Subclinical parameters of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis correlate with QRISK3 in systemic lupus erythematosus.
ABSTRACT: It is well known that cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major contributor of death in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as well in other rheumatic illness. In the last decades, there has been a growing development of different methodologies with the purpose of early detection of CVD. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study is to correlate the usefulness of subclinical parameters of vascular aging and QRISK 3-2017 score for early detection of CVD in SLE. METHODS:Clinical assessment including systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) and systemic lupus international collaborating clinics / american college of rheumatology damage index (SLICC/ACR DI), laboratory measurements, carotid ultrasound examination, carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) measurement, carotid distention and diameter analysis, arterial stiffness measurement measured by tonometry and QRISK 3-2017 were done. All results were analyzed by SPSS 24 software. RESULTS:We observed correlation between QRISK3 and mean cIMT (rs = 0.534, P < 0.001), PWV (rs = 0.474, P < 0.001), cfPWV (rs = 0.569, P < 0.001) and distensibility (rs = -0.420, P = 0.006). Consistent with above, SLE patients in middle and high risk QRISK 3-2017 showed increased arterial stiffness versus low risk group. CONCLUSIONS:We encourage to the rheumatology community to assess cardiovascular risk in SLE patients with QRISK 3-2017 risk calculator as an alternative method at the outpatient clinic along a complete cardiovascular evaluation when appropriate.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Accelerated atherosclerosis is a major complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and it leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE. This study aimed to investigate the natural progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and to examine the risk factors for progression of CIMT and atherosclerotic plaques based on a Chinese SLE cohort. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Participants were continuously enrolled as outpatients of the Department of Rheumatology in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) from October 2013 to December 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) age ≥18 years, (2) fulfilment of clinical classification criteria of SLE and (3) provision of signed written informed consent. Patients with clinically overt coronary artery disease, a history of cardiovascular disease (previous stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, angina or symptomatic peripheral artery disease) and malignancy, and pregnant/lactating women were excluded. The primary outcome is progression of CIMT from baseline. A total of 440 patients with SLE will be enrolled. Participants will receive follow-up surveys ~5 years after their baseline visit. A standard structural survey form, including demographic data, medical history, clinical and laboratory assessments and CIMT measurement, is planned for data collection at baseline and follow-up. The risk prediction model for progression of CIMT will be created by using a mixed effect model. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board of PUMCH (S-599). Informed consent was obtained from all participants according to the Declaration of Helsinki on Biomedical Research Involving Human Studies. All data will be managed confidentially according to guidelines and legislation. Dissemination will include publication of scientific papers and/or presentations of the study findings at international conferences.
Project description:Objectives:We aimed to describe the rate and determinants of carotid plaque progression and the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a UK SLE cohort. Methods:Female patients with SLE of white British ancestry were recruited from clinics in the North-West of England and had a baseline clinical and CVD risk assessment including measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque using B-mode Doppler ultrasound. Patients were followed up (>3.5 years after baseline visit) and had a repeat carotid Doppler to assess progression of plaque and CIMT. Clinical CVD events between visits were also noted. Results:Of 200 patients with a baseline scan, 124 (62%) patients had a second assessment at a median (IQR) of 5.8 (5.2-6.3) years follow-up. New plaque developed in 32 (26%) (4.5% per annum) patients and plaque progression was observed in 52 (41%) patients. Factors associated with plaque progression were older age (OR 1.13; 95% ?CI 1.06 to 1.20), anticardiolipin (OR 3.36; 1.27 to 10.40) and anti-Ro (OR 0.31; 0.11 to 0.86) antibodies. CVD events occurred in 7.2% over 5.8 years compared with 1.0% predicted using the Framingham risk score (p<0.001). Higher triglycerides (OR 3.6; 1.23 to 10.56), cyclophosphamide exposure 'ever' (OR 16.7; 1.46 to 63.5) and baseline Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index score (OR 9.62; 1.46 to 123) independently predicted future CVD events. Conclusion:Accelerated atherosclerosis remains a major challenge in SLE disease management. A more comprehensive approach to CVD risk management taking into account disease factors such as severity and anticardiolipin antibody status may be necessary to improve CVD outcomes in this high-risk population.
Project description:Essentials Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are at increased risk for premature CVD. Platelet activity, vascular dysfunction and carotid artery plaque are associated with Fc?RIIA genotype in SLE. Fc?RIIA genotype was not associated with platelet activity or carotid plaque in healthy controls. Fc?RIIA represents a link that connects platelet activity, vascular health and CVD in SLE. SUMMARY: Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease associated with an elevated risk of premature cardiovascular disease. Platelets express receptors contributing to inflammation and immunity, including Fc?RIIA, the low affinity receptor of the Fc portion of IgG antibodies. The variation at a single amino acid substitution, H131R, in the extracellular binding domain alters the affinity for IgG, which may account for individual variation in platelet activity and platelet-mediated disease. Objectives This study was performed to investigate the association between Fc?RIIA genotype, preclinical atherosclerosis, platelet reactivity and vascular health. Methods Fc?RIIA was genotyped in 80 SLE patients and 30 healthy controls. Carotid ultrasound plaque, soluble E-selectin and platelet aggregability were evaluated in SLE and matched controls. Results Carotid plaque was significantly more prevalent in SLE patients carrying a variant allele compared to those with a homozygous ancestral allele (58% vs. 25%, P = 0.04). In contrast, prevalent carotid plaque was not associated with genotype in controls. Consistently, SLE variant Fc?RIIA carriers vs. ancestral allele carriers had a significant increase in the levels of soluble E-selectin, which was not observed in controls. Monocyte and leukocyte-platelet aggregation and platelet aggregation in response to submaximal agonist stimulation were significantly elevated in SLE patients with the variant vs. ancestral genotype. Conclusions Carotid ultrasound plaque, soluble E-selectin levels and platelet activity were more frequently prevalent in SLE patients carrying variant Fc?RIIA. The interplay between Fc?RIIA-mediated platelet activation and endothelial cells might represent a mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in SLE patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To explore the inadequacies of health service and its impact on clinical outcomes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in China. METHODS:A total of 210 SLE patients were randomly recruited between January 2017 and January 2018. Each patient received self-report questionnaires to assess medication adherence [Compliance Questionnaire for Rheumatology (CQR)], beliefs about medicines [Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)] and satisfaction about medicine information [the Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS)]. Associations between SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI-2?K) and observed factors were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS:Based on CQR, only 28.10% patients were adherent. The score of BMQ was 2.85?±?5.42, and merely 32.38% patients were satisfied with the information about their prescribed medicines. Disease activity was associated with SIMS, EuroQol five-dimensions [EQ5D], Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC), depression, use of NSAID (P???0.05). Remission of disease was positively correlated with SIMS (OR?=?0.16, 95% CI: [0.06, 0.40]), and BMQ (OR?=?0.64, 95%CI: [0.43, 0.94]). CONCLUSION:In this study, the scores of BMQ and SIMS were low, implying defects in the patient education of health service system, which led to disease flare in Chinese SLE patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03024307 . Registered January 18, 2017.
Project description:We measured the interleukin-34 (IL-34) level in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood tests, including assays to determine C-reactive protein (CRP), complement (C) 3, C4, immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, IgM, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody (Anti-dsDNA Ab) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels and white blood cell (WBC) and platelet (PLT) counts, were performed using standard methods. Lupus nephritis (LN) was diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) renal criteria. The SLE disease activity was scored using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Among the 110 SLE cases, IL-34 could be detected in 79 cases (71.8%). IL-34 was barely detected in the control group. The serum level of IL-34 was significantly higher in the SLE group. No change was observed in the serum IL-34 concentration in the SLE patients regardless of LN status. Correlations were observed between the serum IL-34 level and the disease activity parameters. The SLE patients with detectable IL-34 levels had higher SLEDAI and IgG concentrations and lower C3 and Hb levels than patients with undetectable IL-34 levels. Therefore, IL-34 could be a potential disease activity marker for SLE.
Project description:The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is associated with autoimmune diseases, but its expression level in the immune cells of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression of TIM-3 mRNA is associated with pathogenesis of SLE. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) was used to determine TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 132 patients with SLE and 62 healthy controls. The PBMC surface protein expression of TIMs in PBMCs from 20 SLE patients and 15 healthy controls was assayed by flow cytometry. Only TIM-3 mRNA expression decreased significantly in SLE patients compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). No significant differences in TIM family protein expression were observed in leukocytes from SLE patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) had a significantly lower expression of TIM-3 mRNA than those without LN (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the expression of TIM-3 mRNA within different classes of LN (P>0.05). Correlation of TIM-3 mRNA expression with serum IgA was highly significant (r=0.425, P=0.004), but was weakly correlated with total serum protein (rs=0.283, P=0.049) and serum albumin (rs=0.297, P=0.047). TIM-3 mRNA expression was weakly correlated with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; rs=-0.272, P=0.032). Our results suggest that below-normal expression of TIM-3 mRNA in PBMC may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is a heterogeneous disease which predominantly affects young females (90%). SLE is associated with a shorter life expectancy than in the general population. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) of 2.4 have been reported, which is comparable to diabetes. In modern societies cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of premature mortality. Accelerated atherosclerosis is generally assumed to be the underlying cause for SLE related CVD. However, previous studies diverge regarding whether atherosclerosis is more common in SLE than in controls. With this in mind and based on own clinical experience we hypothesized that accelerated atherosclerosis is not a general feature of SLE, but prevails in SLE subgroups.281 SLE patients and 281 individually age and sex matched population controls, were investigated clinically. Fasting blood samples and risk factor data were collected. All participants were subject to B-mode ultrasonography of the carotid arteries. Carotid plaque occurrence and mean intima media thickness (mIMT) were recorded. Two SLE subgroups previously described to be at high CVD risk; 1) patients with nephritis and 2) patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL), and one subgroup reported to be at comparatively lower CVD risk; patients positive for Sjögren´s syndrome antigens A/B (SSA/SSB) antibodies were analyzed separately in comparison with their respective matched controls.Median age was 49 (IQR 36-59) years, 93% were females. Manifest CVD; ischemic heart, cerebro- and peripheral vascular disease, prevailed in patients (12% vs. 1%, p<0.0001). Overall plaque prevalence did not differ (20% vs. 16%), but patients had slightly higher mIMT than controls (0.56 vs. 0.53 mm, p<0.0033). After age adjustment plaques, but not mIMT, remained associated with previous CVD events. Therefore we focused further analyses on plaques, a more robust measure of atherosclerosis. Patients with nephritis (40%), but neither aPL (25%) nor SSA/SSB (40%) positive patients, had more plaques than their respective controls (23% vs. 11%, p = 0.008). Notably, patients with nephritis were younger than other SLE patients (45 vs.49 years, p = 0.02). To overcome the confounding effect of age we performed an age-matched nested case-control analysis, which demonstrated that patients with nephritis had twice as often plaques (23%) as both non-nephritis patients (11%, p = 0.038) and controls (12%, p = 0.035).In SLE excess carotid plaques are essentially confined to the SLE subgroup with nephritis. This subgroup had plaques twice as often as age-matched non-nephritis SLE patients and population controls. Non-nephritis SLE patients, including the aPL positive subgroup, which has a high CVD risk, had similar prevalence of plaques as controls. To prevent later CVD events, this novel observation calls for risk factor screening and initiation of anti-atherosclerotic treatment selectively in SLE nephritis patients. Preferably at nephritis onset, which is often at a young age. In a general perspective this study demonstrates the importance to perform careful clinical subgroup analyses when investigating heterogeneous, hitherto not clearly defined, conditions like SLE.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to determine whether Libman-Sacks endocarditis is a pathogenic factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). BACKGROUND:A cardioembolic pathogenesis of SLE CVD manifested as: 1) neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA); 2) neurocognitive dysfunction; and 3) magnetic resonance imaging of focal brain lesions has not been established. METHODS:A 6-year study of 30 patients with acute NPSLE (27 women, 38 ± 12 years of age), 46 age- and sex-matched SLE controls without NPSLE (42 women, 36 ± 12 years of age), and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (22 women, 34 ± 11 years of age) who underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations, transesophageal echocardiography, carotid duplex ultrasound, transcranial Doppler ultrasound, neurocognitive testing, and brain magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography. Patients with NPSLE were re-evaluated after 4.5 months of therapy. All patients were followed clinically for a median of 52 months. RESULTS:Libman-Sacks vegetations (87%), cerebromicroembolism (27% with 2.5 times more events per hour), neurocognitive dysfunction (60%), and cerebral infarcts (47%) were more common in NPSLE than in SLE (28%, 20%, 33%, and 0%) and healthy controls (8%, 0%, 4%, and 0%, respectively) (all p ? 0.009). Patients with vegetations had 3 times more cerebromicroemboli per hour, lower cerebral blood flow, more strokes/TIA and overall NPSLE events, neurocognitive dysfunction, cerebral infarcts, and brain lesion load than those without (all p ? 0.01). Libman-Sacks vegetations were independent risk factors of NPSLE (odds ratio [OR]: 13.4; p < 0.001), neurocognitive dysfunction (OR: 8.0; p = 0.01), brain lesions (OR: 5.6; p = 0.004), and all 3 outcomes combined (OR: 7.5; p < 0.001). Follow-up re-evaluations in 18 of 23 (78%) surviving patients with NPSLE demonstrated improvement of vegetations, microembolism, brain perfusion, neurocognitive dysfunction, and lesion load (all p ? 0.04). Finally, patients with vegetations had reduced event-free survival time to stroke/TIA, cognitive disability, or death (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS:The presence of Libman-Sacks endocarditis in patients with SLE was associated with a higher risk for embolic CVD. This suggests that Libman-Sacks endocarditis may be a source of cerebral emboli.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has improved, irreversible organ damage remains a critical concern. We aimed to characterize damage accrual and its clinical associations and causes of death in Swedish patients. METHODS:Accumulation of damage was evaluated in 543 consecutively recruited and well-characterized cases during 1998-2017. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI) was used to estimate damage. RESULTS:Organ damage (SDI ≥ 1) was observed in 59%, and extensive damage (SDI ≥ 3) in 25% of cases. SDI ≥ 1 was significantly associated with higher age at onset, SLE duration, the number of fulfilled SLICC criteria, neurologic disorder, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression and secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). In addition, SDI ≥ 3 was associated with serositis, renal and haematological disorders and interstitial lung disease. A multiple regression model identified not only well-known risk factors like APS, antihypertensives and corticosteroids, but pericarditis, haemolytic anaemia, lymphopenia and myositis as being linked to SDI. Malignancy, infection and cardiovascular disease were the leading causes of death. CONCLUSIONS:After a mean SLE duration of 17 years, the majority of today's Swedish SLE patients have accrued damage. We confirm previous observations and report some novel findings regarding disease phenotypes and damage accrual.
Project description:Atherosclerosis is exaggerated in African American (AA) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, with doubled cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared to White patients. The extent to which common Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles (RA) contribute to this trend is unknown. This retrospective cohort study assessed prevalent atherosclerotic disease across APOL1 genotypes in AA SLE patients.One hundred thirteen AA SLE subjects were APOL1-genotyped and stratified as having: zero risk alleles, one risk allele, or two risk alleles. Chart review assessed CVD manifestations including abdominal aortic aneurysm, angina, carotid artery disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, and vascular calcifications. Associations between the genotypes and a composite endpoint defined as one or more CVD manifestations were calculated using logistic regression. Symptomatic atherosclerotic disease, excluding incidental vascular calcifications, was also assessed.The 0-risk-allele, 1-risk-allele and 2-risk-allele groups, respectively, comprised 34%, 53%, and 13% of the cohort. Respectively, 13.2%, 41.7%, and 60.0% of the 0-risk allele, 1-risk-allele, and 2-risk-allele groups met the composite endpoint of atherosclerotic CVD (p = 0.001). Adjusting for risk factors-including smoking, ESRD, BMI >25 and hypertension-we observed an association between carrying one or more RA and atherosclerotic CVD (OR = 7.1; p = 0.002). For symptomatic disease, the OR was 3.5 (p = 0.02). In a time-to-event analysis, the proportion of subjects free from the composite primary endpoint, symptomatic atherosclerotic CVD, was higher in the 0-risk-allele group compared to the 1-risk-allele and 2-risk-allele groups (?2 = 6.5; p = 0.04).Taken together, the APOL1 RAs associate with prevalent atherosclerotic CVD in this cohort of AA SLE patients, perhaps reflecting a potentiating effect of SLE on APOL1-related cardiovascular phenotypes.