Ventricular tachycardia as the first manifestation of Churg-Strauss syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Life-threatening arrhythmias are often found in heart diseases, but they are rare as clinical symptoms of Churg-Strauss syndrome. We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with symptomatic monomorphic ventricular tachycardia as the first sign of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Cardiac manifestations were the main clinical symptoms of the disease, and changes in other organs were weakly expressed. Furthermore, increased serum IgG4 level was revealed. It was the reason for the differential diagnosis with IgG4-related diseases. Echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathological analysis of biopsies had an important role in diagnosis. .
Project description:Abstract <h4>Background</h4> Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly known as Churg–Strauss syndrome, is a rare multisystem disease characterized by asthma, rhinosinusitis, and eosinophilia. Cardiac involvement, present in half the patients, may be life threatening. <h4>Case summary</h4> A young woman with long-standing asthma and nasal polyposis was admitted with new-onset dyspnoea, sinus tachycardia, and eosinophilia. She had severe biventricular thrombosis and severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) on echocardiography, with preserved ejection fraction of both ventricles. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging showed diffuse subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). She had a positive test for perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) confirming the diagnosis of ANCA positive EGPA. She was treated with anticoagulation, high-dose corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab with gradual resolution of her symptoms. Follow-up echocardiography showed significant improvement in ventricular thrombi and TR but could not reliably exclude residual ventricular thrombus. Repeat CMR at 11?months confirmed complete resolution of both ventricular thrombi and near complete resolution of LGE. <h4>Discussion</h4> Cardiac involvement in EGPA, a rare cause of heart failure, can manifest as severe biventricular thrombosis and severe TR, resulting in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Combined immunosuppression and anticoagulation can lead to complete remission within a year. CMR is instrumental for both diagnosis and follow-up of EGPA, allowing for safe discontinuation of oral anticoagulation.
Project description:A 57-year-old man with a history of more than 10 years of bronchial asthma and chronic sinusitis complained of double vision which developed 18 days after cardiac tamponade with eosinophil-rich fluid (eosinophils 30%). He had oculomotor nerve palsy, and a blood test revealed eosinophilia (12,700/mm(3)) and elevation of both C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor. He was diagnosed as having Churg-Strauss syndrome. His symptoms were relieved by corticosteroid therapy. Our case and previous cases in the literature revealed that oculomotor nerve palsy in Churg-Strauss syndrome is associated with pupil involvement and may be relieved by corticosteroid treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Myocardial infarction is most commonly caused by thrombosis occurring on a background of coronary atherosclerosis, resulting in reduced coronary flow. Less often, myocardial infarction can occur in the absence of coronary disease. The pathomechanism of myocardial infarction in such patients is heterogeneous and more challenging to diagnose and treat. European Society of Cardiology published a position paper on myocardial infarction in patients with non-obstructive coronary disease, with definitions and recommendations for investigations, in what has hitherto been an under-recognized and under-investigated Cinderella-like condition. However, the importance of obtaining a diagnosis is all the more important, since one treatment approach with revascularization and antithrombotic treatment does not 'fit all'. CASE SUMMARY:A 70-year-old male patient presented with chest pain at rest, associated with rise in troponin and without ECG changes. A diagnosis of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction was made. Coronary angiography showed a smooth stenosis which resolved with administration of intracoronary nitrate. A diagnosis of coronary artery spasm was made, and treatment initiated. After 18 months, the patient had recurrent chest pains at rest, unresponsive to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Cardiac magnetic resonance revealed extension of subendocardial infarction, without inducible ischaemia. CT coronary angiogram (CTCA) showed non-obstructive coronaries. Blood tests showed significant eosinophilia, raised troponin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) that fluctuated without correlation with symptoms or any ECG changes. A diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome was made, and immunosuppression commenced. DISCUSSION:Churg-Strauss syndrome is an autoimmune vasculitis in patients with history of atopy or late-onset asthma which when involving coronary arteries can lead to myocardial injury mimicking acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Identification is important to allow initiation of immunosuppression which can prevent development or progression.
Project description:Background:Presentation of life-threatening arrhythmias concomitantly with a new-onset non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy raises concern for an inflammatory cardiomyopathy such as cardiac sarcoidosis or cardiac manifestations of connective tissue disease. Comprehensive workup for specific aetiologies may be unrevealing except for signs of myocardial inflammation identified on cardiac positron emission tomography (PET). Here, we present five cases of such subjects and their clinical course. Case summary:We collected clinical, imaging, pathological, and follow-up data of five subjects presenting with arrhythmias and unexplained new-onset cardiomyopathy. Mean age was 56.2?±?5.8?years. Three subjects presented with ventricular tachycardia and two with atrial arrhythmias. Echocardiography showed a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 37?±?9%. Significant coronary artery disease was ruled out in all cases as the cause of the cardiomyopathy. All patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET scan at presentation and follow-up. In all patients, cardiac MRI revealed hyperenhancement in epicardial and mid-myocardial pattern in a non-coronary distribution, while PET scan revealed fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) mismatch defects in multiple foci in a non-coronary distribution. Right ventricular biopsy was obtained in all patients and revealed interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. On median follow-up of 210?days, all subjects had improvement in both heart failure symptoms and arrhythmias and repeat PET in four out of five patients showed decreased inflammation. Discussion:A high level of suspicion for inflammatory cardiomyopathy is needed in patients presenting with new unexplained cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias. A cardiac FDG-PET should be considered for diagnosis if cardiac inflammation is in the differential. This can inform further decisions regarding targeted immunomodulation therapy that may be helpful in this cohort.
Project description:Previous studies suggest a role for eotaxin-3, TARC/CCL17 and IgG4 in newly-diagnosed patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, Churg-Strauss) with highly active disease. The role of these biomarkers in relapsing disease is unclear.Serum levels of TARC/CCL17, eotaxin-3, IgG4, and IgG4/IgG ratio were determined in serum samples from a longitudinal cohort of patients with EGPA (105 visits of 25 patients). Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were available for all visits.At the first visit, 80% of patients were using glucocorticoids and 68% additional immunosuppressive drugs. Disease flares were seen at 18 visits. The median BVAS and BVAS/WG scores at time of relapse were 4 and 2, respectively. None of the biomarkers tested were useful to discriminate between active disease and remission. Patients treated with prednisone had lower eotaxin-3 and eosinophil levels compared to patients not taking glucocorticoids irrespective of disease activity. Use of immunosuppressive agents was not associated with biomarker levels.Serum levels of TARC/CCL17, eotaxin-3, IgG4, and IgG4/IgG ratio do not clearly differentiate active and inactive disease in established EGPA. Defining biomarkers in EGPA remains a challenge especially during times of glucocorticoid use.
Project description:Cardiac amyloidosis results in severely symptomatic heart failure that has a poor prognosis because of the development of a restrictive cardiomyopathy. The diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis is often delayed because of nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with sick sinus syndrome and presented 5 months later with a long QT interval and recurrent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis was confirmed upon analysis of endomyocardial biopsy results. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with and treated for underlying plasma cell myeloma and later died of cardiac arrest. This atypical presentation of cardiac amyloidosis underscores the need to consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients who have ventricular arrhythmias. To our knowledge, the combination of long QT interval and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia has not been previously reported in association with amyloid heart disease.
Project description:Congenital ventricular diverticulum is a rare cardiac anomaly defined as a localized protrusion of the ventricular free wall. Although, it is usually asymptomatic, complications such as embolism, infective endocarditis, and arrhythmias can occur. The diagnosis can be made by echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, or catheter angiography. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice in symptomatic patients, whereas the management of asymptomatic patients often represents a therapeutic dilemma. We report here, a 9-month-old patient with asymptomatic congenital left ventricular (LV) diverticulum associated with epigastric hernia.
Project description:Background:Primary cardiac fibroma is exceedingly rare. This condition involves a significant risk of life-threatening arrhythmias during follow-up and its prognosis is not as favourable as other benign tumours. We report a case of cardiac fibroma that was preoperatively diagnosed with echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. This fibroma was excised early as a preventative measure to avoid sudden death. Case summary:A 46-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a 1-year history of chest tightness at rest. Echocardiography showed a large, isoechoic, well-circumscribed mass within the left ventricular myocardium with calcified tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intramural ventricular mass with iso signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging and low-signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging. There was no enhancement on first-pass perfusion imaging and homogeneous hyperenhancement on late gadolinium enhancement imaging. These features suggested a diagnosis of cardiac fibroma. Complete resection was performed to avoid sudden death and pathological analysis confirmed the tumour as cardiac fibroma. The patient was discharged 9?days after surgery and remains disease-free 5?months after surgery. Discussion:Cardiac fibroma is a pathologically benign tumour with an unfavourable prognosis because of lethal arrhythmias, which can be controlled by its resection. Thus, it is important to preoperatively distinguish cardiac fibroma from other benign tumours, in order to prioritize surgical intervention for those with cardiac fibromas. Preoperative diagnosis with echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging and early preventative surgery are the keys to improve prognosis of patients with cardiac fibromas.
Project description:A 53-year-old patient presented to our institution with troponin-positive chest pain and new-onset peripheral oedema. A week prior, while abroad, he had developed visual disturbances and fever in conjunction with an elevated troponin. Coronary angiography had revealed minor coronary artery disease and he was treated for acute coronary syndrome and occult infection. On arrival to our coronary care unit, further review elicited a history of recently diagnosed and worsening severity asthma with nasal polyposis. A mononeuritis and a vasculitic rash were noted and blood screen showed hypereosinophilia and immunoglobulin E (IgE) elevation. A clinical diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome was made and the patient was treated urgently and successfully with immunosuppressants. The case illustrates a fulminant presentation mode of this rare vasculitis and the importance of seeking a unifying diagnosis in cases presenting with apparently disparate symptoms and findings.
Project description:Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disease characterized by hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. It is related to genetic mutations of the alternative complement pathway and is difficult to differentiate from other prothrombotic microangiopathies. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) (Churg-Strauss syndrome, CSS) is a systemic ANCA-associated vasculitis and a hypereosinophilic disorder where eosinophils seem to induce cell apoptosis and necrosis and therefore, vasculitis. Here, we report the case of two CSS patients with a genetic complement disorder consistent with aHUS diagnosis. Both patients showed histologic features that supported the diagnosis of CSS, and a genetic complement study confirmed the suspected aHUS diagnosis. In the case where eculizumab was administered, the global response was excellent. There is very limited understanding of the genetics and epidemiology of both, atypical HUS and EGPA, but considering our two patients we suggest that an etiopathogenic link exists among patients diagnosed with both entities.