Fingolimod enhances the efficacy of delayed alteplase administration in acute ischemic stroke by promoting anterograde reperfusion and retrograde collateral flow.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of coadministration of fingolimod with alteplase in acute ischemic stroke patients in a delayed time window. METHODS:This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint clinical trial, enrolling patients with internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery proximal occlusion within 4.5 to 6 hours from symptom onset. Patients were randomly assigned to receive alteplase alone or alteplase with fingolimod. All patients underwent pretreatment and 24-hour noncontrast computed tomography (CT)/perfusion CT/CT angiography. The coprimary endpoints were the decrease of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores over 24 hours and the favorable shift of modified Rankin Scale score (mRS) distribution at day 90. Exploratory outcomes included vessel recanalization, anterograde reperfusion, and retrograde reperfusion of collateral flow. RESULTS:Each treatment group included 23 patients. Compared with alteplase alone, patients receiving fingolimod plus alteplase exhibited better early clinical improvement at 24 hours and a favorable shift of mRS distribution at day 90. In addition, patients who received fingolimod and alteplase exhibited a greater reduction in the perfusion lesion accompanied by suppressed infarct growth by 24 hours. Fingolimod in conjunction with alteplase significantly improved anterograde reperfusion of downstream territory and prevented the failure of retrograde reperfusion from collateral circulation. INTERPRETATION:Fingolimod may enhance the efficacy of alteplase administration in the 4.5- to 6-hour time window in patients with a proximal cerebral arterial occlusion and salvageable penumbral tissue by promoting both anterograde reperfusion and retrograde collateral flow. These findings are instructive for the design of future trials of recanalization therapies in extended time windows. Ann Neurol 2018;84:725-736.
Project description:Inflammatory and immune responses triggered by brain ischemia worsen clinical outcomes of stroke and contribute to hemorrhagic transformation, massive edema, and reperfusion injury associated with intravenous alteplase. We assessed whether a combination of the immune-modulator fingolimod and alteplase is safe and effective in attenuating reperfusion injury in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated within the first 4.5 hours of symptom onset.In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 25 eligible patients with hemispheric ischemic stroke stemming from anterior or middle cerebral arterial occlusion to receive alteplase alone and 22 patients to receive alteplase plus oral fingolimod 0.5 mg daily for 3 consecutive days within 4.5 hours of the onset of ischemic stroke. Compared with patients who received alteplase alone, patients who received the combination of fingolimod with alteplase exhibited lower circulating lymphocytes, smaller lesion volumes (10.1 versus 34.3 mL; P=0.04), less hemorrhage (1.2 versus 4.4 mL; P=0.01), and attenuated neurological deficits in National Institute of Health Stroke Scales (4 versus 2; P=0.02) at day 1. Furthermore, restrained lesion growth from day 1 to 7 (-2.3 versus 12.1 mL; P<0.01) with a better recovery at day 90 (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1, 73% versus 32%; P<0.01) was evident in patients given fingolimod and alteplase. No serious adverse events were recorded in all patients.In this pilot study, combination therapy of fingolimod and alteplase was well tolerated, attenuated reperfusion injury, and improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. These findings need to be tested in further clinical trials.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02002390.
Project description:Acute reperfusion despite persistent arterial occlusion may occur in up to 30% of ischemic stroke patients. Recruitment of leptomeningeal collaterals may explain this phenomenon. Using dynamic susceptibility-contrast perfusion imaging (DSC-PI), we assessed acute changes in collateral flow among patients without recanalization. From a multicenter prospective database (I-KNOW), 46 patients with magnetic resonance angiography visible occlusion in whom both reperfusion and recanalization were assessed within 6?h of onset were identified. Maps of collateral flow at arterial, capillary and late venous phases were generated from DSC-PI through inter-frame registration, baseline signal subtraction and temporal summation, and graded blind to all other relevant clinical and radiological data using the Higashida scale. Flow direction and the acute evolution of collaterals were evaluated against the reperfusion status. Among patients without recanalization ( n?=?33), flow direction remained retrograde. Collateral grades significantly improved between admission and acute follow-up in patients who reperfused (OR: 4.57; 95% CI: 1.1-22.7; p?=?0.048), but not in those without reperfusion (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.4-4.5; p?=?0.623). Our study confirmed that acute reperfusion without recanalization is associated with a significant improvement of retrograde collateral flow. DSC-PI can detect acute changes in collateral flow, and may help evaluate novel treatments targeting leptomeningeal collaterals.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization.<h4>Methods</h4>We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine hours after symptom onset, who had an intracranial arterial occlusion on admission CT angiography, in 13 participating centres. We calculated the relation per every 0.1°Celsius increase in admission body temperature and recanalization at three days.<h4>Results</h4>Recanalization occurred in 80% of occluded arteries. There was no relation between body temperature and recanalization at three days after adjustments for age, NIHSS score on admission and treatment with alteplase (adjusted odds ratio per 0.1°Celsius, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.05; p = 0.70). Results for patients treated or not treated with alteplase were essentially the same.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings suggest that in patients with acute ischaemic stroke there is no relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery three days later, irrespective of treatment with alteplase.
Project description:Recanalization of an occluded vessel with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is an effective strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is administered as alteplase, a formulation containing many excipients including L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide production. Most studies fail to compare the effects of alteplase on brain injury to its L-arginine carrier solution. This study aimed to verify the previously reported detrimental effects of alteplase after cerebral ischemia and delineate the contribution of L-arginine. Male Wistar rats, subjected to 90?minutes of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), were administered alteplase, the carrier solution or saline upon reperfusion. Neither alteplase nor the carrier affected cerebral blood flow (CBF) restoration throughout the first 60?minutes of reperfusion. Alteplase treatment was associated with increased mortality after MCAO. Twenty-four hours after MCAO, neurologic function and infarct volume did not differ between rats treated with alteplase, the carrier solution, or saline. Irrespective of treatment group, infarct volume was correlated with CBF during reperfusion, neuroscore, and peri-infarct depolarizations. These results suggest that alteplase treatment, independent of thrombolysis, does not cause increased ischemic injury compared with its appropriate carrier solution, supporting the continued use of alteplase in eligible ischemic stroke patients.
Project description:Background: Collateral circulation in ischemic stroke patients plays an important role in infarct evolution und assessing patients' eligibility for endovascular treatment. By means of dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI, we aimed to investigate the effects of reperfusion, recanalization, and collateral flow on clinical and imaging outcomes after stroke. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 184 patients enrolled into the prospective observational 1000Plus study (clinicaltrials.org NCT00715533). Inclusion criteria were vessel occlusion on baseline MR-angiography, imaging within 24 h after stroke onset and follow-up perfusion imaging. Baseline Higashida score using subtracted dynamic MR perfusion source images was used to quantify collateral flow. The influence of these variables, and their interaction with vessel recanalization, on clinical and imaging outcomes was assessed using robust linear regression. Results: Ninety-eight patients (53.3%) showed vessel recanalization. Higashida score (p = 0.002), and recanalization (p = 0.0004) were independently associated with reperfusion. However, we found no evidence that the association between Higashida score and reperfusion relied on recanalization status (p = 0.2). NIHSS on admission (p < 0.0001) and recanalization (p = 0.001) were independently associated with long-term outcome at 3 months, however, Higashida score (p = 0.228) was not. Conclusion: Higashida score and recanalization were independently associated with reperfusion, but the association between recanalization and reperfusion was similar regardless of collateral flow quality. Recanalization was associated with long-term outcome. DSC-based measures of collateral flow were not associated with long-term outcome, possibly due to the complex dynamic nature of collateral recruitment, timing of imaging and the employed post-processing.
Project description:Endovascular strategies provide unique opportunity to correlate angiographic measures of collateral circulation at the time of endovascular therapy. We conducted systematic analyses of collaterals at conventional angiography on recanalization, reperfusion, and clinical outcomes in the endovascular treatment arm of the Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III trial.Prospective evaluation of angiographic collaterals was conducted via central review of subjects treated with endovascular therapy in IMS III (n=331). Collateral grade before endovascular therapy was assessed with the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology scale, blinded to all other data. Statistical analyses investigated the association between collaterals with baseline clinical variables, angiographic measures of recanalization, reperfusion and clinical outcomes.Adequate views of collateral circulation to the ischemic territory were available in 276 of 331 (83%) subjects. Collateral grade was strongly related to both recanalization of the occluded arterial segment (P=0.0016) and downstream reperfusion (P<0.0001). Multivariable analyses confirmed that robust angiographic collateral grade was a significant predictor of good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score?2) at 90 days (P=0.0353), adjusted for age, history of diabetes mellitus, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale strata, and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score. The relationship between collateral flow and clinical outcome may depend on the degree of reperfusion.More robust collateral grade was associated with better recanalization, reperfusion, and subsequent better clinical outcomes. These data, from the largest endovascular trial to date, suggest that collaterals are an important consideration in future trial design.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00359424.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Leptomeningeal collaterals, which affects tissue fate, are still challenging to assess. Four-dimensional CT angiography (4D CTA) originated from CT perfusion (CTP) provides the possibility of non-invasive and time-resolved assessment of leptomeningeal collateral flow. We sought to develop a comprehensive rating system to integrate the speed and extent of collateral flow on 4D CTA, and investigate its prognostic value for reperfusion therapy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively studied 80 patients with M1 ± internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion who had baseline CTP before intravenous thrombolysis. The velocity and extent of collaterals were evaluated by regional leptomeningeal collateral score on peak phase (rLMC-P) and temporally fused intensity projections (tMIP) (rLMC-M) on 4D CTA, respectively. The cutoffs of rLMC-P and rLMC-M score for predicting good outcome (mRS score ? 2) were integrated to develop the collateral grading scale (CGS) (rating from 0-2).<h4>Results</h4>The CGS score was correlated with 3-months mRS score (non-recanalizers: ? = -0.495, p = 0.01; recanalizers: ? = -0.671, p < 0.001). Patients with intermediate or good collaterals (CGS score of 1 and 2) who recanalized were more likely to have good outcome than those without recanalization (p = 0.038, p = 0.018), while there was no significant difference in outcome in patients with poor collaterals (CGS score of 0) stratified by recanalization (p = 0.227).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Identification of collaterals based on CGS may help to select good responders to reperfusion therapy in patients with large artery occlusion.
Project description:Background Cerebral edema is frequent in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who undergo reperfusion therapy and is associated with high mortality. The impact of collateral pial circulation (CPC) status on the development of edema has not yet been determined. Methods We studied consecutive patients with AIS and documented M1-middle cerebral artery (MCA) and/or distal internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion who underwent reperfusion treatment. Edema was graded on the 24-hour non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) scan. CPC was evaluated at the acute phase (?6 hours) by transcranial color-coded Doppler, angiography and/or CT angiography. We performed an ordinal regression model for the effect of CPC on cerebral edema, adjusting for age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) on admission, NCCT, parenchymal hemorrhagic transformation at 24 hours and complete recanalization at six hours. Results Among the 108 patients included, 49.1% were male and mean age was 74.2?±?11.6 years. Multivariable analysis showed a significant association between cerebral edema and CPC status (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.59, p?=?0.003), initial ASPECTS (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.92, p?=?0.007) and parenchymal hemorrhagic transformation (OR 23.67, 95% CI 4.56-122.8, p?<?0.001). Conclusions Poor CPC is independently associated with greater cerebral edema 24 hours after AIS in patients who undergo reperfusion treatment.
Project description:Importance:Recanalization of intracranial thrombus is associated with improved clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The association of intravenous alteplase treatment and thrombus characteristics with recanalization over time is important for stroke triage and future trial design. Objective:To examine recanalization over time across a range of intracranial thrombus occlusion sites and clinical and imaging characteristics in patients with ischemic stroke treated with intravenous alteplase or not treated with alteplase. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter prospective cohort study of 575 patients from 12 centers (in Canada, Spain, South Korea, the Czech Republic, and Turkey) with acute ischemic stroke and intracranial arterial occlusion demonstrated on computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Exposures:Demographics, clinical characteristics, time from alteplase to recanalization, and intracranial thrombus characteristics (location and permeability) defined on CTA. Main Outcomes and Measures:Recanalization on repeat CTA or on first angiographic acquisition of affected intracranial circulation obtained within 6 hours of baseline CTA, defined using the revised arterial occlusion scale (rAOL) (scores from 0 [primary occlusive lesion remains the same] to 3 [complete revascularization of primary occlusion]). Results:Among 575 patients (median age, 72 years [IQR, 63-80]; 51.5% men; median time from patient last known well to baseline CTA of 114 minutes [IQR, 74-180]), 275 patients (47.8%) received intravenous alteplase only, 195 (33.9%) received intravenous alteplase plus endovascular thrombectomy, 48 (8.3%) received endovascular thrombectomy alone, and 57 (9.9%) received conservative treatment. Median time from baseline CTA to recanalization assessment was 158 minutes (IQR, 79-268); median time from intravenous alteplase start to recanalization assessment was 132.5 minutes (IQR, 62-238). Successful recanalization occurred at an unadjusted rate of 27.3% (157/575) overall, including in 30.4% (143/470) of patients who received intravenous alteplase and 13.3% (14/105) who did not (difference, 17.1% [95% CI, 10.2%-25.8%]). Among patients receiving alteplase, the following factors were associated with recanalization: time from treatment start to recanalization assessment (OR, 1.28 for every 30-minute increase in time [95% CI, 1.18-1.38]), more distal thrombus location, eg, distal M1 middle cerebral artery (39/84 [46.4%]) vs internal carotid artery (10/92 [10.9%]) (OR, 5.61 [95% CI, 2.38-13.26]), and higher residual flow (thrombus permeability) grade, eg, hairline streak (30/45 [66.7%]) vs none (91/377 [24.1%]) (OR, 7.03 [95% CI, 3.32-14.87]). Conclusions and Relevance:In patients with acute ischemic stroke, more distal thrombus location, greater thrombus permeability, and longer time to recanalization assessment were associated with recanalization of arterial occlusion after administration of intravenous alteplase; among patients who did not receive alteplase, rates of arterial recanalization were low. These findings may help inform treatment and triage decisions in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pretreatment quality of collaterals, involving velocity and extent of collateral filling, on recanalization after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). A retrospective analysis was performed of 66 patients with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) M1 segment occlusion who underwent MR perfusion (MRP) imaging before IVT. The velocity of collateral filling was defined as arrival time delay (ATD) of contrast bolus to Sylvian fissure between the normal and the affected hemisphere. The extent of collateral filling was assessed according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score on temporally fused maximum intensity projections (tMIP). Arterial occlusive lesion (AOL) score was used to assess the degree of arterial recanalization. ATD (OR = 0.775, 95% CI = 0.626-0.960, p = 0.020), but not tMIP-ASPECT score (OR = 1.073, 95% CI = 0.820-1.405, p = 0.607), was independently associated with recanalization (AOL score of 2 and 3) at 24 hours after IVT. When recanalization was achieved, hemorrhagic transformation (HT) occurred more frequently in patients with slow collaterals (ATD ≥ 2.3 seconds) than those with rapid collaterals (ATD < 2.3 seconds) (88.9% vs 38.1%, p = 0.011). In conclusion, the velocity of collaterals related to recanalization, which may guide the decision-making of revascularization therapy in acute ischemic stroke.