Association of pre-eclampsia risk with maternal levels of folate, homocysteine and vitamin B12 in Colombia: A case-control study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Maternal serum concentrations of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 have been associated with pre-eclampsia. Nevertheless, reported studies involve limited number of cases to reliably assess the nature of these associations. Our aim was to examine the relation of these three biomarkers with pre-eclampsia risk in a large Colombian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Design: A case-control study. Setting: Cases of pre-eclampsia and healthy pregnant controls were recruited at the time of delivery from eight different Colombian cities between 2000 and 2012. Population or Sample: 2978 cases and 4096 controls were studied. Maternal serum concentrations of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were determined in 1148 (43.6%) cases and 1300 (31.7%) controls. Also, self-reported folic acid supplementation was recorded for 2563 (84%) cases and 3155 (84%) controls. Analysis: Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for pre-eclampsia were estimated for one standard deviation (1SD) increase in log-transformed biomarkers. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to compare women that reported taking folic acid supplementation for different periods during pregnancy. Main Outcomes Measures: Odds ratio for pre-eclampsia. RESULTS:After adjusting for potential confounders in logistic regression models, the OR for pre-eclampsia was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.90) for 1SD increase in log-folate, 1.16 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.27) for 1SD increase in log-homocysteine, and 1.10 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.22) for 1SD increase in log-vitamin B12. No interactions among the biomarkers were identified. Women who self-reported consumption of folic acid (1 mg/day) throughout their pregnancy had an adjusted OR for pre-eclampsia of 0.86 (95%CI: 0.67, 1.09) compared to women that reported no consumption of folic acid at any point during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal serum concentrations of folate were associated as a protective factor for pre-eclampsia while concentrations of homocysteine were associated as a risk factor. No association between maternal vitamin B12 concentrations and preeclampsia was found.
Project description:We investigated cross-sectional associations between circulating homocysteine, folate, biomarkers of vitamin B12 status and brain volumes. We furthermore compared brain volumes of participants who received daily folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation with participants who did not.Participants of the B-PROOF study (n = 2919) were assigned to 400 µg folic acid and 500 µg vitamin B12, or a placebo. After two years of intervention, T?-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were made in a random subsample (n = 218) to obtain grey and white matter volume, and total brain volume (TBV). Plasma homocysteine, serum folate, vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin, and methylmalonic acid concentrations were measured.Multiple linear regression analyses showed inverse associations between plasma homocysteine with TBV (? = -0.91, 95% CI -1.85-0.03; p = 0.06) and between serum folate and TBV (? = -0.20, 95% CI -0.38, -0.02; p = 0.03). No significant associations were observed for serum vitamin B12 and holotranscobalamin. Fully adjusted ANCOVA models showed that the group that received B-vitamins had a lower TBV (adjusted mean 1064, 95% CI 1058-1069 mL) than the non-supplemented group (1072, 95% CI 1067-1078 mL, p = 0.03).Results were contradictory, with higher Hcy levels associated with lower TBV, but also with higher folate levels associated with lower TBV. In addition, the lack of a baseline measurement withholds us from giving recommendations on whether folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation will be beneficial above and beyond normal dietary intake for brain health.
Project description:Folate, and its synthetic form folic acid, function as donor of one-carbon units and have been, together with other B-vitamins, implicated in programming of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation during early development. To what extent regulation of DNA methylation can be altered via B-vitamins later in life, and how this relates to health and disease, is not exactly known. The aim of this study was to identify effects of long-term supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 on genome-wide DNA methylation in elderly subjects. This project was part of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on effects of supplemental intake of folic acid and vitamin B12 on bone fracture incidence (B-PROOF study). Participants with mildly elevated homocysteine levels, aged 65-75 years, were randomly assigned to take 400 µg folic acid and 500 µg vitamin B12 per day or a placebo during an intervention period of two years. DNA was isolated from buffy coats, collected before and after intervention, and genome-wide DNA methylation was determined in 87 participants (n=44 folic acid/vitamin B12, n=43 placebo) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. After intervention with folic acid and vitamin B12, 162 (versus 14 in the placebo group) of the 431,312 positions were differentially methylated as compared to baseline. Comparisons of the DNA methylation changes in the participants receiving folic acid and vitamin B12 versus placebo, revealed one single differentially methylated position (cg19380919) with a borderline statistical significance. However, based on the analyses of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) consisting of multiple positions, we identified 6 regions that differed statistically significantly between the intervention and placebo group. Pronounced changes were found for regions in the DIRAS3, ARMC8 and NODAL genes, implicated in carcinogenesis and early embryonic development. Furthermore, serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 or plasma homocysteine were related to DNA methylation of 173, 425 and 11 regions, respectively. Interestingly, for several members of the developmental HOX genes, DNA methylation was related to serum levels of folate. Long-term supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 in elderly subjects resulted in effects on DNA methylation of several genes, among which genes implicated in developmental processes. Overall design: A randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial was used to study the effects of long-term supplementation (2 year) with folic acid (400 µg/day) and vitamin B12 (500 µg/day) on DNA methylation in elderly subjects. This entry contains the DNA methylation data of DNA isolated from buffy coats collected before and after the intervention with folic acid / vitamin B12 or placebo.
Project description:Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are important factors for early development and may persistently influence kidney function in the offspring. We examined the associations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy with kidney outcomes in school-aged children.Population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward.This study was performed among 4,226 pregnant women and their children.Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine blood concentrations measured in early pregnancy (median gestational age, 13.2 [IQR, 12.2-14.8] weeks) and at birth (cord blood).At the median age of 6.0 (IQR, 5.9-6.3) years, we measured combined kidney volume with ultrasound, estimated glomerular filtration rate based on creatinine (eGFRcr) and cystatin C (eGFRcys) concentrations, and microalbuminuria.We observed that higher maternal folate concentrations were associated with larger childhood combined kidney volume, whereas higher maternal vitamin B12 concentrations were associated with higher childhood eGFRcys (P for both <0.05). These associations were independent of homocysteine concentrations. Higher maternal homocysteine concentrations were associated with smaller combined kidney volume and lower childhood eGFRcys (P for both < 0.05). The association of maternal homocysteine concentrations with childhood eGFRcys was largely explained by combined kidney volume. Higher cord blood homocysteine concentrations were associated with larger combined kidney volume and lower eGFRcys (P for both < 0.05). Folate, vitamin B12, or homocysteine concentrations were not associated with microalbuminuria.Observational study, so causality cannot be established.Our findings suggest that folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations during fetal life are associated with offspring kidney development. However, effect sizes are small. Further studies to replicate these findings and assess the causality and consequences for kidney health in later life are needed.
Project description:Both taking folic acid-containing vitamins around conception and consuming food fortified with folic acid have been reported to reduce omphalocele rates. Genetic factors are etiologically important in omphalocele as well; our pilot study showed a relationship with the folate metabolic enzyme gene methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). We studied 169 non-aneuploid omphalocele cases and 761 unaffected, matched controls from all New York State births occurring between 1998 and 2005 to look for associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be important in folate, vitamin B12, or choline metabolism. In the total study population, variants in the transcobalamin receptor gene (TCblR), rs2232775 (p.Q8R), and the MTHFR gene, rs1801131 (c.1298A>C), were significantly associated with omphalocele. In African-Americans, significant associations were found with SNPs in genes for the vitamin B12 transporter (TCN2) and the vitamin B12 receptor (TCblR). A SNP in the homocysteine-related gene, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT), rs3733890 (p.R239Q), was significantly associated with omphalocele in both African-Americans and Asians. Only the TCblR association in the total population remained statistically significant if Bonferroni correction was applied. The finding that transcobalamin receptor (TCblR) and transporter (TCN2) SNPs and a BHMT SNP were associated with omphalocele suggests that disruption of methylation reactions, in which folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine play critical parts, may be a risk factor for omphalocele. Our data, if confirmed, suggest that supplements containing both folic acid and vitamin B12 may be beneficial in preventing omphaloceles.
Project description:Single nucleotide polymorphisms and pre- and peri-conception folic acid (FA) supplementation and dietary data were used to identify one-carbon metabolic factors associated with pregnancy outcomes in 3196 nulliparous women. In 325 participants, we also measured circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine. Pregnancy outcomes included preeclampsia (PE), gestational hypertension (GHT), small for gestational age (SGA), spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Study findings show that maternal genotype MTHFR A1298C(CC) was associated with increased risk for PE, whereas TCN2 C766G(GG) had a reduced risk for sPTB. Paternal MTHFR A1298C(CC) and MTHFD1 G1958A(AA) genotypes were associated with reduced risk for sPTB, whereas MTHFR C677T(CT) genotype had an increased risk for GHT. FA supplementation was associated with higher serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations, reduced uterine artery resistance index and increased birth weight. Women who supplemented with <800 ?g daily FA at 15-week gestation had a higher incidence of PE (10.3%) compared with women who did not supplement (6.1%) or who supplemented with ?800 ?g (5.4%) (P < .0001). Higher serum folate levels were found in women who later developed GDM compared with women with uncomplicated pregnancies (Mean ± SD: 37.6 ± 8 nmol L<sup>-1</sup> vs. 31.9 ± 11.2, P = .007). Fast food consumption was associated with increased risk for developing GDM, whereas low consumption of green leafy vegetables and fruit were independent risk factors for SGA and GDM and sPTB and SGA, respectively. In conclusion, maternal and paternal genotypes, together with maternal circulating folate and homocysteine concentrations, and pre- and early-pregnancy dietary factors, are independent risk factors for pregnancy complications.
Project description:Smoking exposure is associated with pregnancy complications, as are levels of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine. In nonpregnant adults, smoking exposure is associated negatively with folate and vitamin B12 levels and positively with homocysteine levels. A complete overview of the literature on this topic in pregnant women is lacking. To evaluate evidence of associations of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 in pregnancy and in cord blood, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and reference lists of relevant studies until August 2017. We selected studies in pregnant women describing the association of passive or active smoking and levels of folate, homocysteine, and/or vitamin B12. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. We included 32 studies of 2,015 identified references with a total of 37,822 participants and more than 6,000 smokers. Twenty-eight studies measured folate, 14 measured vitamin B12, and 13 measured homocysteine. Nineteen out of 28 studies assessing folate reported significantly lower levels in pregnant women exposed to smoking compared with those unexposed. Vitamin B12 levels were lower in smoking mothers in eight out of 14 studies. Homocysteine levels tended to be higher in mothers exposed to smoking. Smoking exposure during pregnancy is generally associated with lower folate and vitamin B12 levels and higher homocysteine levels. This may help raise further awareness about the consequences of smoking and the need to encourage stopping smoking in all, especially in pregnant women.
Project description:In an Indian birth cohort, higher maternal homocysteine concentration in pregnancy was associated with lower birthweight of the offspring. Lower maternal vitamin B12 and higher folate concentrations were associated with higher offspring insulin resistance. Disordered one-carbon metabolism during early development may increase later metabolic risk. We explored these associations in another birth cohort in India at three age points.We measured plasma vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine concentrations at 30 ± 2 weeks' gestation in 654 women who delivered at one hospital. Neonatal anthropometry was recorded, and the children's glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years of age. Insulin resistance was estimated using HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR).Maternal homocysteine concentrations were inversely associated with all neonatal anthropometric measurements (p < 0.05), and positively associated with glucose concentrations in the children at 5 (30 min; p = 0.007) and 9.5 years of age (120 min; p = 0.02). Higher maternal folate concentrations were associated with higher HOMA-IR in the children at 9.5 (p = 0.03) and 13.5 years of age (p = 0.03). Maternal vitamin B12 concentrations were unrelated to offspring outcomes.Maternal vitamin B12 status did not predict insulin resistance in our cohort. However, associations of maternal homocysteine and folate concentrations with birth size, and with childhood insulin resistance and glycaemia in the offspring, suggest a role for nutritionally driven disturbances in one-carbon metabolism in fetal programming of diabetes.
Project description:Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid reduces the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The association between maternal abnormalities in homocysteine metabolism (e.g., hyperhomocysteinaemia, folate deficiency and low vitamin B12) and the risk of NTDs-affected pregnancies has been widely evaluated in recent years, although the results are conflicting. To investigate this inconsistency, we performed a meta-analysis of 32 studies, involving 1,890 NTD-affected mothers and 3,995 control mothers, to develop an understanding of the relationship between maternal biomarkers related to one-carbon metabolism and NTD. A random-effects model was used to calculate the ratio of means (RoM) between the cases and controls, along with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A significant increase in homocysteine levels was observed in NTD-affected mothers compared with controls (RoM: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.09-1.23, P = 1.8 × 10(-6)). The pooled analysis also revealed that NTD-affected mothers had significantly lower levels of folate (RoM: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.97, P = 0.002), vitamin B12 (RoM: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.87-0.95, P = 3.6 × 10(-5)) and red blood cell folate (RoM: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86-0.98, P = 0.01). Therefore, altered plasma levels of biomarkers related to one-carbon metabolism are associated with NTD-affected pregnancies.
Project description:Folate and its synthetic form folic acid function as donor of one-carbon units and have been, together with other B-vitamins, implicated in programming of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation during early development. To what extent regulation of DNA methylation can be altered via B-vitamins later in life, and how this relates to health and disease, is not exactly known. The aim of this study was to identify effects of long-term supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 on genome-wide DNA methylation in elderly subjects. This project was part of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on effects of supplemental intake of folic acid and vitamin B12 on bone fracture incidence (B-vitamins for the PRevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures (B-PROOF) study). Participants with mildly elevated homocysteine levels, aged 65-75 years, were randomly assigned to take 400 ?g folic acid and 500 ?g vitamin B12 per day or a placebo during an intervention period of 2 years. DNA was isolated from buffy coats, collected before and after intervention, and genome-wide DNA methylation was determined in 87 participants (n?=?44 folic acid/vitamin B12, n?=?43 placebo) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip.After intervention with folic acid and vitamin B12, 162 (versus 14 in the placebo group) of the 431,312 positions were differentially methylated as compared to baseline. Comparisons of the DNA methylation changes in the participants receiving folic acid and vitamin B12 versus placebo revealed one single differentially methylated position (cg19380919) with a borderline statistical significance. However, based on the analyses of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) consisting of multiple positions, we identified 6 regions that differed statistically significantly between the intervention and placebo group. Pronounced changes were found for regions in the DIRAS3, ARMC8, and NODAL genes, implicated in carcinogenesis and early embryonic development. Furthermore, serum levels of folate and vitamin B12 or plasma homocysteine were related to DNA methylation of 173, 425, and 11 regions, respectively. Interestingly, for several members of the developmental HOX genes, DNA methylation was related to serum levels of folate.Long-term supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 in elderly subjects resulted in effects on DNA methylation of several genes, among which genes implicated in developmental processes.
Project description:PURPOSE:Higher folate and vitamin-B12 have been linked to lower risk of overweight. However, whether this is a causal effect of these B-vitamins on obesity risk remains unclear and evidence in older individuals is scarce. This study aimed to assess the role of B-vitamin supplementation and levels on body composition in older individuals. METHODS:A double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 2919 participants aged???65 years with elevated homocysteine levels. The intervention comprised a 2-year supplementation with a combination of folic acid (400 µg) and vitamin B12 (500 µg), or with placebo. Serum folate, vitamin-B12, active vitamin-B12 (HoloTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and anthropometrics were measured at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Dietary intake of folate and vitamin-B12 was measured at baseline in a subsample (n?=?603) using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were assessed with Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS:Cross-sectional analyses showed that a 1 nmol/L higher serum folate was associated with a 0.021 kg/m2 lower BMI (95% CI -?0.039; -?0.004). Higher HoloTC (per pmol/L log-transformed) was associated with a 0.955 kg/m2 higher FMI (95% CI 0.262; 1.647), and higher MMA (per ?gmol/L) was associated with a 1.108 kg/m2 lower FMI (95% CI -?1.899; -?0.316). However, random allocation of B-vitamins did not have a significant effect on changes in BMI, FMI or FFMI during 2 years of intervention. CONCLUSIONS:Although observational data suggested that folate and vitamin B12 status are associated with body composition, random allocation of a supplement with both B-vitamins combined versus placebo did not confirm an effect on BMI or body composition.