An exploratory study of mobile messaging preferences by age: Middle-aged and older adults compared to younger adults.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Mobile technologies, such as short message service or text messaging, can be an important way to reach individuals with medical and behavioral health problems who are homebound or geographically isolated. Optimally tailoring messages in short message service interventions according to preferences can enhance engagement and positive health outcomes; however, little is known about the messaging preferences of middle-aged and older adults. Methods:Utilizing secondary data, global messaging preferences were examined to inform the development of short message service interventions for adults of all ages. Two hundred and seventy-seven adults were recruited through an online labor market. They completed an online survey by evaluating message dyads in 22 content groupings. Dyads were identical in subject matter but structurally or linguistically varied. Participants selected the message in each dyad they would prefer to receive when attempting to meet a self-selected personal goal. Preferences were tested for two age groups ?50 and 51 and older. Results:Findings reveal adults 51 and older have clear messaging preferences that differ significantly from the younger group for only two content groupings; specifically, they prefer no emoticon to a smiley face emoticon and "you" statements rather than "we" statements. Conclusion:Recommendations for optimizing messaging for older adults are reviewed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Text messaging (short message service, SMS) interventions show promise as a way to help cigarette smokers quit. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of text messaging (SMS) programs targeting smokers associated with primary care or hospital settings. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to develop a text messaging (SMS) program targeting primary care smokers. METHODS:Adult smokers in primary care were recruited from February 2017 to April 2017. We sent patients 10 to 11 draft text messages (SMS) over 2 days and asked them to rate each message in real time. Patients were interviewed daily by telephone to discuss ratings, message preferences, and previous experiences with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Content analysis of interviews was directed by a step-wise text messaging (SMS) intervention development process and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of medication adherence. RESULTS:We sent 149 text messages (SMS) to 15 patients. They replied with ratings for 93% (139/149) of the messages: 134 (96%, 134/139) were rated as clear or useful and 5 (4%, 5/139) as unclear or not useful. Patients' preferences included the addition of graphics, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) content, and use of first names. Regarding NRT, patients identified informational gaps around safety and effectiveness, preferred positively framed motivational messages, and needed behavioral skills to dose and dispose of NRT. CONCLUSIONS:Patients recommended text message (SMS) personalization, inclusion of e-cigarette information and graphics, and identified barriers to NRT use. Combining real-time ratings with telephone interviews is a feasible method for incorporating primary care patients' preferences into a behavioral text messaging (SMS) program.
Project description:Although skin cancer is largely preventable, it affects nearly 1 of 5 US adults. There is a need for research on how to optimally design persuasive public health indoor tanning prevention messages.The objective of our study was to examine whether framed messages on indoor tanning behavioral intentions delivered through short message service (SMS) text messaging would produce (1) positive responses to the messages, including message receptivity and emotional response; (2) indoor tanning efficacy beliefs, including response efficacy and self-efficacy; and (3) indoor tanning risk beliefs.We conducted a pilot study of indoor tanning prevention messages delivered via mobile phone text messaging in a sample of 21 young adult women who indoor tan. Participants completed baseline measures, were randomly assigned to receive gain-, loss-, or balanced-framed text messages, and completed postexposure outcome measures on indoor tanning cognitions and behaviors. Participants received daily mobile phone indoor tanning prevention text messages for 1 week and completed the same postexposure measures as at baseline.Over the 1-week period there were trends or significant changes after receipt of the text messages, including increased perceived susceptibility (P<.001), response efficacy beliefs (P<.001), and message receptivity (P=.03). Ordinary least squares stepwise linear regression models showed an effect of text message exposure on self-efficacy to quit indoor tanning (t6=-2.475, P<.02). Ordinary least squares linear regression including all measured scales showed a marginal effect of SMS texts on self-efficacy (t20=1.905, P=.08). Participants endorsed highly favorable views toward the text messaging protocol.This study supports this use of mobile text messaging as an indoor tanning prevention strategy. Given the nature of skin cancer risk perceptions, the addition of multimedia messaging service is another area of potential innovation for disseminating indoor tanning prevention messages.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little information exists about mobile phone usage or preferences for tuberculosis (TB) related health communications in Uganda. METHODS:We surveyed household contacts of TB patients in urban Kampala, Uganda, and clinic patients in rural central Uganda. Questions addressed mobile phone access, usage, and preferences for TB-related communications. We collected qualitative data about messaging preferences. RESULTS:We enrolled 145 contacts and 203 clinic attendees. Most contacts (58%) and clinic attendees (75%) owned a mobile phone, while 42% of contacts and 10% of clinic attendees shared one; 94% of contacts and clinic attendees knew how to receive a short messaging service (SMS) message, but only 59% of contacts aged ?45 years (vs. 96% of contacts aged <45 years, P = 0.0001) did so. All contacts and 99% of clinic attendees were willing and capable of receiving personal-health communications by SMS. Among contacts, 55% preferred detailed messages disclosing test results, while 45% preferred simple messages requesting a clinic visit to disclose results. CONCLUSIONS:Most urban household TB contacts and rural clinic attendees reported having access to a mobile phone and willingness to receive TB-related personal-health communications by voice call or SMS. However, frequent phone sharing and variable messaging abilities and preferences suggest a need to tailor the design and monitoring of mHealth interventions to target recipients.
Project description:Poorly controlled diabetes leads to debilitating complications at a significant cost to health systems. Text messaging is an ideal platform for the delivery of self-management interventions to patients with poorly controlled diabetes due to the ubiquity of mobile phones, and the ability of text messaging to reach people in their everyday lives when self-management of the condition is vital. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of short message service-based diabetes self-management interventions on glycaemic control in adults with poorly controlled diabetes.MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were searched from inception through to 23 January 2017 for randomised controlled trials investigating the use of text messaging based self-management interventions on haemoglobin A1c for patients with poorly controlled diabetes.Seven studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Three of the studies reported a significant decrease in haemoglobin A1c from baseline to follow-up in the intervention group compared to the control group. No clear relationship between positive outcomes and intervention dose, content and functionality was seen.Evidence supporting text messaging for improvements in glycaemic control in people with poorly controlled diabetes is mixed. Previous reviews have reported positive impacts on glycaemic control for short message service interventions in patients with diabetes; however, when limited to those with poorly controlled diabetes the evidence is less clear. Large-scale studies with robust methodology and longer-term follow-up are needed to further understand the impact of text-messaging-based self-management interventions for people with poorly controlled diabetes.
Project description:Text messaging (short message service, SMS) is a widely accessible and potentially cost-effective medium for encouraging behavior change. Few studies have examined text messaging interventions to influence child health behaviors or explored parental perceptions of mobile technologies to support behavior change among children.Our aim was to examine parental acceptability and preferences for text messaging to support pediatric obesity-related behavior change.We conducted focus groups and follow-up interviews with parents of overweight and obese children, aged 6-12 years, seen for "well-child" care in eastern Massachusetts. A professional moderator used a semistructured discussion guide and sample text messages to catalyze group discussions. Seven participants then received 3 weeks of text messages before a follow-up one-on-one telephone interview. All focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using a framework analysis approach, we systematically coded and analyzed group and interview data to identify salient and convergent themes.We reached thematic saturation after five focus groups and seven follow-up interviews with a total of 31 parents of diverse race/ethnicity and education levels. Parents were generally enthusiastic about receiving text messages to support healthy behaviors for their children and preferred them to paper or email communication because they are brief and difficult to ignore. Participants anticipated high responsiveness to messaging endorsed by their child's doctor and indicated they would appreciate messages 2-3 times/week or more as long as content remains relevant. Suggestions for maintaining message relevance included providing specific strategies for implementation and personalizing information. Most felt the negative features of text messaging (eg, limited message size) could be overcome by providing links within messages to other media including email or websites.Text messaging is a promising medium for supporting pediatric obesity-related behavior change. Parent perspectives could assist in the design of text-based interventions.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01565161; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01565161 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6LSaqFyPP).
Project description:Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region.We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results.Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information.Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have reported the inconsistent effectiveness of text messaging (short message service, SMS) for improving health outcomes, but few have examined to what degree the quality, or "fidelity," of implementation may explain study results. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to determine the fidelity of a one-time text messaging (SMS) intervention to promote the uptake of tuberculosis evaluation services among household contacts of index patients with tuberculosis. METHODS:From February to June 2017, we nested a process evaluation of text message (SMS) delivery within the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial of tuberculosis contact investigation in Kampala, Uganda. Because mobile service providers in Uganda do not provide delivery confirmations, we asked household tuberculosis contacts to confirm the receipt of a one-time tuberculosis-related text message (SMS) by sending a text message (SMS) reply through a toll-free "short code." Two weeks later, a research officer followed up by telephone to confirm the receipt of the one-time text message (SMS) and administer a survey. We considered participants lost to follow-up after 3 unsuccessful call attempts on 3 separate days over a 1-week period. RESULTS:Of 206 consecutive household contacts, 119 had a text message (SMS) initiated from the server. While 33% (39/119) were children aged 5-14 years, including 20% (24/119) girls and 13% (15/119) boys, 18 % (21/119) were adolescents or young adults, including 12% (14/119) young women and 6% (7/119) young men. 50% (59/119) were adults, including 26% (31/119) women and 24% (28/119) men. Of 107 (90%) participants for whom we could ascertain text message (SMS) receipt status, 67% (72/107) confirmed text message (SMS) receipt, including 22% (24/107) by reply text message (SMS) and 45% (48/107) during the follow-up telephone survey. No significant clinical or demographic differences were observed between those who did and did not report receiving the text message (SMS). Furthermore, 52% (56/107) reported ever reading the SMS. The cumulative likelihood of a text message (SMS) reaching its target and being read and retained by a participant was 19%. CONCLUSIONS:The fidelity of a one-time text message (SMS) intervention to increase the uptake of household tuberculosis contact investigation and linkage to care was extremely low, a fact only discoverable through detailed process evaluation. This study suggests the need for systematic process monitoring and reporting of implementation fidelity in both research studies and programmatic interventions using mobile communications to improve health.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:There is a substantial body of research on advance care planning (ACP), often originating from English-speaking countries and focused on health care settings. However, studies of content of ACP conversations in community settings remain scarce. We therefore explore community-dwelling, older adults' reasoning about end-of-life (EoL) values and preferences in ACP conversations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:In this participatory action research project, planned and conducted in collaboration with national community-based organizations, we interviewed 65 older adults without known EoL care needs, about their values and preferences for future EoL care. Conversations were stimulated by sorting and ranking statements in a Swedish version of GoWish cards, called the DöBra cards, and verbatim transcripts were analyzed inductively. RESULTS:While participants shared some common preferences about EoL care, there was great variation among individuals in how they reasoned. Although EoL preferences and prioritizations could be identical, different individuals explained these choices very differently. We exemplify this variation using data from four participants who discussed their respective EoL preferences by focusing on either physical, social, existential, or practical implications. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS:A previously undocumented benefit of the GoWish/DöBra cards is how the flexibility of the card statements support substantial discussion of an individual's EoL preferences and underlying values. Such in-depth descriptions of participants' reasoning and considerations are important for understanding the very individual nature of prioritizing EoL preferences. We suggest future users of the DöBra/GoWish cards consider the underlying reasoning of individuals' prioritizations to strengthen person-centeredness in EoL conversations and care provision.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Peru's urban communities, tobacco smoking generally starts during adolescence and smoking prevalence is highest among young adults. Each year, many attempt to quit, but access to smoking cessation programs is limited. Evidence-based text messaging smoking cessation programs are an alternative that has been successfully implemented in high-income countries, but not yet in middle- and low-income countries with limited tobacco control policies. OBJECTIVE:The objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an short message service (SMS) text message-based cognitive behavioral smoking cessation program for young adults in Lima, Peru. METHODS:Recruitment included using flyers and social media ads to direct young adults interested in quitting smoking to a website where interested participants completed a Google Drive survey. Inclusion criteria were being between ages 18 and 25 years, smoking at least four cigarettes per day at least 6 days per week, willing to quit in the next 30 days, owning a mobile phone, using SMS text messaging at least once in past year, and residing in Lima. Participants joined one of three phases: (1) focus groups and in-depth interviews whose feedback was used to develop the SMS text messages, (2) validating the SMS text messages, and (3) a pilot of the SMS text message-based smoking cessation program to test its feasibility and acceptability among young adults in Lima. The outcome measures included adherence to the SMS text message-based program, acceptability of content, and smoking abstinence self-report on days 2, 7, and 30 after quitting. RESULTS:Of 639 participants who completed initial online surveys, 42 met the inclusion criteria and 35 agreed to participate (focus groups and interviews: n=12; validate SMS text messages: n=8; program pilot: n=15). Common quit practices and beliefs emerged from participants in the focus groups and interviews informed the content, tone, and delivery schedule of the messages used in the SMS text message smoking cessation program. A small randomized controlled pilot trial was performed to test the program's feasibility and acceptability; nine smokers were assigned to the SMS text message smoking cessation program and six to a SMS text message nutrition program. Participant retention was high: 93% (14/15) remained until day 30 after quit day. In all, 56% of participants (5/9) in the SMS text message smoking cessation program reported remaining smoke-free until day 30 after quit day and 17% of participants (1/6) in the SMS text message nutrition program reported remaining smoke-free during the entire program. The 14 participants who completed the pilot reported that they received valuable health information and approved the delivery schedule of the SMS text messages. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides initial evidence that a SMS text message smoking cessation program is feasible and acceptable for young adults residing in Lima.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mobile technology to promote exercise is effective; however, most evidence is from studies of younger groups in high-income countries. Investigating if short message service (SMS) texting can affect exercise participation in older adults from an upper-middle-income country is important considering the proliferation of mobile phones in developing regions and the increased interest of older adults in using mobile phones. OBJECTIVE:The main objective was to examine the short- and long-term effects of SMS text messaging on exercise frequency in older adults. Secondary objectives were to investigate how SMS text messages impact study participants' exercise frequency and the effects of the intervention on secondary outcomes. METHODS:The Malaysian Physical Activity for Health Study (myPAtHS) was a 24-week, 2-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial conducted in urban Malaysia. Participants were recruited via health talks in resident associations and religious facilities. Older Malaysians (aged 55-70 years) who used mobile phones and did not exercise regularly were eligible to participate in the study. Participants randomly allocated to the SMS texting arm received an exercise booklet and 5 weekly SMS text messages over 12 weeks. The content of the SMS text messages was derived from effective behavior change techniques. The non-SMS texting arm participants received only the exercise booklet. Home visits were conducted to collect outcome data: (1) exercise frequency at 12 and 24 weeks, (2) secondary outcome data (exercise self-efficacy, physical activity-related energy expenditure, sitting time, body mass index, grip and leg strength) at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks. Intention-to-treat procedures were applied for data analysis. Semistructured interviews focusing primarily on the SMS text messages and their impact on exercise frequency were conducted at weeks 12 and 24. RESULTS:In total, 43 participants were randomized into the SMS texting arm (n=22) and the non-SMS texting arm (n=21). Study-unrelated injuries forced 4 participants to discontinue after a few weeks (they were not included in any analyses). Overall retention was 86% (37/43). After 12 weeks, SMS texting arm participants exercised significantly more than non-SMS texting arm participants (mean difference 1.21 times, bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap [BCa] 95% CI 0.18-2.24). Interview analysis revealed that the SMS text messages positively influenced SMS texting arm participants who experienced exercise barriers. They described the SMS text messages as being encouraging, a push, and a reminder. After 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between the research arms (mean difference 0.74, BCa 95% CI -0.30 to 1.76). There were no significant effects for secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides evidence that SMS text messaging is effective in promoting exercise in older adults from an upper-middle-income country. Although the effects were not maintained when SMS text messaging ceased, the results are promising and warrant more research on behavioral mobile health interventions in other regions. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02123342; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02123342 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6eGSsu2EI).