Effects of Acetylation and Phosphorylation on Subunit Interactions in Three Large Eukaryotic Complexes.
ABSTRACT: Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have an indispensable role in living cells as they expand chemical diversity of the proteome, providing a fine regulatory layer that can govern protein-protein interactions in changing environmental conditions. Here we investigated the effects of acetylation and phosphorylation on the stability of subunit interactions in purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae complexes, namely exosome, RNA polymerase II and proteasome. We propose a computational framework that consists of conformational sampling of the complexes by molecular dynamics simulations, followed by Gibbs energy calculation by MM/GBSA. After benchmarking against published tools such as FoldX and Mechismo, we could apply the framework for the first time on large protein assemblies with the aim of predicting the effects of PTMs located on interfaces of subunits on binding stability. We discovered that acetylation predominantly contributes to subunits' interactions in a locally stabilizing manner, while phosphorylation shows the opposite effect. Even though the local binding contributions of PTMs may be predictable to an extent, the long range effects and overall impact on subunits' binding were only captured because of our dynamical approach. Employing the developed, widely applicable workflow on other large systems will shed more light on the roles of PTMs in protein complex formation.
Project description:To provide essential information for peptide inhibitor design, the interactions of Eps15 homology domain of Eps15 homology domain-containing protein 1 (EHD1 EH domain) with three peptides containing NPF (asparagine-proline-phenylalanine), DPF (aspartic acid-proline-phenylalanine), and GPF (glycine-proline-phenylalanine) motifs were deciphered at the atomic level. The binding affinities and the underlying structure basis were investigated.Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on EHD1 EH domain/peptide complexes for 60 ns using the GROMACS package. The binding free energies were calculated and decomposed by molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) method using the AMBER package. The alanine scanning was performed to evaluate the binding hot spot residues using FoldX software.The different binding affinities for the three peptides were affected dominantly by van der Waals interactions. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds provide the structural basis of contributions of van der Waals interactions of the flanking residues to the binding.van der Waals interactions should be the main consideration when we design peptide inhibitors of EHD1 EH domain with high affinities. The ability to form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with protein residues can be used as the factor for choosing the flanking residues.
Project description:Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are central to the development and survival of all eukaryotic organisms. These mechanisms critically depend on the marking of chromatin domains with distinctive histone tail modifications (PTMs) and their recognition by effector protein complexes. Here we used quantitative proteomic approaches to unveil interactions between PTMs and associated reader protein complexes of Plasmodium falciparum, a unicellular parasite causing malaria. Histone peptide pull-downs with the most prominent and/or parasite-specific PTMs revealed the binding preference for 14 putative and novel reader proteins. Amongst others, they highlighted the acetylation-level-dependent recruitment of the BDP1/BDP2 complex and identified an PhD-finger protein (PHD 1, PF3D7_1008100) that could mediate a cross-talk between H3K4me2/3 and H3K9ac marks. Tagging and interaction proteomics of 12 identified proteins unveiled the composition of 5 major epigenetic complexes, including the elusive TBP-associated-factor complex as well as two distinct GCN5/ADA2 complexes. Furthermore, it has highlighted a remarkable degree of interaction between these five (sub)complexes. Collectively, this study provides an extensive inventory of PTM-reader interactions and composition of epigenetic complexes. It will not only fuel further explorations of gene regulation amongst ancient eukaryotes, but also provides a stepping stone for exploration of PTM-reader interactions for antimalarial drug development.
Project description:Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) alter chromatin structure by promoting the interaction of chromatin-modifying complexes with nucleosomes. The majority of chromatin-modifying complexes contain multiple domains that preferentially interact with modified histones, leading to speculation that these domains function in concert to target nucleosomes with distinct combinations of histone PTMs. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex contains three domains, the PHD finger in Yng1, the PWWP domain in Pdp3, and the YEATS domain in Taf14; which in vitro bind to H3K4 methylation, H3K36 methylation, and acetylated and crotonylated H3K9, respectively. While the in vitro binding has been well characterized, the relative in vivo contributions of these histone PTMs in targeting NuA3 is unknown. Here, through genome-wide colocalization and by mutational interrogation, we demonstrate that the PHD finger of Yng1, and the PWWP domain of Pdp3 independently target NuA3 to H3K4 and H3K36 methylated chromatin, respectively. In contrast, we find no evidence to support the YEATS domain of Taf14 functioning in NuA3 recruitment. Collectively our results suggest that the presence of multiple histone PTM binding domains within NuA3, rather than restricting it to nucleosomes containing distinct combinations of histone PTMs, can serve to increase the range of nucleosomes bound by the complex. Interestingly, however, the simple presence of NuA3 is insufficient to ensure acetylation of the associated nucleosomes, suggesting a secondary level of acetylation regulation that does not involve control of HAT-nucleosome interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Controlled modulation of nucleosomal DNA accessibility via post-translational modifications (PTM) is a critical component to many cellular functions. Charge-altering PTMs in the globular histone core-including acetylation, phosphorylation, crotonylation, propionylation, butyrylation, formylation, and citrullination-can alter the strong electrostatic interactions between the oppositely charged nucleosomal DNA and the histone proteins and thus modulate accessibility of the nucleosomal DNA, affecting processes that depend on access to the genetic information, such as transcription. However, direct experimental investigation of the effects of these PTMs is very difficult. Theoretical models can rationalize existing observations, suggest working hypotheses for future experiments, and provide a unifying framework for connecting PTMs with the observed effects. RESULTS:A physics-based framework is proposed that predicts the effect of charge-altering PTMs in the histone core, quantitatively for several types of lysine charge-neutralizing PTMs including acetylation, and qualitatively for all phosphorylations, on the nucleosome stability and subsequent changes in DNA accessibility, making a connection to resulting biological phenotypes. The framework takes into account multiple partially assembled states of the nucleosome at the atomic resolution. The framework is validated against experimentally known nucleosome stability changes due to the acetylation of specific lysines, and their effect on transcription. The predicted effect of charge-altering PTMs on DNA accessibility can vary dramatically, from virtually none to a strong, region-dependent increase in accessibility of the nucleosomal DNA; in some cases, e.g., H4K44, H2AK75, and H2BK57, the effect is significantly stronger than that of the extensively studied acetylation sites such H3K56, H3K115 or H3K122. Proximity to the DNA is suggestive of the strength of the PTM effect, but there are many exceptions. For the vast majority of charge-altering PTMs, the predicted increase in the DNA accessibility should be large enough to result in a measurable modulation of transcription. However, a few possible PTMs, such as acetylation of H4K77, counterintuitively decrease the DNA accessibility, suggestive of the repressed chromatin. A structural explanation for the phenomenon is provided. For the majority of charge-altering PTMs, the effect on DNA accessibility is simply additive (noncooperative), but there are exceptions, e.g., simultaneous acetylation of H4K79 and H3K122, where the combined effect is amplified. The amplification is a direct consequence of the nucleosome-DNA complex having more than two structural states. The effect of individual PTMs is classified based on changes in the accessibility of various regions throughout the nucleosomal DNA. The PTM's resulting imprint on the DNA accessibility, "PTMprint," is used to predict effects of many yet unexplored PTMs. For example, acetylation of H4K44 yields a PTMprint similar to the PTMprint of H3K56, and thus acetylation of H4K44 is predicted to lead to a wide range of strong biological effects. CONCLUSION:Charge-altering post-translational modifications in the relatively unexplored globular histone core may provide a precision mechanism for controlling accessibility to the nucleosomal DNA.
Project description:Post translational modifications (PTMs, e.g., phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation) of histone play important roles in regulating many fundamental cellular processes such as gene transcription, DNA replication and damage repair. While 'writer' and 'eraser' enzymes modify histones by catalyzing the addition and removal of histone PTMs, 'reader' proteins recognize these modified histones and 'translate' the PTMs by executing distinct cellular programs. Therefore, identification of the regulating enzymes and binding partners of histone PTMs is essential for understanding their regulatory mechanisms and cellular functions. Here we report the development of diazirine-based photoaffinity probes for identification of 'readers' and 'erasers' of histone PTMs. When compared with previously described benzophenone-based photoaffinity probes, the present probes demonstrate significantly improved photo-cross-linking rates, yields and specificities for capturing proteins that recognize a trimethylation mark on histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4Me3). Furthermore, we show that the diazirine-based probes can also be used to identify enzymes that catalyse the removal of histone lysine acetylation and malonylation. This study provides new chemical tools for examining PTM-mediated protein-protein interactions and broadens the scope of our photo-cross-linking strategy from finding histone PTM 'readers' to identifying dynamic and transient interactions between PTMs and their 'erasers'.
Project description:The ??-tubulin subunits of microtubules can undergo a variety of evolutionarily-conserved post-translational modifications (PTMs) that provide functional specialization to subsets of cellular microtubules. Acetylation of ?-tubulin residue Lysine-40 (K40) has been correlated with increased microtubule stability, intracellular transport, and ciliary assembly, yet a mechanistic understanding of how acetylation influences these events is lacking. Using the anti-acetylated tubulin antibody 6-11B-1 and electron cryo-microscopy, we demonstrate that the K40 acetylation site is located inside the microtubule lumen and thus cannot directly influence events on the microtubule surface, including kinesin-1 binding. Surprisingly, the monoclonal 6-11B-1 antibody recognizes both acetylated and deacetylated microtubules. These results suggest that acetylation induces structural changes in the K40-containing loop that could have important functional consequences on microtubule stability, bending, and subunit interactions. This work has important implications for acetylation and deacetylation reaction mechanisms as well as for interpreting experiments based on 6-11B-1 labeling.
Project description:The high mobility group (HMG) proteins, including HMGA, HMGB and HMGN, are abundant and ubiquitous nuclear proteins that bind to DNA, nucleosome and other multi-protein complexes in a dynamic and reversible fashion to regulate DNA processing in the context of chromatin. All HMG proteins, like histone proteins, are subjected to extensive post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as lysine acetylation, arginine/lysine methylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation, to modulate their interactions with DNA and other proteins. There is a growing appreciation for the complex relationship between the PTMs of HMG proteins and their diverse biological activities. Here, we reviewed the identified covalent modifications of HMG proteins, and highlighted how these PTMs affect the functions of HMG proteins in a variety of cellular processes.
Project description:Long-range transport in cells is achieved primarily through motor-based transport along a network of microtubule tracks. Targeted transport by kinesin motors can be correlated with posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of the tubulin subunits in specific microtubules. To directly examine the influence of specific PTMs on kinesin-1 motility, we generated tubulin subunits that were either enriched in or lacking acetylation of ?-tubulin lysine 40 (K40) or detyrosination of the ?-tubulin C-terminal tail. We show that K40 acetylation does not result in significant changes in kinesin-1's landing rate or motility parameters (velocity and run length) across experimental conditions. In contrast, detyrosination causes a moderate increase in kinesin-1's landing rate. The fact that the effects of detyrosination are dampened by prior K40 acetylation indicates that the combination of PTMs may be an important aspect of the functional output of microtubule heterogeneity. Importantly, our results indicate that the moderate influences that single PTMs have on kinesin-1 in vitro do not explain the strong correlation between specific PTMs and kinesin-1 transport in cells. Thus, additional mechanisms for regulating kinesin-1 transport in cells must be explored in future work.
Project description:Recent work has identified several posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on chromatin-remodeling complexes. Compared with our understanding of histone PTMs, significantly less is known about the functions of PTMs on remodeling complexes, because identification of their specific roles often is hindered by the presence of redundant pathways. Remodels the Structure of Chromatin (RSC) is an essential, multifunctional ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzyme of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that preferentially binds acetylated nucleosomes. RSC is itself acetylated by Gcn5 on lysine 25 (K25) of its Rsc4 subunit, adjacent to two tandem bromodomains. It has been shown that an intramolecular interaction between the acetylation mark and the proximal bromodomain inhibits binding of the second bromodomain to acetylated histone H3 tails. We report here that acetylation does not significantly alter the catalytic activity of RSC or its ability to recognize histone H3-acetylated nucleosomes preferentially in vitro. However, we find that Rsc4 acetylation is crucial for resistance to DNA damage in vivo. Epistatic miniarray profiling of the rsc4-K25R mutant reveals an interaction with mutants in the INO80 complex, a mediator of DNA damage and replication stress tolerance. In the absence of a core INO80 subunit, rsc4-K25R mutants display sensitivity to hydroxyurea and delayed S-phase progression under DNA damage. Thus, Rsc4 helps promote resistance to replication stress, and its single acetylation mark regulates this function. These studies offer an example of acetylation of a chromatin-remodeling enzyme controlling a biological output of the system rather than regulating its core enzymatic properties.
Project description:PTMs serve as key regulatory mechanisms for 20S proteasome functions. Alterations in 20S PTMs have been previously observed with changes in modified protein degradation patterns and altered cellular phenotypes. Despite decades of investigation, our knowledge pertaining to the various PTMs of 20S complexes and their biological significance remain limited. In this investigation, we show that 2-DE offers an analytical tool with high resolution and reproducibility. Accordingly, it has been applied for the characterization of PTMs including glycosylation, phosphorylation, oxidation, and nitrosylation. The PTMs of murine cardiac 20S proteasomes and their associating proteins were examined. Our 2-DE analyses displayed over 25 spots for the 20S complexes (17 subunits), indicating multiply modified subunits of cardiac proteasomes. The identification of specific PTM sites subsequent to 2-DE was supported by MS. These PTMs included phosphorylation and oxidation. Most of the PTMs occurred in low stoichiometry and required enrichment to enhance the detection sensitivity. In conclusion, our studies support 2-DE as a central tool in the analyses of 20S proteasome PTMs. The approaches utilized in this investigation demonstrate their application in mapping the PTMs of the 20S proteasomes in cardiac tissue, which are applicable to other samples and biological conditions.