A Gold Carbene Manifold to Prepare Fused ?-Lactams by Oxidative Cyclisation of Ynamides.
ABSTRACT: Gold-catalysed oxidative cyclisation reactions of ynamides offer great promise in ?-lactam synthesis but are limited by preferential over-oxidation to form ?-keto imides. Evaluating the factors that might limit N-cyclisation pathways led to effective gold-catalysed conditions that allow access to different fused ?-lactams on changing the ynamide N-substituent and accommodate previously incompatible substitution patterns. New and efficient methods for the synthesis of functionalised 3-aryl indoles and cyclohepta[c]pyrrol-1-one derivatives are presented. These conditions illustrate the complementarity of gold catalysis to other metals.
Project description:A de novo preparation of alpha-keto-imides via ynamide oxidation is described. With a number of alkyne oxidation conditions screened, a highly efficient RuO2-NaIO4 mediated oxidation and a DMDO oxidation have been identified to tolerate a wide range of ynamide types. In addition to accessing a wide variety of alpha-keto-imides, the RuO2-NaIO4 protocol provides a novel entry to the vicinal tricarbonyl motif via oxidation of push-pull ynamides, and imido acylsilanes from silyl-substituted ynamides. Chemoselective oxidation of ynamides containing olefins can be achieved by using DMDO, while the RuO2-NaIO4 protocol is not effective. These studies provide further support for the synthetic utility of ynamides.
Project description:Gold carbene reactivity patterns were accessed by ynamide insertion into a C(sp(3) )?H bond. A substantial increase in molecular complexity occurred through the cascade polycyclization of N-allyl ynamides to form fused nitrogen-heterocycle scaffolds. Exquisite selectivity was observed despite several competing pathways in an efficient gold-catalyzed synthesis of densely functionalized C(sp(3) )-rich polycycles and a copper-catalyzed synthesis of fused pyridine derivatives. The respective gold-keteniminium and ketenimine activation pathways have been explored through a structure-reactivity study, and isotopic labeling identified turnover-limiting C?H bond-cleavage in both processes.
Project description:We describe here details of our investigations into Pd-catalyzed and thermal aza-Claisen-carbocyclizations of N-allyl ynamides to prepare a variety of ?,?-unsaturated cyclopentenimines. The nature of the ynamide electron-withdrawing group and ?-substituent plays critical roles in the success of this tandem cascade. With N-sulfonyl ynamides, the use of palladium catalysis is required, as facile 1,3-sulfonyl shifts dominate under thermal conditions. However, since no analogous 1,3-phosphoryl shift is operational, N-phosphoryl ynamides could be used to prepare similar cyclopentenimines under thermal conditions through zwitter ionic intermediates that undergo N-promoted H-shifts. Alternatively, by employing ynamides bearing tethered carbon nucleophiles, the zwitter ionic intermediates could be intercepted, giving rise rapidly to more complex fused bi- and tricyclic scaffolds.
Project description:Unique ?-hemiaminal ether gold carbene intermediates were accessed by a gold-catalysed 1,1-carboalkoxylation strategy and evolved through a highly selective 1,2-N-migration. This skeletal rearrangement gave functionalised indenes, and isotopic labelling confirmed the rare C-N bond cleavage of the ynamide moiety. The effect of substituents on the migration has been explored, and a model is proposed to rationalise the observed selectivity.
Project description:The study of Pd-catalysed cyclisation reactions of alkenols using different catalytic systems is reported. These transformations affect the stereoselective construction of mono- and/or bicyclic oxaheterocyclic derivatives depending on a starting alkenol. The substrate scope and proposed mechanism of Pd-catalysed cyclisation reactions are also discussed. Moreover, the diastereoselective Pd-catalysed cyclisation of appropriate alkenols to tetrahydrofurans and subsequent cyclisation provided properly substituted 2,5-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and 2,6-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, respectively. Such bicyclic ring subunits are found in many natural products including ocellenynes and aurovertines.
Project description:2-Ynamides can be synthesised through PdII catalysed oxidative carbonylation, utilising low catalyst loadings. A variety of alkynes and amines can be used to afford 2-ynamides in high yields, whilst overcoming the drawbacks associated with previous oxidative methods, which rely on dangerous solvents and gas mixtures. The use of [NBu4 ]I allows the utilisation of the industrially recommended solvent ethyl acetate. O2 can be used as the terminal oxidant, and the catalyst can operate under safer conditions with low O2 concentrations.
Project description:New gold-catalyzed [4+3]-annulations of 3-en-1-ynamides with isoxazoles afford 4H-azepines efficiently; this process involves 6? electrocyclizations of gold-stabilized 3-azaheptatrienyl cations. In the presence of Zn(OTf)2, the resulting 4H-azepines undergo skeletal rearrangement to furnish substituted pyridine derivatives. We subsequently develop new catalytic [4+2]-annulations between the same 3-en-1-ynamides and isoxazoles to deliver substituted pyridine products using Au(i)/Zn(ii) catalysts. This work reports the first success of the 6? electrocyclizations of heptatrienyl cations that are unprecedented in literature reports.
Project description:The Ficini [2 + 2] cycloaddition using N-sulfonyl-substituted ynamides is described, featuring the utility of CuCl(2) and AgSbF(6) as catalysts. This work represents the first successful example of ynamides participating in a thermal [2 + 2] cycloaddition with enones.
Project description:Skeletal reorganization is a type of intriguing processes because of their interesting mechanism, high atom-economy and synthetic versatility. Herein, we describe an unusual, divergent skeletal reorganization of N-sulfonyl ynamides. Upon treatment with lithium diisopropylamine (LDA), N-sulfonyl ynamides undergo a skeletal reorganization to deliver thiete sulfones, while the additional use of 1,3-dimethyl-tetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one (DMPU) shifts the process to furnish propargyl sulfonamides. This skeletal reorganization divergence features broad substrate scope and scalability. Mechanistically, experimental and computational studies reveal that these processes may initiate from a lithiation/4-exo-dig cyclization cascade, and the following ligand-dependent 1,3-sulfonyl migration or ?-elimination would control the chemodivergence. This protocol additionally provides a facile access to a variety of privileged molecules from easily accessible ynamides.
Project description:The generation of gold carbenes via the gold-catalyzed intermolecular reaction of nucleophiles containing relatively labile N-O or N-N bonds with alkynes has received considerable attention during recent years. However, this protocol is not atom-economic as the reaction produces a stoichiometric amount of pyridine or quinoline waste, the cleaved part of the N-O or N-N bonds. In this article, we disclose an unprecedented gold-catalyzed formal [3+2] cycloaddition between ynamides and isoxazoles, allowing rapid and practical access to a wide range of synthetically-useful 2-aminopyrroles. Most importantly, mechanistic studies and theoretical calculations revealed that this reaction presumably proceeds via an ?-imino gold carbene pathway, thus providing a strategically novel, atom-economic route to the generation of gold carbenes. Other significant features of this approach include the use of readily-available starting materials, high flexibility, simple procedure, mild reaction conditions, and in particular, no need to exclude moisture or air ("open flask").