Influence of ADAM10 Polymorphisms on Plasma Level of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and The Association With Alzheimer's Disease Risk.
ABSTRACT: To determine the role of A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) in genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a representative Chinese sample, we genotyped 362 AD patients and 370 healthy controls for the rs514049A/C and rs653765C/T polymorphisms in the ADAM10 promoter using the SNaPshot technique. We also examined the potential impact of these polymorphisms on the plasma level of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), a decoy receptor whose reduction has been associated with a higher risk of AD. Additionally, a meta-analysis was performed using the present study and the largest GWAS from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). No significant differences were found in the distributions of genotypes or alleles between AD patients and control subjects. However, age-at-onset stratification analysis revealed that there were significant differences in the genotypes (P = 0.015) and alleles (P = 0.006) of the rs653765 SNP. Furthermore, patients with the rs653765 CC genotype showed a lower ADAM10 level and a faster cognitive deterioration than those in patients with the CT/TT genotype in late-onset AD (LOAD), and the rs653765 CC polymorphism was able to regulate the production of the ADAM10 substrate sRAGE. In contrast, the rs514049 polymorphism was not statistically associated with AD. In the meta-analysis, we observed that both rs514049 (A allele vs. C allele, P = 0.002) and rs653765 (C allele vs. T allele, P = 0.004) were associated with AD risk. The present study indicated that the rs653765 polymorphism might be associated with the risk and development of LOAD; in particular, the risk genotype, CC, may decrease the expression of ADAM10, influencing the plasma levels of sRAGE, and thus may be correlated with the clinical progression of AD.
Project description:Although genetic variants of the A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) gene have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to several inflammatory-related diseases, to date little is known about the clinical relationship in the development of sepsis.Two genetic variants in the promoter of ADAM10 were selected to analyze the potential association with the risk of sepsis. A total of 440 sepsis patients and 450 matched healthy individuals in two independent Chinese Han population were enrolled. Pyrosequencing and polymerase chain reaction-length polymorphism was used to determine the genotypes of the rs514049 and rs653765. A real-time qPCR method was used to detect the mRNA level of ADAM10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the expression levels of substrates CX3CL1, interleukin (IL)-6R, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-6. Luciferase assay was used to analyze the activities of the promoter haplotypes of ADAM10.No statistically significant differences between sepsis cases and controls in the genotype or allele frequencies were observed, suggesting that ADAM10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may not be risk factors for the occurrence of sepsis. A significant difference in the genotype and allele frequencies of the rs653765 SNP between patients with sepsis subtype and severe sepsis (P?=?0.0014) or severe sepsis/sepsis shock (P?=?0.0037) were observed. Moreover, the rs653765 CC genotype in severe sepsis showed a higher ADAM10 level compared to healthy groups, and the rs653765 CC polymorphism had a strong impact on the production of the ADAM10 substrates CX3CL1, IL-6R and TNF-?. Furthermore, the functional assay showed that ADAM10 C-A haplotype carriers exhibited significantly higher reporter activity compared with the T-A carriers and T-C carriers in human acute monocytic leukemia cell line.Our data initially indicated the ADAM10 rs653765 polymorphism was associated with the development of severe sepsis; the risk CC genotype could functionally affect the expression level of ADAM10 mRNA and was accompanied by the up-regulation of its substrates. Thus, ADAM10 might be clinically important and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the development of sepsis, with potentially important therapeutic implications.
Project description:Dysregulation of the activity of the disintegrin/metalloproteinase ADAM10 could contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Although a number of genetic studies have focused on the association of ADAM10 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to diseases, no genetic association studies of ADAM10 gene variability with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) have been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential association between ADAM10 promoter polymorphisms and ACI.The associations between rs653765 and rs514049 polymorphisms of the ADAM10 promoter and the possible risk of ACI were assessed among 347 patients with ACI and 299 matched healthy individuals in a case-control study.Overall, there was a significant difference in the genotypes frequencies of rs653765 (P = 0.04) between the ACI and control subjects. In addition, the rs653765 mutated allele of ADAM10 was significantly associated with increased ADAM10 expression in patients with ACI (P = 0.032). In contrast, the allele frequency of rs514049 was not statistically associated with ACI, and the rs514049 variant A > C did not affect the expression of ADAM10 either.Our findings indicate a positive association between the rs653765 polymorphism of ADAM10 and ACI, as well as a negative result for rs514049. In addition, a significant increase in ADAM10 expression was observed in patients with ACI carrying the rs653765 C > T mutation. This new knowledge about ADAM10 might be clinically important and confirm a role for ADAM10 in the pathophysiology of ACI, with potentially important therapeutic implications.
Project description:Previous evidence has indicated that downregulated ADAM10 gives rise to epileptic seizures in Alzheimer's disease, and this study investigated the association of ADAM10 with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) from a genetic perspective. A total of 496 TLE patients and 528 healthy individuals were enrolled and genotyped for ADAM10 promoter variants (rs653765 G > A and rs514049 A > C). The alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes were then compared with clarify the association of these variants with TLE and their impacts upon age at onset, initial seizure types before treatments, and responses to drug treatments. In cohorts I, II, and I + II, the frequencies of the A allele and AA genotype at rs514049 were consistently increased in the cases compared with the controls (p = 0.020 and p = 0.009; p = 0.008 and p = 0.009; p = 0.000 and p = 0.000; q = 0.003 and q = 0.002, respectively). In contrast, the frequency of the AC haplotype (rs653765-rs514049) decreased in cohorts I + II (p = 0.013). Further analyses of the TLE patients indicated that the AA genotype functioned as a predisposing factor to drug-resistant TLE and the AC haplotype as a protective factor against generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) and drug-resistant TLE. This study is the first to demonstrate an association of the ADAM10 promoter variants with TLE. In particular, the AA genotype and AC haplotype showed their effects upon GTCS and drug-resistant TLE.
Project description:The aim of this exploratory investigation was to determine if genetic variation within amyloid precursor protein (APP) or its processing enzymes correlates with APP cleavage product levels: APPα, APPβ or Aβ42, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cognitively normal subjects or Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Cognitively normal control subjects (n = 170) and AD patients (n = 92) were genotyped for 19 putative regulatory tagging SNPs within 9 genes (APP, ADAM10, BACE1, BACE2, PSEN1, PSEN2, PEN2, NCSTN and APH1B) involved in the APP processing pathway. SNP genotypes were tested for their association with CSF APPα, APPβ, and Aβ42, AD risk and age-at-onset while taking into account age, gender, race and APOE ε4. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, a significant association was found between ADAM10 SNP rs514049 and APPα levels. In controls, the rs514049 CC genotype had higher APPα levels than the CA, AA collapsed genotype, whereas the opposite effect was seen in AD patients. These results suggest that genetic variation within ADAM10, an APP processing gene, influences CSF APPα levels in an AD specific manner.
Project description:A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family proteins are type-I transmembrane glycoproteins with multiple functions in cell adhesion, migration, proteolysis and signaling. ADAM10 is a member of the ADAM family reportedly involved in cancer progression and has been shown to be overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and significantly associated with tumor progression and shortened survival. This study investigated ADAM10's single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association to HCC development and regulation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze five SNPs of ADAM10 in 333 patients with HCC and 1196 controls without cancer. The results indicated that of the 333 patients with HCC, those who carried ADAM10 rs514049 (AC + CC) variants had a higher risk of developing lymph node metastasis (odds ratio [OR] = 5.087, p = 0.027), and those who carried ADAM10 rs653765 (GA + AA) variants had a higher risk of developing distant metastasis (OR = 3.346, p = 0.020) and higher levels of ?-fetoprotein. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the SNPs of ADAM10 are involved in HCC progression. ADAM10 SNPs may be used as therapeutic targets to evaluate poor prognoses for HCC.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease is confirmed at autopsy according to the accumulation of brain neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Neuritic plaques contain amyloid-? (A?) and lower levels of A? correspond to an increase in ADAM10 ?-secretase activity. ADAM10 ?-secretase activity produces a soluble amyloid precursor protein (APP) alpha (sAPP?) product and negates the pathological production of A?. In this investigation, it was hypothesized that genetic variation with the ADAM10 promoter is associated with ADAM10 expression levels as well as cerebrospinal fluid sAPP? levels. Results from this investigation suggest that the ADAM10 rs514049-rs653765 C-A promoter haplotype is associated with: (1) higher CSF sAPP? levels in cognitively normal controls compared with Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, (2) higher postmortem brain hippocampus, but not cerebellum, ADAM10 protein levels in subjects with low plaque scores compared with those with high plaque scores, and (3) higher promoter activity for promoter-only reporter constructs compared with promoter 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) constructs in the human neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cell line, but not in HepG2 or U118 cell lines. Taken together, these findings suggest that ADAM10 expression is modulated according to a promoter haplotype that is influenced in a brain region- and cell type-specific manner.
Project description:Increasing evidence has indicated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are related to the susceptibility of sepsis and might provide potential evidence for the mechanisms of sepsis. Our recent preliminary study showed that the ADAM10 genetic polymorphism was clinically associated with the development of sepsis, and little is known about the underlying mechanism. The aim of this study was to confirm the association between the ADAM10 promoter rs653765 G?A polymorphism and the progression of sepsis and to discover the underlying mechanism. Clinical data showed that the rs653765 G?A polymorphism was positively correlated with the development of sepsis, as evidenced by a multiple-center case-control association study with a large sample size, and showed that EGR1 and ADAM10 levels were associated well with the different subtypes of sepsis patients. In vitro results demonstrated that the rs653765 G?A variants could functionally modulate ADAM10 promoter activity by altering the binding of the EGR1 transcription factor (TF) to the ADAM10 promoter, affecting the transcription and translation of the ADAM10 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay indicated the direct interaction. Functional studies further identified that the EGR1/ADAM10 pathway is important for the inflammatory response. EGR1 intervention in vivo decreased host proinflammatory cytokine secretion and rescued the survival and tissue injury of the mouse endotoxemia model.IMPORTANCE Sepsis is characterized as life-threatening organ dysfunction, with unacceptably high mortality. Evidence has indicated that functional SNPs within inflammatory genes are associated with susceptibility, progression, and prognosis of sepsis. These mechanisms on which these susceptible sites depended often suggest the key pathogenesis and potential targets in sepsis. In the present study, we confirmed that a functional variant acts as an important genetic factor that confers the progression of sepsis in a large sample size and in multiple centers and revealed that the variants modulate the EGR1/ADAM10 pathway and influence the severity of sepsis. We believe that we provide an important insight into this new pathway involving the regulation of inflammatory process of sepsis based on the clinical genetic evidence, which will enhance the understanding of nosogenesis of sepsis and provide the potential target for inflammation-related diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a Chinese Han population. MATERIAL AND METHODS A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay was used to genotype 139 patients with AD and 152 healthy control individuals. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was analyzed using the chi-squared (?²) test, and genotype and allele frequencies were compared between the two population groups, using the ?² test. The odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to express the degree of risk of AD resulting from polymorphisms in the EGFR gene. Linkage disequilibrium among EGFR polymorphisms was analyzed using the Haploview bioinformatics software. RESULTS The CC genotype and C allele frequencies of rs730437 were significantly lower in patients with AD compared with the controls (P=0.037), indicating that rs730437 was associated with a reduced risk of AD (CC vs. AA: OR=0.446, 95% CI=0.207-0.960) (C vs. A: OR=0.702, 95% CI=0.502-0.980). The presence of the TT genotype of rs1468727 significantly reduced the risk of AD (P=0.003; OR=0.333, 95% CI=0.160-0.691), and T allele carriers of rs1468727 had a 0.605-fold increased risk of AD. Haplotype A-C-C was significantly correlated with an increased risk of AD (OR=1.922, 95% CI=1.130-3.269). CONCLUSIONS In a Han Chinese population, EGFR gene polymorphisms, rs730437 and rs1468727 and haplotype A-C-C were shown to be possible protective factors for the development of AD.
Project description:Polymorphism in the genomic region harboring the CLU gene (rs11136000) has been associated with the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). CLU C allele is assumed to confer risk for AD and the allele T may have a protective effect. We investigated the influence of the AD-associated CLU genotype on a common neurophysiological trait of brain activity (resting-state alpha-rhythm activity) in non-demented adults and elucidated whether this influence is modified over the course of aging. We examined quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) in a cohort of non-demented individuals (age range 20-80) divided into young (age range 20-50) and old (age range 51-80) cohorts and stratified by CLU polymorphism. To rule out the effect of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype on EEG characteristics, only subjects without the ApoE ?4 allele were included in the study. The homozygous presence of the AD risk variant CLU CC in non-demented subjects was associated with an increase of alpha3 absolute power. Moreover, the influence of CLU genotype on alpha3 was found to be higher in the subjects older than 50 years of age. The study also showed age-dependent alterations of alpha topographic distribution that occur independently of the CLU genotype. The increase of upper alpha power has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (Moretti etal., 2012a). In our study, the CLU CC-dependent increase in upper alpha rhythm, particularly enhanced in elderly non-demented individuals, may imply that the genotype is related to preclinical dysregulation of hippocampal neurophysiology in aging and that this factor may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.
Project description:AIMS:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactor disease that has been reported to have a close association with type 2 diabetes (T2D) where the v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1) plays an important role in the protein synthesis pathways and cell apoptosis processes. Evidence has been shown that AKT1 protein may be related to AD risk among patients with T2D. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of AKT1 promoter and the risk of AD among patients with T2D. METHODS:The association between AKT1 polymorphisms and AD risk in patients with T2D was assessed among 574 consecutive unrelated subjects including 112 AD patients with T2D, 231 patients with AD, and 231 healthy controls in a case-control study. The cognitive function of all subjects was assessed using MMSE. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms with minor allele frequency >0.2 (rs2498786, rs74090038, rs2494750, rs2494751, rs5811155, and rs2494752) in AKT1 promoter were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the concentration of AKT1 protein in serum was tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS:Overall, there was statistically significant difference in AKT1 rs2498786 polymorphism. The CC frequency of AKT1 rs2498786 polymorphism in AD with T2D group and AD control group was significantly higher than that in healthy control group (PAD+T2D vs. health < 0.0001, PAD vs. health < 0.0001). However, the difference was not found between AD with T2D group and AD control group. Compared with healthy control group, the plasma levels of AKT1 protein in AD with T2D group (PAD+T2D vs. health < 0.0001) and AD control group (PAD vs. health = 0.0003) decreased significantly. Among genotypes of AKT1 rs2498786 polymorphism, the AKT1 protein level in GG genotype was significantly higher than that in GC genotype (PGG vs. GC < 0.0001) and CC genotype (PGG vs. CC < 0.0001). CONCLUSION:The study suggests that AKT1 rs2498786 polymorphism in insulin signaling pathway may be associated with AD risk and different genotypes may affects levels of protein expression. However, the polymorphism is not shown to be exclusive in AD patients with T2D.