Structural Basis of TRPV4 N Terminus Interaction with Syndapin/PACSIN1-3 and PIP2.
ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodally regulated ion channels. TRPV4 (vanilloid 4) is sensitized by PIP2 and desensitized by Syndapin3/PACSIN3, which bind to the structurally uncharacterized TRPV4 N terminus. We determined the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the Syndapin3/PACSIN3 SH3 domain in complex with the TRPV4 N-terminal proline-rich region (PRR), which binds as a class I polyproline II (PPII) helix. This PPII conformation is broken by a conserved proline in a cis conformation. Beyond the PPII, we find that the proximal TRPV4 N terminus is unstructured, a feature conserved across species thus explaining the difficulties in resolving it in previous structural studies. Syndapin/PACSIN SH3 domain binding leads to rigidification of both the PRR and the adjacent PIP2 binding site. We determined the affinities of the TRPV4 N terminus for PACSIN1, 2, and 3 SH3 domains and PIP2 and deduce a hierarchical interaction network where Syndapin/PACSIN binding influences the PIP2 binding site but not vice versa.
Project description:PACSIN/Syndapin proteins are membrane-active scaffolds that participate in endocytosis. The structure of the Drosophila Syndapin N-terminal EFC domain reveals a crescent shaped antiparallel dimer with a high affinity for phosphoinositides and a unique membrane-inserting prong upon the concave surface. Combined structural, biochemical and reverse genetic approaches in zebrafish define an important role for Syndapin orthologue, Pacsin3, in the early formation of the notochord during embryonic development. In pacsin3-morphant embryos, midline convergence of notochord precursors is defective as axial mesodermal cells fail to polarize, migrate and differentiate properly. The pacsin3 morphant phenotype of a stunted body axis and contorted trunk is rescued by ectopic expression of Drosophila Syndapin, and depends critically on both the prong that protrudes from the surface of the bowed Syndapin EFC domain and the ability of the antiparallel dimer to bind tightly to phosphoinositides. Our data confirm linkage between directional migration, endocytosis and cell specification during embryonic morphogenesis and highlight a key role for Pacsin3 in this coupling in the notochord.
Project description:Most transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are regulated by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate (PIP2), although the structural rearrangements occurring on PIP2 binding are currently far from clear. Here we report that activation of the TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel by hypotonic and heat stimuli requires PIP2 binding to and rearrangement of the cytosolic tails. Neutralization of the positive charges within the sequence (121)KRWRK(125), which resembles a phosphoinositide-binding site, rendered the channel unresponsive to hypotonicity and heat but responsive to 4?-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, an agonist that binds directly to transmembrane domains. Similar channel response was obtained by depletion of PIP2 from the plasma membrane with translocatable phosphatases in heterologous expression systems or by activation of phospholipase C in native ciliated epithelial cells. PIP2 facilitated TRPV4 activation by the osmotransducing cytosolic messenger 5'-6'-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and allowed channel activation by heat in inside-out patches. Protease protection assays demonstrated a PIP2-binding site within the N-tail. The proximity of TRPV4 tails, analyzed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, increased by depleting PIP2 mutations in the phosphoinositide site or by coexpression with protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3 (PACSIN3), a regulatory molecule that binds TRPV4 N-tails and abrogates activation by cell swelling and heat. PACSIN3 lacking the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (F-BAR) domain interacted with TRPV4 without affecting channel activation or tail rearrangement. Thus, mutations weakening the TRPV4-PIP2 interacting site and conditions that deplete PIP2 or restrict access of TRPV4 to PIP2--in the case of PACSIN3--change tail conformation and negatively affect channel activation by hypotonicity and heat.
Project description:Dynamic trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into and out of synapses plays an important role in synaptic plasticity. We previously reported that the protein kinase C and casein kinase II substrate in neurons (PACSIN) forms a complex with AMPARs through its interaction with the protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) to regulate NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-induced AMPAR endocytosis and cerebellar long-term depression. However, the molecular mechanism by which PACSIN regulates the dynamics of AMPAR trafficking remains unclear. Using a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein, pHluorin, tagged to the extracellular domain of the GluA2 subunit of AMPARs, we demonstrate dual roles for PACSIN1 in controlling the internalization and recycling of GluA2 after NMDAR activation. Structure and function analysis reveals a requirement for the PACSIN1 F-BAR and SH3 domains in controlling these NMDAR-dependent processes. Interestingly, the variable region, which binds to PICK1, is not essential for NMDAR-dependent GluA2 internalization and is required only for the correct recycling of AMPARs. These results indicate that PACSIN is a versatile membrane deformation protein that links the endocytic and recycling machineries essential for dynamic AMPAR trafficking in neurons.
Project description:Syndapin I (SdpI) interacts with proteins involved in endocytosis and actin dynamics and was therefore proposed to be a molecular link between the machineries for synaptic vesicle recycling and cytoskeletal organization. We here report the identification and characterization of SdpII, a ubiquitously expressed isoform of the brain-specific SdpI. Certain splice variants of rat SdpII in other species were named FAP52 and PACSIN 2. SdpII binds dynamin I, synaptojanin, synapsin I, and the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), a stimulator of Arp2/3 induced actin filament nucleation. In neuroendocrine cells, SdpII colocalizes with dynamin, consistent with a role for syndapin in dynamin-mediated endocytic processes. The src homology 3 (SH3) domain of SdpI and -II inhibited receptor-mediated internalization of transferrin, demonstrating syndapin involvement in endocytosis in vivo. Overexpression of full-length syndapins, but not the NH(2)-terminal part or the SH3 domains alone, had a strong effect on cortical actin organization and induced filopodia. This syndapin overexpression phenotype appears to be mediated by the Arp2/3 complex at the cell periphery because it was completely suppressed by coexpression of a cytosolic COOH-terminal fragment of N-WASP. Consistent with a role in actin dynamics, syndapins localized to sites of high actin turnover, such as filopodia tips and lamellipodia. Our results strongly suggest that syndapins link endocytosis and actin dynamics.
Project description:The GTPase dynamin has been clearly implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membranes at the presynaptic nerve terminal. Here we describe a novel 52-kDa protein in rat brain that binds the proline-rich C terminus of dynamin. Syndapin I (synaptic, dynamin-associated protein I) is highly enriched in brain where it exists in a high molecular weight complex. Syndapin I can be involved in multiple protein-protein interactions via a src homology 3 (SH3) domain at the C terminus and two predicted coiled-coil stretches. Coprecipitation studies and blot overlay analyses revealed that syndapin I binds the brain-specific proteins dynamin I, synaptojanin, and synapsin I via an SH3 domain-specific interaction. Coimmunoprecipitation of dynamin I with antibodies recognizing syndapin I and colocalization of syndapin I with dynamin I at vesicular structures in primary neurons indicate that syndapin I associates with dynamin I in vivo and may play a role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Furthermore, syndapin I associates with the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, an actin-depolymerizing protein that regulates cytoskeletal rearrangement. These characteristics of syndapin I suggest a molecular link between cytoskeletal dynamics and synaptic vesicle recycling in the nerve terminal.
Project description:F-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) domain proteins play essential roles in biological processes that involve membrane remodelling, such as endocytosis and exocytosis. It has been shown that such proteins transform the lipid membrane into tubes. Notably, Pacsin1 from the Pacsin/Syndapin subfamily has the ability to transform the membrane into various morphologies: striated tubes, featureless wide and thin tubes, and pearling vesicles. The molecular mechanism of this interesting ability remains elusive. In this study, we performed all-atom (AA) and coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the curvature induction and sensing mechanisms of Pacsin1 on a membrane. From AA simulations, we show that Pacsin1 has internal structural flexibility. In CG simulations with parameters tuned from the AA simulations, spontaneous assembly of two Pacsin1 dimers through lateral interaction is observed. Based on the complex structure, we show that the regularly assembled Pacsin1 dimers bend a tensionless membrane. We also show that a single Pacsin1 dimer senses the membrane curvature, binding to a buckled membrane with a preferred curvature. These results provide molecular insights into polymorphic membrane remodelling.
Project description:Cordon Bleu (Cobl) is a WH2-containing protein believed to act as an actin nucleator. We show that it has a very specific localization in epithelial cells at the basal region of microvilli, a localization unlikely to be involved in actin nucleation. The protein is localized by a central region between the N-terminal COBL domain and the three C-terminal WH2 domains. Ectopic expression of Cobl shortens apical microvilli, and this requires functional WH2 domains. Proteomic studies reveal that the COBL domain binds several BAR-containing proteins, including SNX9, PACSIN 2/syndapin 2, and ASAP1. ASAP1 is recruited to the base of microvilli by binding the COBL domain through its SH3. We propose that Cobl is localized to the basal region of microvilli both to participate in length regulation and to recruit BAR proteins that associate with the curved membrane found at the microvillar base.
Project description:Syndapin I (PACSIN 1) is a synaptically enriched membrane tubulating protein that plays important roles in activity-dependent bulk endocytosis and neuronal morphogenesis. While syndapin I is an in vitro phosphoprotein, it is not known to be phosphorylated in neurons. Here, we report the identification of two phosphorylation sites, S76 and T181, of syndapin I from nerve terminals. Both residues are located at the N-terminal helix-capping motifs (N-Cap) of different α-helices in the F-BAR domain, important for F-BAR homodimer curvature and dimer-dimer filament assembly, respectively. Phospho-mimetic mutations of these residues regulate lipid-binding and tubulation both in vitro and in cells. Neither phosphosite regulated syndapin I function in activity-dependent bulk endocytosis. Rather, T181 phosphorylation was developmentally regulated and inhibited syndapin I function in neuronal morphogenesis. This suggests a novel mechanism for phosphorylation control of an F-BAR function through the regulation of α-helix interactions and stability within the folded F-BAR domain.
Project description:Synaptic vesicle recycling has been proposed to depend on proteins which coordinate membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, we examine the role of the dynamin- and N-WASP (neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein)-binding protein syndapin/PACSIN at the lamprey reticulospinal synapse. We find that presynaptic microinjection of syndapin antibodies inhibits vesicle recycling evoked by intense (5 Hz or more), but not by light (0.2 Hz) stimulation. This contrasts with the inhibition at light stimulation induced by perturbation of amphiphysin (Shupliakov et al., 1997). Inhibition by syndapin antibodies was associated with massive accumulation of membranous cisternae and invaginations around release sites, but not of coated pits at the plasma membrane. Cisternae contained vesicle membrane, as shown by vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2)/synaptobrevin 2 immunolabeling. Similar effects were observed when syndapin was perturbed before onset of massive endocytosis induced by preceding intense stimulation. Selective perturbation of the Src homology 3 domain interactions of syndapin was sufficient to induce vesicle depletion and accumulation of cisternae. Our data show an involvement of syndapin in synaptic vesicle recycling evoked by intense stimulation. We propose that syndapin is required to stabilize the plasma membrane and/or facilitate bulk endocytosis at high release rates.
Project description:Dynamin is a GTPase that mediates vesicle fission during synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Its long C-terminal proline-rich domain contains 13 PXXP motifs, which orchestrate its interactions with multiple proteins. The SH3 domains of syndapin and endophilin bind the PXXP motifs called Site 2 and 3 (Pro-786-Pro-793) at the N-terminal end of the proline-rich domain, whereas the amphiphysin SH3 binds Site 9 (Pro-833-Pro-836) toward the C-terminal end. In some proteins, SH3/peptide interactions also involve short distance elements, which are 5-15 amino acid extensions flanking the central PXXP motif for high affinity binding. Here we found two previously unrecognized elements in the central and the C-terminal end of the dynamin proline-rich domain that account for a significant increase in syndapin binding affinity compared with a previously reported Site 2 and Site 3 PXXP peptide alone. The first new element (Gly-807-Gly-811) is short distance element on the C-terminal side of Site 2 PXXP, which might contact a groove identified under the RT loop of the SH3 domain. The second element (Arg-838-Pro-844) is located about 50 amino acids downstream of Site 2. These two elements provide additional specificity to the syndapin SH3 domain outside of the well described polyproline-binding groove. Thus, the dynamin/syndapin interaction is mediated via a network of multiple contacts outside the core PXXP motif over a previously unrecognized extended region of the proline-rich domain. To our knowledge this is the first example among known SH3 interactions to involve spatially separated and extended long-range elements that combine to provide a higher affinity interaction.