Intensification of older adults' outpatient blood pressure treatment at hospital discharge: national retrospective cohort study.
ABSTRACT: To assess how often older adults admitted to hospital for common non-cardiac conditions were discharged with intensified antihypertensive treatment, and to identify markers of appropriateness for these intensifications.Retrospective cohort study.US Veterans Administration Health System.Patients aged 65 years or over with hypertension admitted to hospital with non-cardiac conditions between 2011 and 2013.Intensification of antihypertensive treatment, defined as receiving a new or higher dose antihypertensive agent at discharge compared with drugs used before admission. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to control for characteristics of patients and hospitals.Among 14?915 older adults (median age 76, interquartile range 69-84), 9636 (65%) had well controlled outpatient blood pressure before hospital admission. Overall, 2074 (14%) patients were discharged with intensified antihypertensive treatment, more than half of whom (1082) had well controlled blood pressure before admission. After adjustment for potential confounders, elevated inpatient blood pressure was strongly associated with being discharged on intensified antihypertensive regimens. Among patients with previously well controlled outpatient blood pressure, 8% (95% confidence interval 7% to 9%) of patients without elevated inpatient blood pressure, 24% (21% to 26%) of patients with moderately elevated inpatient blood pressure, and 40% (34% to 46%) of patients with severely elevated inpatient blood pressure were discharged with intensified antihypertensive regimens. No differences were seen in rates of intensification among patients least likely to benefit from tight blood pressure control (limited life expectancy, dementia, or metastatic malignancy), nor in those most likely to benefit (history of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, or renal disease).One in seven older adults admitted to hospital for common non-cardiac conditions were discharged with intensified antihypertensive treatment. More than half of intensifications occurred in patients with previously well controlled outpatient blood pressure. More attention is needed to reduce potentially harmful overtreatment of blood pressure as older adults transition from hospital to home.
Project description:Importance:Elevated blood glucose levels are common in hospitalized older adults and may lead clinicians to intensify outpatient diabetes medications at discharge, risking potential overtreatment when patients return home. Objective:To assess how often hospitalized older adults are discharged with intensified diabetes medications and the likelihood of benefit associated with these intensifications. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study examined patients aged 65 years and older with diabetes not previously requiring insulin. The study included patients who were hospitalized in a Veterans Health Administration hospital for common medical conditions between 2012 and 2013. Main Outcomes and Measures:Intensification of outpatient diabetes medications, defined as receiving a new or higher-dose medication at discharge than was being taken prior to hospitalization. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to control for patient and hospitalization characteristics. Results:Of 16?178 patients (mean [SD] age, 73  years; 15?895 [98%] men), 8535 (53%) had a preadmission hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level less than 7.0%, and 1044 (6%) had an HbA1c level greater than 9.0%. Overall, 1626 patients (10%) were discharged with intensified diabetes medications including 781 (5%) with new insulins and 557 (3%) with intensified sulfonylureas. Nearly half of patients receiving intensifications (49% [791 of 1626]) were classified as being unlikely to benefit owing to limited life expectancy or already being at goal HbA1c, while 20% (329 of 1626) were classified as having potential to benefit. Both preadmission HbA1c level and inpatient blood glucose recordings were associated with discharge with intensified diabetes medications. Among patients with a preadmission HbA1c level less than 7.0%, the predicted probability of receiving an intensification was 4% (95% CI, 3%-4%) for patients without elevated inpatient blood glucose levels and 21% (95% CI, 15%-26%) for patients with severely elevated inpatient blood glucose levels. Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, 1 in 10 older adults with diabetes hospitalized for common medical conditions was discharged with intensified diabetes medications. Nearly half of these individuals were unlikely to benefit owing to limited life expectancy or already being at their HbA1c goal.
Project description:BACKGROUND:African Americans are especially at risk of hypertension and dementia. Antihypertensive medications reduce the risk of cardiovascular events, but may also reduce the risk of dementia. OBJECTIVE:To assess the longitudinal effects of antihypertensive medications and blood pressure on the onset of incident dementia in a cohort of African Americans. DESIGN:Prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS:1236 community-dwelling patients from an inner-city public health care system, aged 65 years and older, with a history of hypertension but no history of dementia, and who had at least three primary care visits and a prescription filled for any medication. MAIN MEASURES:Blood pressure was the average of three seated measurements. Dementia was diagnosed using a two-stage design, with a screening evaluation every 2 to 3 years followed by a comprehensive in-home clinical evaluation for those with a positive screen. Laboratory, inpatient and outpatient encounter data, coded diagnoses and procedures, and medication records were derived from a health information exchange. KEY RESULTS:Of the 1236 hypertensive participants without dementia at baseline, 114 (9%) developed incident dementia during follow-up. Individuals prescribed any antihypertensive medication (n?=?816) were found to have a significantly reduced risk of dementia (HR?=?0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88, p?=?0.0114) compared to untreated hypertensive participants (n?=?420). When this analysis was repeated including a variable indicating suboptimally treated blood pressure (> 140 mmHg systolic or >90 mmHg diastolic), the effect of antihypertensive medication was no longer statistically significant (HR?=?0.65, 95% CI 0.32-1.30, p?=?0.2217). CONCLUSIONS:Control of blood pressure in older adult African American patients with hypertension is a key intervention for preventing dementia, with similar benefits from most of the commonly available antihypertensive medications.
Project description:Length of stay after total hip arthroplasty (THA) has decreased over the last two decades. However, published studies that have examined same-day and early discharge protocols after THA have been done in highly selected patient groups operated on by senior surgeons in a nonrandomized fashion without control subjects.The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare patients undergoing THA who are discharged on the same day as the surgery ("outpatient," less than 12-hour stay) with those who are discharged after an overnight hospital stay ("inpatient") with regard to the following outcomes: (1) postoperative pain; (2) perioperative complications and healthcare provider visits (readmission, emergency department or physician office); and (3) relative work effort for the surgeon's office staff.A prospective, randomized study was conducted at two high-volume adult reconstruction centers between July 2014 and September 2015. Patients who were younger than 75 years of age at surgery, who could ambulate without a walker, who were not on chronic opioids, and whose body mass index was less than 40 kg/m2 were invited to participate. All patients had a primary THA performed by the direct anterior approach with spinal anesthesia at a hospital facility. Study data were evaluated using an intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 220 patients participated, of whom 112 were randomized to the outpatient group and 108 were randomized to the inpatient group. Of the 112 patients randomized to outpatient surgery, 85 (76%) were discharged as planned. Of the remaining 27 patients, 26 were discharged after one night in the hospital and one was discharged after two nights. Of the 108 patients randomized to inpatient surgery with an overnight hospital stay, 81 (75%) were discharged as planned. Of the remaining 27 patients, 18 met the discharge criteria on the day of their surgery and elected to leave the same day, whereas nine patients stayed two or more nights.On the day of surgery, there was no difference in visual analog scale (VAS) pain among patients who were randomized to discharge on the same day and those who were randomized to remain in the hospital overnight (outpatient 2.8 ± 2.5, inpatient 3.3 ± 2.3, mean difference -0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.1 to 0.1, p = 0.12). On the first day after surgery, outpatients had higher VAS pain (at home) than inpatients (3.7 ± 2.3 versus 2.8 ± 2.1, mean difference 0.9, 95% CI, 0.3-1.5, p = 0.005). With the numbers available, there was no difference in the number of reoperations, hospital readmissions without reoperation, emergency department visits without hospital readmission, or acute office visits. At 4-week followup, there was no difference in the number of phone calls and emails with the surgeon's office (outpatient: 2.4 ± 1.9, inpatient: 2.4 ± 2.2, mean difference 0, 95% CI, -0.5 to 0.6, p = 0.94).Outpatient THA can be implemented in a defined patient population without requiring additional work for the surgeon's office. Because 24% (27 of 112) of patients planning to have outpatient surgery were not able to be discharged the same day, facilities to accommodate an overnight stay should be available.Level I, therapeutic study.
Project description:Importance:Transient elevations of blood pressure (BP) are common in hospitalized older adults and frequently lead practitioners to prescribe more intensive antihypertensive regimens at hospital discharge than the patients were using before hospitalization. Objective:To investigate the association between intensification of antihypertensive regimens at hospital discharge and clinical outcomes after discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this retrospective cohort study, patients 65 years and older with hypertension who were hospitalized in Veterans Health Administration national health system facilities from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2013, for common noncardiac conditions were studied. Data analysis was performed from October 1, 2018, to March 10, 2019. Exposures:Discharge with antihypertensive intensification, defined as receiving a prescription at hospital discharge for a new or higher-dose antihypertensive than was being used before hospitalization. Propensity scores were used to construct a matched-pairs cohort of patients who did and did not receive antihypertensive intensifications at hospital discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcomes of hospital readmission, serious adverse events, and cardiovascular events were assessed by competing risk analysis. The secondary outcome was the change in systolic BP within 1 year of hospital discharge. Results:The propensity-matched cohort included 4056 hospitalized older adults with hypertension (mean [SD] age, 77  years; 3961 men [97.7%]), equally split between those who did vs did not receive antihypertensive intensifications at hospital discharge. Groups were well matched on all baseline covariates (all standardized mean differences <0.1). Within 30 days, patients receiving intensifications had a higher risk of readmission (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.42; number needed to harm [NNH], 27; 95% CI, 16-76) and serious adverse events (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.06-1.88; NNH, 63; 95% CI, 34-370). At 1 year, no differences were found in cardiovascular events (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.99-1.40) or change in systolic BP among those who did vs did not receive intensifications (mean BP, 134.7 vs 134.4; difference-in-differences estimate, 0.6 mm Hg; 95% CI, -2.4 to 3.7 mm Hg). Conclusions and Relevance:Among older adults hospitalized for noncardiac conditions, prescription of intensified antihypertensives at discharge was not associated with reduced cardiac events or improved BP control within 1 year but was associated with an increased risk of readmission and serious adverse events within 30 days.
Project description:We examined blood pressure 1 year after stroke discharge and its association with treatment intensification.We examined the systolic blood pressure (SBP) stratified by discharge SBP (?140, 141-160, or >160 mm Hg) among a national cohort of Veterans discharged after acute ischemic stroke. Hypertension treatment opportunities were defined as outpatient SBP >160 mm Hg or repeated SBPs >140 mm Hg. Treatment intensification was defined as the proportion of treatment opportunities with antihypertensive changes (range, 0%-100%, where 100% indicates that each elevated SBP always resulted in medication change).Among 3153 patients with ischemic stroke, 38% had ?1 elevated outpatient SBP eligible for treatment intensification in the 1 year after stroke. Thirty percent of patients had a discharge SBP ?140 mm Hg, and an average 1.93 treatment opportunities and treatment intensification occurred in 58% of eligible visits. Forty-seven percent of patients discharged with SBP 141 to160 mm Hg had an average of 2.1 opportunities for intensification and treatment intensification occurred in 60% of visits. Sixty-three percent of the patients discharged with an SBP >160 mm Hg had an average of 2.4 intensification opportunities, and treatment intensification occurred in 65% of visits.Patients with discharge SBP >160 mm Hg had numerous opportunities to improve hypertension control. Secondary stroke prevention efforts should focus on initiation and review of antihypertensives before acute stroke discharge; management of antihypertensives and titration; and patient medication adherence counseling.
Project description:Importance:While 1 in 10 older patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) die within 30 days, end-of-life care for this population is not well described. Objective:To assess rates of discharge to hospice, readmission after hospice, and survival in hospice in patients following hospital discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this observational cohort analysis of patients in the multicenter American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-HF registry linked to Medicare fee-for-service claims data, we analyzed patients 65 years and older discharged alive from the hospital between 2005 and 2014. We compared 4588 patients discharged to hospice with 4357 patients with advanced HF (ejection fraction ≤25% and any of the following: inpatient inotrope use, serum sodium level ≤130 mEq/L, blood urea nitrogen level ≥45 mg/dL [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 0.357], systolic blood pressure ≤90 mm Hg, or comfort measures during hospitalization) not discharged to hospice and with 113 045 other patients with HF in the GWTG-HF registry. Data were analyzed from October 2017 to June 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:Discharge to hospice, rehospitalization, and mortality. Results:Of the 4588 patients discharged to hospice, 2556 (55.7%) were female and 4047 (88.2%) were white, and they had a median (interquartile range) age of 86 (80-90) years. Hospice accounted for 4588 of 121 990 discharges (3.8%), of which 2424 (52.8%) were discharges to home hospice and 2164 (47.2%) were to a hospice facility. Hospice discharges increased from 2.0% (109 of 5528) in 2005 to 4.9% (968 of 19 590) in 2014. Patients discharged to hospice were older, white, and more symptomatic compared with patients with advanced HF (n = 4357) and other patients in the GWTG-HF registry (n = 113 045). The median (interquartile range) postdischarge survival time in patients discharged to hospice was 11 (3-63) days compared with 318 (78-1105) days in patients with advanced HF and 754 (221-1868) days in other patients in the GWTG-HF registry. A total of 739 patients (34.1%) discharged to hospice facilities died in less than 72 hours, while 295 (12.2%) discharged to home hospice died in less than 72 hours; 690 patients (15.0%) discharged from hospice lived for 6 months or more. Among hospitals with more than 25 hospice discharges, the median (interquartile range) hospice discharge rate was 3.5% (2.0%-5.7%). Readmission at 30 days was lower in patients discharged to hospice (189 [4.1%]) compared with patients with advanced HF (1185 [27.2%]) and others in the GWTG-HF registry (25 022 [22.2%]). Nonwhite race and younger age were the strongest predictors of readmission from hospice. Conclusions and Relevance:Hospice use has grown to about 4.9% of Medicare HF hospital discharges, with significant hospital-level variation. Almost a quarter of patients discharged to hospice die within 3 days of discharge, and about 4.1% of patients are readmitted to the hospital within 30 days.
Project description:Background:Hypotension is a common clinical finding in diabetic patients on anti-hypertensive medications. In the absence of clearly defined and documented hypotensive episodes, clinicians are faced with the challenge of modifying antihypertensive medication in potentially symptomatic diabetic patients. Objective:To determine the value of ambulatory blood pressure monitor (ABPM) in diagnosing hypotensive episodes in hypertensive diabetic patients with medication-controlled blood pressure. Patients and methods:The records of all hypertensive diabetic patients with medication-controlled were obtained between 2017 and 2018. Patients' demographic data, comorbid conditions, hypotensive symptoms and echocardiography results were obtained and compared to office-based blood pressure and ABPM. Results:Of 926 patients screened in the department of medicine outpatient clinics, 231 patients had diabetes and hypertension and were taking antihypertension medications, so only 86 patients were recruited. Using 24?h ABPM, hypotensive events were documented in 65 (75.6%) patients without correlated hypotensive symptoms in the patient sheet. Patients who had hypotensive episodes recorded by ABPM tended to have these between 5 and 10 a.m. and were significantly older - 60.71 versus 58.76 (P?=?.022) - and more likely to have lower ejection fractions by echocardiography 46.31 versus 62.85 (EF) (P?<?.001). Conclusion:In treated hypertensive diabetic patients with antihypertensive medication, ABPM may be beneficial in capturing bouts of asymptomatic (silent) hypotension readings that occur in the out-of-hospital setting. Diabetic patients with controlled hypertension based on office reading showed a significant number of asymptomatic hypotensive readings detected with ambulatory BP monitoring that can have a role in following up such patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We examined determinants of achieving blood pressure control in patients with hypertension and of treatment intensification in patients with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP). DESIGN:A retrospective cohort study in six public hospitals, Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS:Adult ambulatory patients with hypertension and with at least one previously prescribed antihypertensive medication in the study hospital. OUTCOME:Controlled BP (<140/90?mm Hg) and treatment intensification of patients with uncontrolled BP. RESULTS:The study population comprised 897 patients. Their mean age was 57 (SD 14) years, 63% were females, and 35% had one or more cardiometabolic comorbidities mainly diabetes mellitus. BP was controlled in 37% of patients. Treatment was intensified for 23% patients with uncontrolled BP. In multivariable (logistic regression) analysis, determinants positively associated with controlled BP were treatment at general hospitals (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.83) compared with specialised hospitals and longer treatment duration (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06). Negatively associated determinants were previously uncontrolled BP (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.43), treatment regimens with diuretics (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.94) and age (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.00). The only significant-positive-determinant for treatment intensification was duration of therapy (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.09). CONCLUSIONS:The level of controlled BP and treatment intensification practice in this study was low. The findings suggest the need for in-depth understanding and interventions of the identified determinants such as uncontrolled BP on consecutive visits, older age and type of hospital.
Project description:Reperfusion times for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) occurring in outpatients have improved significantly, but quality improvement efforts have largely ignored STEMI occurring in hospitalized patients (inpatient-onset STEMI).To define the incidence and variables associated with treatment and outcomes of patients who develop STEMI during hospitalization for conditions other than acute coronary syndromes (ACS).Retrospective observational analysis of STEMIs occurring between 2008 and 2011 as identified in the California State Inpatient Database.STEMIs were classified as inpatient onset or outpatient onset based on present-on-admission codes. Patients who had a STEMI after being hospitalized for ACS were excluded from the analysis.Regression models were used to evaluate associations among location of onset of STEMI, resource utilization, and outcomes. Adjustments were made for patient age, sex, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics. The analysis allowed for the location of inpatient STEMI to have a multiplicative rather than an additive effect for resource utilization since these measures were highly skewed.A total of 62,021 STEMIs were identified in 303 hospitals, of which 3068 (4.9%) occurred in patients hospitalized for non-ACS indications. Patients with inpatient-onset STEMI were older (mean, 71.5 [SD, 13.5] years vs 64.9 [SD, 14.1] years; P?<?.001) and more frequently female (47.4% vs 32%; P?<?.001) than those with outpatient-onset STEMI. Patients with inpatient-onset STEMI had higher in-hospital mortality (33.6% vs 9.2%; adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.05; 95% CI, 2.76-3.38; P?<?.001), were less likely to be discharged home (33.7% vs 69.4%; AOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.34-0.42; P?<?.001), and were less likely to undergo cardiac catheterization (33.8% vs 77.8%; AOR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.16-0.21; P?<?.001) or percutaneous coronary intervention (21.6% vs 65%; AOR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.21-0.26; P?<?.001). Length of stay and inpatient charges were higher for inpatient-onset STEMI (mean length of stay, 13.4 days [95% CI, 12.8-14.0 days] vs 4.7 days [95% CI, 4.6-4.8 days]; adjusted multiplicative effect, 2.51; 95% CI, 2.35-2.69; P?<?.001; mean inpatient charges, $245,000 [95% CI, $235,300-$254,800] vs $129,000 [95% CI, $127,900-$130,100]; adjusted multiplicative effect, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.93-2.28; P?<?.001).Patients who had a STEMI while hospitalized for a non-ACS condition, compared with those with onset of STEMI as an outpatient, were less likely to undergo invasive testing or intervention and had a higher in-hospital mortality rate.
Project description:Although tight blood pressure control is crucial in reducing vascular complications of diabetes, primary care providers often fail to appropriately intensify antihypertensive medications.To identify novel visit-based factors associated with intensification of antihypertensive medications in adults with diabetes.Non-concurrent prospective cohort study.A total of 254 patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension enrolled in an academically affiliated managed care program. Over a 24-month interval (1999-2001), we identified 1,374 visits at which blood pressure was suboptimally controlled (systolic BP >/= 140 mmHg or diastolic BP >/= 90 mmHg).Intensification of antihypertensive medications at each visit was the primary outcome. Primary care providers intensified antihypertensive treatment in only 176 (13%) of 1,374 visits at which blood pressure was elevated. As expected, higher mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressures were important predictors of intensification. Treatment was also more likely to be intensified at visits that were "routine" odds ratio (OR) 2.08; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.36-3.18), or that paired patients with their usual primary care provider (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.11-3.06). In contrast, several factors were associated with failure to intensify treatment, including capillary glucose >150 mg/dL (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.94) and the presence of coronary heart disease (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38-0.95). Co-management by a cardiologist accounted partly for this failure (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.41-1.03).Failure to appropriately intensify antihypertensive treatment is common in diabetes care. Clinical distractions and shortcomings in continuity and coordination of care are possible targets for improvement.