Development of MHFA-based 2-h educational program for early intervention in depression among office workers: A single-arm pilot trial.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:In the workplace depression and suicide are serious mental health problems. A lack of knowledge and mental health skills along with the stigma toward mental health problems often results in delays in seeking professional help. Interventions targeting not only persons with mental health problems but also people around the individual are warranted in order to encourage supporting behavior within entire workplace. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of our newly developed educational training program in the management with depression and suicidal risk in the workplace as a single-arm pilot trial. METHODS:The program is a two-hour (2-h) training course for employees based on the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) program which aims to increase public mental health literacy. We conducted this program at a company workplace among 91 employees, and ultimately 83 participants completed the self-rated questionnaires. Changes in confidence and practical skills in early intervention of depression and suicide-prevention, and stigma toward mental health problems were evaluated using self-rated questionnaires at 3 time-points; pre-program, immediately post-program, and 1 month after the program. RESULTS:Confidence and practical skills were significantly improved even 1 month after the program, and stigma reduced just after the program. CONCLUSIONS:Our pilot study suggests that the program has a positive impact on encouraging employees to support their co-workers with mental health problems, and is applicable for busy workers due to its short duration. A single-arm design, evaluation using self-rated questionnaire and short-term follow up period are the main limitations of the present study. Hence, future research is required to validate the effects of this program with control groups, and also to assess long-term effectiveness and objective changes such as absenteeism and sick leave. TRIAL REGISTRATION:UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) R000023258.
Project description:Mental illness is a significant and growing problem in Canadian healthcare organizations, leading to tremendous personal, social and financial costs for individuals, their colleagues, their employers and their patients. Early and appropriate intervention is needed, but unfortunately, few workers get the help that they need in a timely way due to barriers related to poor mental health literacy, stigma, and inadequate access to mental health services. Workplace education and training is one promising approach to early identification and support for workers who are struggling. Little is known, however, about what approach is most effective, particularly in the context of healthcare work. The purpose of this study is to compare the impact of a customized, contact-based education approach with standard mental health literacy training on the mental health knowledge, stigmatized beliefs and help-seeking/help-outreach behaviors of healthcare employees.A multi-centre, randomized, two-group parallel group trial design will be adopted. Two hundred healthcare employees will be randomly assigned to one of two educational interventions: Beyond Silence, a peer-led program customized to the healthcare workplace, and Mental Health First Aid, a standardized literacy based training program. Pre, post and 3-month follow-up surveys will track changes in knowledge (mental health literacy), attitudes towards mental illness, and help-seeking/help-outreach behavior. An intent-to-treat, repeated measures analysis will be conducted to compare changes in the two groups over time in terms of the primary outcome of behavior change. Linear regression modeling will be used to explore the extent to which knowledge, and attitudes predict behavior change. Qualitative interviews with participants and leaders will also be conducted to examine process and implementation of the programs.This is one of the first experimental studies to compare outcomes of standard mental health literacy training to an intervention with an added anti-stigma component (using best-practices of contact-based education). Study findings will inform recommendations for designing workplace mental health education to promote early intervention for employees with mental health issues in the context of healthcare work.May 2014 - ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02158871.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study addresses older employees' trajectories of perceived workplace age discrimination, and the long-term associations among perceived age discrimination and older workers' mental and self-rated health, job satisfaction, and likelihood of working past retirement age. We evaluate the strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI) model. METHOD:Three waves of data from employed participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 3,957). Latent growth modeling was used to assess relationships between the slopes and the intercepts of the variables, thereby assessing longitudinal and cross-sectional associations. RESULTS:Perceived workplace age discrimination tends to increase with age, although notable variance exists. The initial status of perceived age discrimination relates to the baseline statuses of depression, self-rated health, job satisfaction, and likelihood of working past retirement age in the expected directions. Over time, perceived age discrimination predicts lower job satisfaction and self-rated health, as well as elevated depressive symptoms, but not likelihood of working past retirement age. DISCUSSION:This study provides empirical support for the SAVI model and uncovers the "wear and tear" effects of perceived workplace age discrimination on older workers' mental and overall health. We deliberate on social policies that may reduce age discrimination, thereby promoting older employees' health and ability to work longer.
Project description:Over time, there has been a steady increase of workplace health promotion programs that aim to promote employees' health and fitness. Previous research has focused on such program's effectiveness, cost-savings, and barriers to engaging in workplace health promotion. The present research focuses on a downside of workplace health promotion programs that to date has not been examined before, namely the possibility that they, due to a focus on individual responsibility for one's health, inadvertently facilitate stigmatization and discrimination of people with overweight in the workplace. Study 1 shows that the presence of workplace health promotion programs is associated with increased attributions of weight controllability. Study 2 experimentally demonstrates that workplace health promotion programs emphasizing individual rather than organizational responsibility elicit weight stigma. Study 3, which was pre-registered, showed that workplace health promotion programs emphasizing individual responsibility induced weight-based discrimination in the context of promotion decisions in the workplace. Moreover, focusing on people with obesity who frequently experience weight stigma and discrimination, Study 3 showed that workplace health promotion programs highlighting individual responsibility induced employees with obesity to feel individually responsible for their health, but at the same time made them perceive weight as <i>less</i> controllable. Together, our research identifies workplace health promotion programs as potent catalysts of weight stigma and weight-based discrimination, especially when they emphasize individual responsibility for health outcomes. As such, we offer valuable insights for organizations who aim to design and implement workplace health promotion programs in an inclusive, non-discriminatory way that benefits all employees.
Project description:To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces.A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness.The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916).The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The present study aimed to classify participants based on mental health problems profile and to evaluate its relationship with dietary patterns among Iranian manufacturing employees. DESIGN:Observational study with a cross-sectional design. SETTING:This study was conducted in Esfahan Steel Company, one of the biggest Iranian industrial manufacturing companies. PARTICIPANTS:Complete data on 2942 manufacturing employees, with a mean (SD) age of 36.68 (7.31) years, were analysed. OUTCOME MEASURES:Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADA) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were used to evaluate anxiety and depression and psychological distress, respectively. RESULTS:Three major dietary patterns, namely 'western', 'healthy' and 'traditional', were extracted using factor analysis. A two-class, one-factor structure was identified from study participants in terms of mental health problems profile based on the factor mixture model. Two identified classes were labelled as 'low mental health problems' (2683 manufacturing employees, 91.2%) and 'high mental health problems' (259 individuals, 8.8%). After adjusting for the impact of potential confounders, manufacturing employees in the highest tertile of healthy dietary pattern had lower odds of being in the high mental health problems profile class (OR=0.67, 95%?CI 0.49 to 0.92). In contrast, greater adherence to Western and traditional dietary patterns was associated with increased odds of being in the high mental health problems class (OR=1.66, 95%?CI: 1.18 to 2.35 and OR=1.52, 95% CI :1.10 to 2.11, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Our study provided informative pathways on the association of dietary patterns and mental health among manufacturing employees. The findings can be used by workplace health promotion policymakers in improving mental health in such study population. Interventional and prospective studies that investigate the effects of change in dietary patterns on the mental health of manufacturing employees are suggested.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Parents of individuals with developmental disorders or mental health problems often provide life-long care and support to their children, which negatively affects their health in part due to chronic stress. This study aimed to examine the experience of stigma as a source of chronic stress among parents of individuals with developmental disorders or mental health problems and the effect of stigma on parental health outcomes. METHOD:Using data from the Survey of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS 2 and 3), we constructed a sample for a longitudinal analysis including 128 parents of individuals with developmental disorders (e.g., autism, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Down syndrome, intellectual disabilities, brain injury, ADD/ADHD) or mental health problems (e.g., bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depression) and 2256 parents whose children were nondisabled. RESULTS:Parents who had children with developmental disorders or mental health problems prior to the beginning of the study (i.e., at MIDUS 1) reported higher levels of stigma related to embarrassment/shame and daily discrimination than parents of nondisabled individuals ten years later at MIDUS 2, which in turn were associated with poorer parental health outcomes (poorer self-rated health and a greater number of chronic conditions) nearly a decade after that at MIDUS 3. CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the stigma associated with parenting a child with disabilities may be one mechanism that places such parents at risk for poor health. Efforts to alleviate the stigma associated with developmental disorders or mental health problems may have beneficial effects on health of parents of individuals with such conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Health care workers exposed to COVID-19 might be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The study aimed to identify factors associated with anxiety, depression and insomnia among health workers involved in COVID-19 response in Nepal. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional web-based survey conducted between April 26 and May 12, 2020. A total of 475 health workers participated in the study. Anxiety and depression were measured using a 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS: 0-21) and insomnia was measured by using a 7-item Insomnia Severity Index (ISI: 0-28). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to determine the risk factors of mental health outcomes. RESULTS:Overall, 41.9% of health workers had symptoms of anxiety, 37.5% had depression symptoms and 33.9% had symptoms of insomnia. Stigma faced by health workers was significantly associated with higher odds of experiencing symptoms of anxiety (AOR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.62-3.76), depression (AOR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.34-3.11) and insomnia (AOR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.46-3.84). History of medication for mental health problems was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of experiencing symptoms of anxiety (AOR: 3.40; 95% CI:1.31-8.81), depression (AOR: 3.83; 95% CI: 1.45-10.14) and insomnia (AOR: 3.82; 95% CI: 1.52-9.62) while inadequate precautionary measures in the workplace was significantly associated with higher odds of exhibiting symptoms of anxiety (AOR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.12-3.19) and depression (AOR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.16-3.37). Nurses (AOR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.21-4.47) were significantly more likely to experience anxiety symptoms than other health workers. CONCLUSION:The study findings revealed a considerate proportion of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms among health workers during the early phase of the pandemic in Nepal. Health workers facing stigma, those with history of medication for mental health problems, and those reporting inadequate precautionary measures in their workplace were more at risk of developing mental health outcomes. A focus on improving mental wellbeing of health workers should be immediately initiated with attention to reduction of stigma, ensuring an adequate support system such as personal protective equipments, and family support for those with history of mental health problems.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High alcohol consumption poses risks to individual health and society. Previous alcohol interventions have mainly focused on high-risk consumers or young adults in school-based settings. Since the majority of the adult population is in the workforce, the workplace can be considered a favorable arena for implementing interventions. OBJECTIVE:This protocol describes a project aimed at increasing knowledge of the effectiveness of combining the implementation of an organizational alcohol policy with skills training for managers as a workplace alcohol prevention program, by evaluating the intervention and exploring managers' perceptions of the intervention. METHODS:Organizations with at least 100 employees were invited to take part in the project. A total of 11 organizations (744 managers and 11,761 employees) were included in the project. Data are collected through self-administered online surveys at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. The primary outcome is managers' inclination to initiate an early alcohol intervention (eg, by initiating a dialogue) when concern regarding employees' hazardous alcohol consumption arises. The secondary outcomes of interest are managers' and employees' organizational alcohol policy knowledge and changes in alcohol consumption, as measured using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) score. A linear mixed-model framework will be used to model variability on different levels. Primary analysis will follow an intention-to-treat approach. Additionally, managers' responses from semistructured interviews will be analyzed using thematic analysis to explore managers' experiences regarding the prevention program. RESULTS:This study is ongoing. The overall study start was on January 2018, and the study is planned to end in December 2020. Baseline and 12-month follow-up measurements have been collected. CONCLUSIONS:This project is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an alcohol prevention program regarding higher inclination to initiate early alcohol interventions after policy implementation and skills training among managers, compared to the usual practices in the workplace. The results from this study can contribute to increased knowledge about alcohol interventions and future prevention programs in the workplace. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN17250048; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN17250048. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):DERR1-10.2196/17145.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the association between mental health and comprehensive workplace health promotion (WHP) delivered to an entire state public service workforce (~28,000 employees) over a three-year period. Government departments in a state public service were supported to design and deliver a comprehensive, multi-component health promotion program, Healthy@Work, which targeted modifiable health risks including unhealthy lifestyles and stress. Repeated cross-sectional surveys compared self-reported psychological distress (Kessler-10; K10) at commencement (N = 3406) and after 3 years (N = 3228). WHP availability and participation over time was assessed, and associations between the K10 and exposure to programs estimated. Analyses were repeated for a cohort subgroup (N = 580). Data were weighted for non-response. Participation in any mental health and lifestyle programs approximately doubled after 3 years. Both male and female employees with poorer mental health participated more often over time. Women's psychological distress decreased over time but this change was only partially attributable to participation in WHP, and only to lifestyle interventions. Average psychological distress did not change over time for men. Unexpectedly, program components directly targeting mental health were not associated with distress for either men or women. Cohort results corroborated findings. Healthy@Work was successful in increasing participation across a range of program types, including for men and women with poorer mental health. A small positive association of participation in lifestyle programs with mental health was observed for women but not men. The lack of association of mental health programs may have reflected program quality, its universality of application or other contextual factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mental health has long been recognised as a major global health issue. Some work-related characteristics have been identified to be associated with common mental health problems, and thus the workplace is an important venue for the prevention of mental health problems and promoting mental wellness. Burnout is one of the important aspects of workplace organisational stressors and, in recent years, the lack of mental health literacy has also been identified as a fundamental issue. Studies have demonstrated that an improvement in mental health literacy is an effective measure for enhancing mental well-being. It would be prudent to combine an organisation-directed component and the enhancement of mental health literacy in an intervention programme. This trial will examine the novel approach of an intervention aiming to provide an evidence-based prevention programme. METHODS:This study utilised a wait-listed cluster randomised control trial design. Using branch offices as the primary sampling units, employees from three large companies in different industries will be recruited. Upon enrolment and after the baseline assessment of the outcome measures, participants nested in the branch offices will be allocated to the intervention or wait-listed arms. The intervention programme comprises of two main elements: an organisation-directed component and individual-directed psychoeducation training. This intervention will be delivered by a senior social worker well-versed in workplace issues over a period of 3 months. The trial will determine whether an integrated workplace mental health literacy and well-being programme is effective in increasing the mental health literacy scores and reducing burnout and stress scores, as measured by standardised and validated scales. DISCUSSION:If the trial results are in line with the hypothesis that supports the efficacy of the intervention programme, this will provide an evidence-based approach for an effective workplace mental well-being intervention programme that could not only enhance the understanding of mental health issues, but also reduce work-related burnout and stress as well as increase workers' quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), ACTRN12619000464167. Registered prospectively on 20 March 2019.