Targeting two different levels of both arterial carbon dioxide and arterial oxygen after cardiac arrest and resuscitation: a randomised pilot trial.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:We assessed the effects of targeting low-normal or high-normal arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and normoxia or moderate hyperoxia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) on markers of cerebral and cardiac injury. METHODS:Using a 23 factorial design, we randomly assigned 123 patients resuscitated from OHCA to low-normal (4.5-4.7 kPa) or high-normal (5.8-6.0 kPa) PaCO2 and to normoxia (arterial oxygen tension [PaO2] 10-15 kPa) or moderate hyperoxia (PaO2 20-25 kPa) and to low-normal or high-normal mean arterial pressure during the first 36 h in the intensive care unit. Here we report the results of the low-normal vs. high-normal PaCO2 and normoxia vs. moderate hyperoxia comparisons. The primary endpoint was the serum concentration of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) 48 h after cardiac arrest. Secondary endpoints included S100B protein and cardiac troponin concentrations, continuous electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) results and neurologic outcome at 6 months. RESULTS:In total 120 patients were included in the analyses. There was a clear separation in PaCO2 (p?
Project description:Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), oxygen tension (PaO2), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are modifiable factors that affect cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen delivery, and potentially the course of brain injury after cardiac arrest. No evidence regarding optimal treatment targets exists.The Carbon dioxide, Oxygen, and Mean arterial pressure After Cardiac Arrest and REsuscitation (COMACARE) trial is a pilot multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the feasibility of targeting low- or high-normal PaCO2, PaO2, and MAP in comatose, mechanically ventilated patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), as well as its effect on brain injury markers. Using a 23 factorial design, participants are randomized upon admission to an intensive care unit into one of eight groups with various combinations of PaCO2, PaO2, and MAP target levels for 36 h after admission. The primary outcome is neuron-specific enolase (NSE) serum concentration at 48 h after cardiac arrest. The main feasibility outcome is the between-group differences in PaCO2, PaO2, and MAP during the 36 h after ICU admission. Secondary outcomes include serum concentrations of NSE, S100 protein, and cardiac troponin at 24, 48, and 72 h after cardiac arrest; cerebral oxygenation, measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); potential differences in epileptic activity, monitored via continuous electroencephalogram (EEG); and neurological outcomes at six months after cardiac arrest.The trial began in March 2016 and participant recruitment has begun in all seven study sites as of March 2017. Currently, 115 of the total of 120 patients have been included. When completed, the results of this trial will provide preliminary clinical evidence regarding the feasibility of targeting low- or high-normal PaCO2, PaO2, and MAP values and its effect on developing brain injury, brain oxygenation, and epileptic seizures after cardiac arrest. The results of this trial will be used to evaluate whether a larger RCT on this subject is justified.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02698917 . Registered on 26 January 2016.
Project description:PURPOSE:We aimed to determine the feasibility of targeting low-normal or high-normal mean arterial pressure (MAP) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and its effect on markers of neurological injury. METHODS:In the Carbon dioxide, Oxygen and Mean arterial pressure After Cardiac Arrest and REsuscitation (COMACARE) trial, we used a 23 factorial design to randomly assign patients after OHCA and resuscitation to low-normal or high-normal levels of arterial carbon dioxide tension, to normoxia or moderate hyperoxia, and to low-normal or high-normal MAP. In this paper we report the results of the low-normal (65-75 mmHg) vs. high-normal (80-100 mmHg) MAP comparison. The primary outcome was the serum concentration of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) at 48 h after cardiac arrest. The feasibility outcome was the difference in MAP between the groups. Secondary outcomes included S100B protein and cardiac troponin (TnT) concentrations, electroencephalography (EEG) findings, cerebral oxygenation and neurological outcome at 6 months after cardiac arrest. RESULTS:We recruited 123 patients and included 120 in the final analysis. We found a clear separation in MAP between the groups (p?<?0.001). The median (interquartile range) NSE concentration at 48 h was 20.6 µg/L (15.2-34.9 µg/L) in the low-normal MAP group and 22.0 µg/L (13.6-30.9 µg/L) in the high-normal MAP group, p?=?0.522. We found no differences in the secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Targeting a specific range of MAP was feasible during post-resuscitation intensive care. However, the blood pressure level did not affect the NSE concentration at 48 h after cardiac arrest, nor any secondary outcomes.
Project description:Providing supplemental oxygen is fundamental in the management of mechanically ventilated patients. Increasing amounts of data show worse clinical outcomes associated with hyperoxia. However, these previous data in the critically ill have not focused on outcomes associated with brief hyperoxia exposure immediately after endotracheal intubation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of isolated early hyperoxia exposure in the emergency department (ED) on clinical outcomes among mechanically ventilated patients with subsequent normoxia in the intensive care unit (ICU).This was an observational cohort study conducted in the ED and ICUs of an academic center in the USA. Mechanically ventilated normoxic (partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) 60-120 mm Hg) ICU patients with mechanical ventilation initiated in the ED were studied. The cohort was categorized into three oxygen exposure groups based on PaO2 values obtained after ED intubation: hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (defined as PaO2?<?60 mmHg, PaO2 60-120 mm Hg, and PaO2?>?120 mm Hg, respectively, based on previous literature).A total of 688 patients were included. ED normoxia occurred in 350 (50.9%) patients, and 300 (43.6%) had exposure to ED hyperoxia. The ED hyperoxia group had a median (IQR) ED PaO2 of 189 mm Hg (146-249), compared to an ED PaO2 of 88 mm Hg (76-101) in the normoxia group, P?<?0.001. Patients with ED hyperoxia had greater hospital mortality (29.7%), when compared to those with normoxia (19.4%) and hypoxia (13.2%). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, ED hyperoxia was an independent predictor of hospital mortality (adjusted OR 1.95 (1.34-2.85)).ED exposure to hyperoxia is common and associated with increased mortality in mechanically ventilated patients achieving normoxia after admission. This suggests that hyperoxia in the immediate post-intubation period could be particularly injurious, and targeting normoxia from initiation of mechanical ventilation may improve outcome.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the frequency of hyperoxia and hypocapnia during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and their relationships to complications, mortality, and functional status among survivors. DESIGN:Secondary analysis of data collected prospectively by the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. SETTING:Eight Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network-affiliated hospitals. PATIENTS:Age less than 19 years and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. INTERVENTIONS:Hyperoxia was defined as highest PaO2 greater than 200 Torr (27 kPa) and hypocapnia as lowest PaCO2 less than 30 Torr (3.9 kPa) during the first 48 hours of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Functional status at hospital discharge was evaluated among survivors using the Functional Status Scale. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Of 484 patients, 420 (86.7%) had venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and 64 (13.2%) venovenous; 69 (14.2%) had extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Hyperoxia occurred in 331 (68.4%) and hypocapnia in 98 (20.2%). Hyperoxic patients had higher mortality than patients without hyperoxia (167 [50.5%] vs 48 [31.4%]; p < 0.001), but no difference in functional status among survivors. Hypocapnic patients were more likely to have a neurologic event (49 [50.0%] vs 143 (37.0%]; p = 0.021) or hepatic dysfunction (49 [50.0%] vs 121 [31.3%]; p < 0.001) than patients without hypocapnia, but no difference in mortality or functional status among survivors. On multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with increased mortality included highest PaO2 and highest blood lactate concentration in the first 48 hours of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and being a preterm neonate. Factors independently associated with lower mortality included meconium aspiration syndrome. CONCLUSIONS:Hyperoxia is common during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and associated with mortality. Hypocapnia appears to occur less often and although associated with complications, an association with mortality was not observed.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Hyperoxia has recently been reported as an independent risk factor for mortality in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. We examined the independent relationship between hyperoxia and outcomes in such patients. METHODS: We divided patients resuscitated from nontraumatic cardiac arrest from 125 intensive care units (ICUs) into three groups according to worst PaO2 level or alveolar-arterial O2 gradient in the first 24 hours after admission. We defined 'hyperoxia' as PaO2 of 300 mmHg or greater, 'hypoxia/poor O2 transfer' as either PaO2 < 60 mmHg or ratio of PaO2 to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) < 300, 'normoxia' as any value between hypoxia and hyperoxia and 'isolated hypoxemia' as PaO2 < 60 mmHg regardless of FiO2. Mortality at hospital discharge was the main outcome measure. RESULTS: Of 12,108 total patients, 1,285 (10.6%) had hyperoxia, 8,904 (73.5%) had hypoxia/poor O2 transfer, 1,919 (15.9%) had normoxia and 1,168 (9.7%) had isolated hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mmHg). The hyperoxia group had higher mortality (754 (59%) of 1,285 patients; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 56% to 61%) than the normoxia group (911 (47%) of 1,919 patients; 95% CI, 45% to 50%) with a proportional difference of 11% (95% CI, 8% to 15%), but not higher than the hypoxia group (5,303 (60%) of 8,904 patients; 95% CI, 59% to 61%). In a multivariable model controlling for some potential confounders, including illness severity, hyperoxia had an odds ratio for hospital death of 1.2 (95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6). However, once we applied Cox proportional hazards modelling of survival, sensitivity analyses using deciles of hypoxemia, time period matching and hyperoxia defined as PaO2 > 400 mmHg, hyperoxia had no independent association with mortality. Importantly, after adjustment for FiO2 and the relevant covariates, PaO2 was no longer predictive of hospital mortality (P = 0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients admitted to the ICU after cardiac arrest, hyperoxia did not have a robust or consistently reproducible association with mortality. We urge caution in implementing policies of deliberate decreases in FiO2 in these patients.
Project description:Background:Respiratory parameters are important predictors of prognosis in the COPD population. Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2017 Update resulted in a vertical shift of patients across COPD categories, with category B being the most populous and clinically heterogeneous. The aim of our study was to investigate whether respiratory parameters might be associated with increased all-cause mortality within GOLD category B patients. Methods:The data were extracted from the Czech Multicentre Research Database, a prospective, noninterventional multicenter study of COPD patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed at different levels of respiratory parameters (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood [PaO2], partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide [PaCO2] and greatest decrease of basal peripheral capillary oxygen saturation during 6-minute walking test [6-MWT]). Univariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for mortality in hypoxemic and hypercapnic individuals with COPD. Results:All-cause mortality in the cohort at 3 years of prospective follow-up reached 18.4%. Chronic hypoxemia (PaO2 <7.3 kPa), hypercapnia (PaCO2 >7.0 kPa) and oxygen desaturation during the 6-MWT were predictors of long-term mortality in COPD patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 second ?60% for the overall cohort and for GOLD B category patients. Univariate analyses confirmed the association among decreased oxemia (<7.3 kPa), increased capnemia (>7.0 kPa), oxygen desaturation during 6-MWT and mortality in the studied groups of COPD subjects. Multivariate analysis identified PaO2 <7.3 kPa as a strong independent risk factor for mortality. Conclusion:Survival analyses showed significantly increased all-cause mortality in hypoxemic and hypercapnic GOLD B subjects. More important, PaO2 <7.3 kPa was the strongest risk factor, especially in category B patients. In contrast, the majority of the tested respiratory parameters did not show a difference in mortality in the GOLD category D cohort.
Project description:Previous observational studies have inconsistently associated early hyperoxia with worse outcomes after cardiac arrest, and have methodological limitations. We tested this association using a high-resolution database controlling for multiple disease-specific markers of severity of illness and care processes.This was a retrospective analysis of a single-center, prospective registry of consecutive cardiac arrest patients. We included patients who survived and were mechanically ventilated ?24 h after arrest. Our main exposure was arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), which we categorized hourly for 24 h as severe hyperoxia (>300 mmHg), moderate or probable hyperoxia (101-299 mmHg), normoxia (60-100 mmHg) or hypoxia (<60 mmHg). We controlled for Utstein-style covariates, markers of disease severity and markers of care responsiveness. We performed unadjusted and multiple logistic regression to test the association between oxygen exposure and survival to discharge, and used ordered logistic regression to test the association of oxygen exposure with neurological outcome and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at 24 h.Of 184 patients, 36 % were exposed to severe hyperoxia and overall mortality was 54 %. Severe hyperoxia, but not moderate or probable hyperoxia, was associated with decreased survival in both unadjusted and adjusted analysis [adjusted odds ratio (OR) for survival 0.83 per hour exposure, P = 0.04]. Moderate or probable hyperoxia was not associated with survival but was associated with improved SOFA score 24 h (OR 0.92, P < 0.01).Severe hyperoxia was independently associated with decreased survival to hospital discharge. Moderate or probable hyperoxia was not associated with decreased survival and was associated with improved organ function at 24 h.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Supplemental oxygen administration to critically ill patients is ubiquitous in the intensive care unit (ICU). Uncertainty persists as to whether hyperoxia is benign in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly in regard to their long-term functional neurological outcomes. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study of invasively ventilated patients with TBI admitted to the ICU. A database linkage between the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database (ANZICS-APD) and the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) was utilized. The primary exposure variable was minimum acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III PaO2 in the first 24 h of ICU. We defined hypoxia as PaO2?<?60 mmHg, normoxia as 60-299 mmHg, and hyperoxia as???300 mmHg. The primary outcome was a Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE)?<?5 at 6 months while secondary outcomes included 12 and 24 months GOSE and mortality at each of these timepoints. Additional sensitivity analyses were undertaken in the following subgroups: isolated head injury, patients with operative intervention, head injury severity, and PaO2 either subcategorized by increments of 60 mmHg or treated as a continuous variable. RESULTS:A total of 3699 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.8 years, 77.7% were male and the mean acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score was 60.1 (26.3). 2842 patients experienced normoxia, and 783 hyperoxia. The primary outcome occurred in 1470 (47.1%) of patients overall with 1123 (47.1%) from the normoxia group and 312 (45.9%) from the hyperoxia group-odds ratio 0.99 (0.78-1.25). No significant differences in outcomes between groups at 6, 12, and 24 months were observed. Sensitivity analyses did not identify subgroups that were adversely affected by exposure to hyperoxia. CONCLUSIONS:No associations were observed between hyperoxia in ICU during the first 24 h and adverse neurological outcome at 6 months in ventilated TBI patients.
Project description:Twelve replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster, all derived from a common ancestor, were independently evolved for 34+ generations in one of three treatment environments of varying PO(2): hypoxia (5.0-10.1 kPa), normoxia (21.3 kPa), and hyperoxia (40.5 kPa). Several traits related to whole animal performance and metabolism were assayed at various stages via "common garden" and reciprocal transplant assays to directly compare evolved and acclimatory differences among treatments. Results clearly demonstrate the evolution of a greater tolerance to acute hypoxia in the hypoxia-evolved populations, consistent with adaptation to this environment. Greater hypoxia tolerance was associated with an increase in citrate synthase activity in fly homogenate when compared to normoxic (control) populations, suggesting an increase in mitochondrial volume density in these populations. In contrast, no direct evidence of increased performance of the hyperoxia-evolved populations was detected, although a significant decrease in the tolerance of these populations to acute hypoxia suggests a cost to adaptation to hyperoxia. Hyperoxia-evolved populations had lower productivity overall (i.e., across treatment environments) and there was no evidence that hypoxia or hyperoxia-evolved populations had greatest productivity or longevity in their respective treatment environments, suggesting that these assays failed to capture the components of fitness relevant to adaptation.
Project description:The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of acute hypercapnia on surgery outcomes among patients receiving bronchoscopic interventions under general anesthesia. Furthermore, independent predictive factors for surgery complications were analyzed.A total of 323 patients with airway stenosis were enrolled in this retrospective study. Each patient underwent interventional rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. Arterial blood gas (ABG) was measured intraoperatively. In light of PaCO2 levels in ABG, patients were divided into three groups: Group C (control) (PaCO2:≤ 60 mmHg), Group M (moderate) (PaCO2:61-100 mmHg), and Group S (severe) (PaCO2: >100 mmHg). Parameters, including PaO2 levels and recovery delays, were compared across three groups. Complications among patients receiving bronchoscopic interventions were evaluated as well. Independent predictive factors for surgery related complications were analyzed by multivariable regression method.Significant differences in weight (p=0.04), ASA IV (p=0.008), dyspnea index (p=0.003),COPD (p=0.02), dynamic airway collapse (p=0.002), severe stenosis severity (p=0.02), and stenosis locations among three groups were observed. Mild (PaCO2:~60 mmHg) to moderate (PaCO2:60-100 mmHg) hypercapnia was not associated with delayed recovery, whereas severe hypercapnia (PaCO2:>100 mmHg) was associated with delayed recovery, as well as declined PaO2 (p=0.00) and elevated blood glucose levels (p=0.00). The complications of bronchoscopic interventions included postoperative congestive heart failure (14 cases, 4.3%), tracheorrhagia (8 cases, 2.5%), delayed recovery (19 cases, 5.9%), and transfers to ICU after surgery (10 cases, 3.1%). The multivariable regression analysis showed that procedure duration (p=0.003), lobectomy (p=0.007), dynamic airway collapse (p=0.01), severe bronchial stenosis (p=0.01) and hypercapnia (p=0.02) were independent predictive factors for surgery related complications.Acute hypercapnia lower than 100 mmHg was not associated with detrimental consequences, whereas severe hypercapnia (PaCO2: >100 mmHg) was associated with lower levels of PaO2. Hypercapnia was an independent predictive factor for bronchoscopic intervention complication, which may help physicians to optimize the therapeutic choices.