Recent advances in understanding inhibitor of apoptosis proteins.
ABSTRACT: The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are a family of proteins that were chiefly known for their ability to inhibit apoptosis by blocking caspase activation or activity. Recent research has shown that cellular IAP1 (cIAP1), cIAP2, and X-linked IAP (XIAP) also regulate signaling by receptors of the innate immune system by ubiquitylating their substrates. These IAPs thereby act at the intersection of pathways leading to cell death and inflammation. Mutation of IAP genes can impair tissue homeostasis and is linked to several human diseases. Small-molecule IAP antagonists have been developed to treat certain malignant, infectious, and inflammatory diseases. Here, we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the functions of cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP; the consequences of their mutation or dysregulation; and the therapeutic potential of IAP antagonist drugs.
Project description:Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP (X-linked IAP) regulate apoptosis and cytokine receptor signalling, but their overlapping functions make it difficult to distinguish their individual roles. To do so, we deleted the genes for IAPs separately and in combination. While lack of any one of the IAPs produced no overt phenotype in mice, deletion of cIap1 with cIap2 or Xiap resulted in mid-embryonic lethality. In contrast, Xiap(-/-)cIap2(-/-) mice were viable. The death of cIap2(-/-)cIap1(-/-) double mutants was rescued to birth by deletion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1, but not TNFR2 genes. Remarkably, hemizygosity for receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (Ripk1) allowed Xiap(-/-)cIap1(-/-) double mutants to survive past birth, and prolonged cIap2(-/-)cIap1(-/-) embryonic survival. Similarly, deletion of Ripk3 was able to rescue the mid-gestation defect of cIap2(-/-)cIap1(-/-) embryos, as these embryos survived to E15.5. cIAPs are therefore required during development to limit activity of RIP kinases in the TNF receptor 1 signalling pathway.
Project description:The Inhibitor of Apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are key repressors of apoptosis. Several IAP proteins contain a RING domain that functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Here we investigated the interplay of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and RING-mediated IAP turnover. We found that the CARD-RING domain of cIAP1 (cIAP1-CR) is capable of down-regulating protein levels of RING-bearing IAPs such as cIAP1, cIAP2, XIAP, and Livin, while sparing NAIP and Survivin, which do not possess a RING domain. To determine whether polyubiquitination was required, we tested the ability of cIAP1-CR to degrade IAPs under conditions that impair ubiquitination modifications. Remarkably, although the ablation of E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme prevented cIAP1-CR-mediated down-regulation of cIAP1 and cIAP2, there was no impact on degradation of XIAP and Livin. XIAP mutants that were not ubiquitinated in vivo were readily down-regulated by cIAP1-CR. Moreover, XIAP degradation in response to cisplatin and doxorubicin was largely prevented in cIAP1-silenced cells, despite cIAP2 up-regulation. The knockdown of cIAP1 and cIAP2 partially blunted Fas ligand-mediated down-regulation of XIAP and protected cells from cell death. Together, these results show that the E3 ligase RING domain of cIAP1 targets RING-bearing IAPs for proteasomal degradation by ubiquitin-dependent and -independent pathways.
Project description:The mammalian IAPs, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 and 2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2), play pivotal roles in innate immune signaling and inflammatory homeostasis, often working in parallel or in conjunction at a signaling complex. IAPs direct both nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2 (NOD2) signaling complexes and cell death mechanisms to appropriately regulate inflammation. Although it is known that XIAP is critical for NOD2 signaling and that the loss of cIAP1 and cIAP2 blunts NOD2 activity, it is unclear whether these three highly related proteins can compensate for one another in NOD2 signaling or in mechanisms governing apoptosis or necroptosis. This potential redundancy is critically important, given that genetic loss of XIAP causes both very early onset inflammatory bowel disease and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome 2 (XLP-2) and that the overexpression of cIAP1 and cIAP2 is linked to both carcinogenesis and chemotherapeutic resistance. Given the therapeutic interest in IAP inhibition and the potential toxicities associated with disruption of inflammatory homeostasis, we used synthetic biology techniques to examine the functional redundancies of key domains in the IAPs. From this analysis, we defined the features of the IAPs that enable them to function at overlapping signaling complexes but remain independent and functionally exclusive in their roles as E3 ubiquitin ligases in innate immune and inflammatory signaling.
Project description:Members of the Inhibitor of APoptosis (IAP) protein family suppress apoptosis within tumor cells, particularly in the context of immune cell-mediated killing by the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily cytokines. Most IAPs are opposed endogenously by the second mitochondrial activator of caspases (SMAC), which binds to selected baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains of IAPs to displace interacting proteins. The development of SMAC mimetics as novel anticancer drugs has gained impetus, with several agents now in human clinical trials. To further understand the cellular mechanisms of SMAC mimetics, we focused on IAP family members cIAP1 and cIAP2, which are recruited to TNF receptor complexes where they support cell survival through NF-?B activation while suppressing apoptosis by preventing caspase activation. We established fluorescence polarization (FP) assays for the BIR2 and BIR3 domains of human cIAP1 and cIAP2 using fluorochrome-conjugated SMAC peptides as ligands. A library of SMAC mimetics was profiled using the FP assays to provide a unique structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis compared to previous assessments of binding to XIAP. Potent compounds displayed mean inhibitory binding constants (Ki) of 9 to 27 nM against the BIR3 domains of cIAP1 and cIAP2, respectively. Selected compounds were then characterized using cytotoxicity assays in which a cytokine-resistant human tumor cell line was sensitized to either TNF or lymphotoxin-? (LT-?). Cytotoxicity correlated closely with cIAP1 and cIAP2 BIR3 binding activity with the most potent compounds able to reduce cell viability by 50%. Further testing demonstrated that active compounds also inhibit RIP1 binding to BIR3 of cIAP1 and cIAP2 in vitro and reduce steady-state cIAP1 protein levels in cells. Altogether, these data inform the SAR for our SMAC mimetics with respect to cIAP1 and cIAP2, suggesting that these IAP family members play an important role in tumor cell resistance to cytotoxicity mediated by TNF and LT-?.
Project description:High expression of Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) has been related to colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, resistance to treatment and poor prognosis. TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) through its receptors DR4 (TRAIL-R1) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2) can selectively induce cancer cell apoptosis. The mRNA expression of DR4, DR5, c-IAP1, c-IAP2, XIAP and BIRC5/Survivin genes was examined in 100 paired (cancerous-normal) colorectal tissue specimens by real-time PCR, 50 of which were KRAS wild-type and 50 KRAS-mutant. DR5, XIAP and BIRC5/Survivin genes are significantly up-regulated (p?<?0.0001, p?=?0.012 and p?=?0.0003, respectively), whereas c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 genes are significantly down-regulated at mRNA and protein levels in CRC (p?<?0.0001 for both). ROC analyses showed that DR5, cIAP1 and cIAP2 expression has discriminatory value between CRC and normal tissue (AUC?=?0.700, p?<?0.0001 for DR5; AUC?=?0.628, p?=?0.011 for cIAP1; AUC?=?0.673, p?<?0.0001 for cIAP2). Combinatorial ROC analysis revealed the marginally fair discriminatory value of 5 genes as a panel (AUC?=?0.685, p?<?0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed significant association of cIAP2 down-regulation in CRC with lower overall survival probability of CRC patients (p?=?0.0098). DR5, BIRC5/Survivin, XIAP, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 mRNA expression are significantly deregulated in CRC and could provide a panel of markers with significant discriminatory value between CRC and normal colorectal tissue.
Project description:Apoptosis resistance is a hallmark of human cancer. Research in the last two decades has identified key regulators of apoptosis, including inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). These critical apoptosis regulators have been targeted for the development of new cancer therapeutics. In this article, we will discuss three members of IAP proteins, namely XIAP, cIAP1 and cIAP2, as cancer therapeutic targets and the progress made in developing new cancer therapeutic agents to target these IAP proteins.
Project description:Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are negative regulators of apoptosis. As IAPs are overexpressed in many tumors, where they confer chemoresistance, small molecules inactivating IAPs have been proposed as anticancer agents. Accordingly, a number of IAP-binding pro-apoptotic compounds that mimic the sequence corresponding to the N-terminal tetrapeptide of Smac/DIABLO, the natural endogenous IAPs inhibitor, have been developed. Here, we report the crystal structures of the BIR3 domain of cIAP1 in complex with Smac037, a Smac-mimetic known to bind potently to the XIAP-BIR3 domain and to induce degradation of cIAP1, and in complex with the novel Smac-mimetic compound Smac066. Thermal stability and fluorescence polarization assays show the stabilizing effect and the high affinity of both Smac037 and Smac066 for cIAP1- and cIAP2-BIR3 domains.
Project description:The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins have a critical role in the control of apoptotic machinery, and has been explored as a therapeutic target. Here, we have examined the functional importance of IAPs in multiple myeloma (MM) by using a Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases)-mimetic LCL161. We observed that LCL161 was able to potently induce apoptosis in some MM cell lines but not in others. Examining the levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) post LCL161 treatment indicated clear downregulation of both XIAP activity and cIAP1 levels in both the sensitive and less sensitive (resistant) cell lines. cIAP2, however, was not downregulated in the cell line resistant to the drug. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of cIAP2 significantly enhanced the effect of LCL161, indicating the importance of downregulation of all IAPs simultaneously for induction of apoptosis in MM cells. LCL161 induced marked up regulation of the Jak2/Stat3 pathway in the resistant MM cell lines. Combining LCL161 with a Jak2-specific inhibitor resulted in synergistic cell death in MM cell lines and patient cells. In addition, combining LCL161 with death-inducing ligands clearly showed that LCL161 sensitized MM cells to both Fas-ligand and TRAIL.
Project description:Three members of the IAP family (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins-1/-2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2)) are potent suppressors of apoptosis. Recent studies have shown that cIAP1 and cIAP2, unlike XIAP, are not direct caspase inhibitors, but block apoptosis by functioning as E3 ligases for effector caspases and receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1). cIAP-mediated polyubiquitination of RIP1 allows it to bind to the pro-survival kinase transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) which prevents it from activating caspase-8-dependent death, a process reverted by the de-ubiquitinase CYLD. RIP1 is also a regulator of necrosis, a caspase-independent type of cell death. Here, we show that cells depleted of the IAPs by treatment with the IAP antagonist BV6 are greatly sensitized to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necrosis, but not to necrotic death induced by anti-Fas, poly(I:C) oxidative stress. Specific targeting of the IAPs by RNAi revealed that repression of cIAP1 is responsible for the sensitization. Similarly, lowering TAK1 levels or inhibiting its kinase activity sensitized cells to TNF-induced necrosis, whereas repressing CYLD had the opposite effect. We show that this sensitization to death is accompanied by enhanced RIP1 kinase activity, increased recruitment of RIP1 to Fas-associated via death domain and RIP3 (which allows necrosome formation), and elevated RIP1 kinase-dependent accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, our data indicate that cIAP1 and TAK1 protect cells from TNF-induced necrosis by preventing RIP1/RIP3-dependent ROS production.
Project description:Exposure of human mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7 to TNF-alpha leads to apoptotic cell death within 24 h. In search for apoptosis-preventing signals, we identified glucocorticoids as potent death-preventing compounds. Ten nM dexamethasone provided a significant protective effect whereas 100 nM dexamethasone roughly blocked 80 - 90% of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, dexamethasone exerted a protective effect even when supplied several hours after TNF-alpha. This points to a powerful inhibition of even advanced apoptotic processes by dexamethasone. To further pinpoint the anti-apoptotic glucocorticoid action, we investigated the expression levels of several members of the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) family of proteins in response to TNF-alpha and dexamethasone. IAP proteins directly block caspase protease activities including caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-9. Exposure of MCF-7 cells to TNF caused an extensive downregulation of cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP protein levels. The decline of the IAP protein levels temporally paralleled the appearance of apoptotic DNA fragments which started 12 - 14 h following TNF-alpha addition and maximal effects were seen within 24 h. Coincubation of cells with TNF-alpha and dexamethasone potently blocked cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP downregulation. TNF-alpha-mediated IAP protein downregulation was not affected by proteasome inhibitors like lactacystin, ALLN or ALLM, whereas it was blocked by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk which also prevented TNF-alpha-induced apoptotic cell death. These data suggest that inhibition of IAP downregulation mediated by a caspase proteolytic activity constitutes the anti-apoptotic action of glucocorticoids in MCF-7 carcinoma cells.