder was passively abducted more than 60 degrees. Fluoroscopic examination showed that the left ventricle (LV) and right atrium (RA) leads were positioned at an acute angle directing towards the left brachial plexus whenever the patient's shoulder was passively abducted. Brachial plexus irritation by the angulated CRT leads was strongly suspected. To relieve the acute angulation, we had to adjust the entry site of the LV and RA leads from the distal to the proximal axillary vein using the cut-down method. After successful lead repositioning, the neuropathic pain improved rapidly. Although transvenous pacing lead-induced nerve injury is not a frequent complication, this possibility should be kept in mind by the operators.
Project description:There have been anecdotal reports of tuberculous cardiac involvement, mainly in cases of military tuberculosis or immune deficient individuals. The spectrum of clinical presentations of tuberculous cardiac involvements includes incidental detection of single and multiple well-circumscribed tuberculomas, symptomatic obstructive lesions, AV conduction abnormalities, and even sudden death. We present a case of cardiac tuberculoma in an immune-competent person who presented with worsening dyspnea. The unique morphology of this mass posed an imaging challenge that required 4-dimensional (4D) echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) detail to differentiate the mass from an anterior mitral leaflet (AML) aneurysm. Histological examination after surgical resection confirmed its tuberculous etiology.
Project description:A 12-year-old spayed female miniature Poodle presented for coughing, respiratory distress, and anorexia. After thoracentesis for pleural effusion, radiography revealed an enlarged cardiac silhouette with a bulge in the area of the body of the right atrium. Echocardiography revealed an anechoic chamber-like cavity lateral to the right atrium that communicated with the right atrium through a 13 mm defect in the right atrial free wall. Contrast echocardiography and color flow Doppler were used to prove that the cavity communicated with the right atrium. The cavity was diagnosed as a giant right atrial diverticulum.
Project description:Introduction:Myxomas are the most common type of cardiac benign tumors and most of them are located in the left atrium, followed by the right atrium. The majority of Myxomas is located in the left atrium and has a variable clinical presentation. Myxomas affect patients within a wide age range (15-80 years), and the average age is approximately 50 years. There is a female predominance in the sporadic form. Myxomas are usually pedunculated, solitary, and sporadic but may be associated with familial autosomal dominant syndromes. Case presentation:We report a 38-year-old female presented with large myxoma in the right atrium and atypical presentation and successfully underwent surgical excision of right atrial myxoma. The patient was asymptomatic on 6 months follow up. Conclusion:Cardiac myxomas are the most frequent finding among primary cardiac tumors. Clinical manifestations depend on the involvement in valvular obstruction, distant arterial embolisms, or nonspecific, constitutional symptoms. Transoesophageal Echocardiography is the cornerstone for diagnosis of atrial myxoma. Cardiac myxomas should be managed with surgical resection.
Project description:Background/Aim:This study aimed to measure and compare the ejection force of the cardiac chambers in healthy singleton fetuses and to investigate the relationship of ejection force of cardiac chambers with gestational age, fetal sex, and fetal heart rate. Patients and Methods:A prospective study was performed on 68 singleton fetuses with a gestational age of 17-34 weeks. Atrial and ventricular ejection force was measured. Measurements were repeated in 18 of the fetuses to assess intraobserver reliability. Results:The right atrium had the highest ejection force of all the cardiac chambers. Ejection force of both atria and ventricles increased with gestational age. Conclusion:The right atrium is the dominant chamber of the fetal heart in 17-34 weeks of gestation. Comparison of our values with previous studies indicates that left atrial ejection force almost doubles in the 1st month after birth. This study highlights the crucial role of the right atrium in the fetal cardiac function during 17-34 weeks of gestation.
Project description:Pituitary tuberculoma is extremely rare, even in endemic regions of tuberculosis and much less frequently as a presentation of pituitary apoplexy. We describe a 25-year-old female presented with sudden onset of headache and vision loss of left eye which mimicking symptoms of pituitary apoplexy. MRI of the pituitary gland showed a rim-enhancing lesion at the intrasellar region extending into the suprasellar area, but absence of posterior bright spot with enhancement of the pituitary stalk. Pituitary hormonal evaluation revealed panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus. An urgent transphenoidal surgery of the pituitary gland was undertaken for which the histopathology showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with infarcted adjacent pituitary tissue. Despite negative fungal and AFB staining, pituitary tuberculoma was presumptively diagnosed based on imaging, pathology and the high incidence of tuberculosis in the country. After the course of anti-tuberculosis therapy, the clinical findings were dramatically improved, supporting the diagnosis. Pituitary tuberculoma is extremely rare in particular with an apoplexy-like presentation but should be one of the differential diagnosis list of intrasellar lesions in the patient presenting with sudden onset of headache and visual loss. The presence of diabetes insipidus and thickened with enhancement of pituitary stalk on MRI were very helpful in diagnosing pituitary tuberculosis.