Lack of IFN? signaling attenuates spread of influenza A virus in vivo and leads to reduced pathogenesis.
ABSTRACT: IFN? is a key regulator of inflammatory responses but its role in influenza A virus (IAV) pathogenesis is unclear. Our studies show that infection of mice lacking the IFN? receptor (IFN?R-/-) at a dose which caused severe disease in wild type 129?Sv/Ev (WT) mice resulted in milder clinical symptoms and significantly lower lung virus titers by 6 days post-infection (dpi). Viral spread was reduced in IFN?R-/- lungs at 2 and 4 dpi. Levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were lower in IFN?R-/- mice at 2 dpi and there was less infiltration of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells than in WT mice. There was no difference in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and alveolar macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at 2 and 4 dpi but by 4 dpi IFN?R-/- mice had significantly higher percentages of neutrophils. Our data strongly suggest that IAV can use the inflammatory response to promote viral spread.
Project description:Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cleaves various proteins to regulate inflammatory and injury responses. However, MMP-9's activities during influenza A viral (IAV) infections are incompletely understood. Herein, plasma MMP-9 levels were increased in patients with pandemic H1N1 and seasonal IAV infections. MMP-9 lung levels were increased and localized to airway epithelial cells and leukocytes in H1N1-infected WT murine lungs. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice had lower mortality rates, reduced weight loss, lower lung viral titers, and reduced lung injury, along with lower E-cadherin shedding in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples than WT mice. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice had an altered immune response to IAV with lower BALF PMN and macrophage counts, higher Th1-like CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, lower T regulatory cell counts, reduced lung type I interferon levels, and higher lung interferon-? levels. Mmp-9 bone marrow-chimera studies revealed that Mmp-9 deficiency in lung parenchymal cells protected mice from IAV-induced mortality. H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- lung epithelial cells had lower viral titers than H1N1-infected WT cells in vitro. Thus, H1N1-infected Mmp-9-/- mice are protected from IAV-induced lung disease due to a more effective adaptive immune response to IAV and reduced epithelial barrier injury due partly to reduced E-cadherin shedding. Thus, we believe that MMP-9 is a novel therapeutic target for IAV infections.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Oxidative stress is increased in COPD, IAV-induced lung inflammation and AECOPD. Therefore, we investigated whether targeting oxidative stress with the Nox2 oxidase inhibitors and ROS scavengers, apocynin and ebselen could ameliorate lung inflammation in a mouse model of AECOPD. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) generated from 9 cigarettes per day for 4 days. On day 5, mice were infected with 1 × 10(4.5) PFUs of the IAV Mem71 (H3N1). BALF inflammation, viral titers, superoxide production and whole lung cytokine, chemokine and protease mRNA expression were assessed 3 and 7 days post infection. IAV infection resulted in a greater increase in BALF inflammation in mice that had been exposed to CS compared to non-smoking mice. This increase in BALF inflammation in CS-exposed mice caused by IAV infection was associated with elevated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases, compared to CS alone mice. Apocynin and ebselen significantly reduced the exacerbated BALF inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemokine and protease expression caused by IAV infection in CS mice. Targeting oxidative stress using apocynin and ebselen reduces IAV-induced lung inflammation in CS-exposed mice and may be therapeutically exploited to alleviate AECOPD.
Project description:Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging zoonotic disease, which causes high fever, thrombocytopenia, and death in humans and animals in East Asian countries. The pathogenicity of SFTS virus (SFTSV) remains unclear. We intraperitoneally infected three groups of mice: wild-type (WT), mice treated with blocking anti-type I interferon (IFN)-? receptor antibody (IFNAR Ab), and IFNAR knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice, with four doses of SFTSV (KH1, 5?×?105 to 5?×?102 FAID50). The WT mice survived all SFTSV infective doses. The IFNAR Ab mice died within 7 days post-infection (dpi) with all doses of SFTSV except that the mice were infected with 5?×?102 FAID50 SFTSV. The IFNAR-/- mice died after infection with all doses of SFTSV within four dpi. No SFTSV infection caused hyperthermia in any mice, whereas all the dead mice showed hypothermia and weight loss. In the WT mice, SFTSV RNA was detected in the eyes, oral swabs, urine, and feces at 5 dpi. Similar patterns were observed in the IFNAR Ab and IFNAR-/- mice after 3 dpi, but not in feces. The IFNAR Ab mice showed viral shedding until 7 dpi. The SFTSV RNA loads were higher in organs of the IFNAR-/- mice compared to the other groups. Histopathologically, coagulation necrosis and mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver and white pulp atrophy in the spleen were seen as the main lesions in the IFN signaling lacking mice. Immunohistochemically, SFTSV antigens were mainly detected in the marginal zone of the white pulp of the spleen in all groups of mice, but more viral antigens were observed in the spleen of the IFNAR-/- mice. Collectively, the IFN signaling-deficient mice were highly susceptible to SFTSV and more viral burden could be demonstrated in various excreta and organs of the mice when IFN signaling was inhibited.
Project description:Influenza virus infections particularly when followed by bacterial superinfections (BSI) result in significant morbidities and mortalities especially during influenza pandemics. Type I interferons (IFNs) regulate both anti-influenza immunity and host susceptibility to subsequent BSIs. These type I IFNs consisting of, among others, 14 IFN-?'s and a single IFN-?, are recognized by and signal through the heterodimeric type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) comprised of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. However, the individual receptor subunits can bind IFN-? or IFN-?'s independently of each other and induce distinct signaling. The role of type I IFN signaling in regulating host susceptibility to both viral infections and BSI has been only examined with respect to IFNAR1 deficiency. Here, we demonstrate that despite some redundancies, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 have distinct roles in regulating both anti-influenza A virus (IAV) immunity and in shaping host susceptibility to subsequent BSI caused by S. aureus. We found IFNAR2 to be critical for anti-viral immunity. In contrast to Ifnar1 -/- mice, IAV-infected Ifnar2 -/- mice displayed both increased and accelerated morbidity and mortality compared to WT mice. Furthermore, unlike IFNAR1, IFNAR2 was sufficient to generate protection from lethal IAV infection when stimulated with IFN-?. With regards to BSI, unlike what we found previously in Ifnar1 -/- mice, Ifnar2 -/- mice were not susceptible to BSI induced on day 3 post-IAV, even though absence of IFNAR2 resulted in increased viral burden and an increased inflammatory environment. The Ifnar2 -/- mice similar to what we previously found in Ifnar1 -/- mice were less susceptible than WT mice to BSI induced on day 7 post-IAV, indicating that signaling through a complete receptor increases BSI susceptibility late during clinical IAV infection. Thus, our results support a role for IFNAR2 in induction of anti-IAV immune responses that are involved in altering host susceptibility to BSI and are essential for decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with IAV infection. These results begin to elucidate some of the mechanisms involved in how the individual IFNAR subunits shape the anti-viral immune response. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of examining the contributions of entire receptors, as individual subunits can induce distinct outcomes as shown here.
Project description:Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes severe pulmonary disease characterized by intense leukocyte infiltration. Phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3Ks) are central signaling enzymes, involved in cell growth, survival, and migration. Class IB PI3K or phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase-gamma (PI3K?), mainly expressed by leukocytes, is involved in cell migration during inflammation. Here, we investigated the contribution of PI3K? for the inflammatory and antiviral responses to IAV. PI3K? knockout (KO) mice were highly susceptible to lethality following infection with influenza A/WSN/33 H1N1. In the early time points of infection, infiltration of neutrophils was higher than WT mice whereas type-I and type-III IFN expression and p38 activation were reduced in PI3K? KO mice resulting in higher viral loads when compared with WT mice. Blockade of p38 in WT macrophages infected with IAV reduced levels of interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein to those induced in PI3K? KO macrophages, suggesting that p38 is downstream of antiviral responses mediated by PI3K?. PI3K? KO-derived fibroblasts or macrophages showed reduced type-I IFN transcription and altered pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a cell autonomous imbalance between inflammatory and antiviral responses. Seven days after IAV infection, there were reduced infiltration of natural killer cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes, increased concentration of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid, reduced numbers of resolving macrophages, and IL-10 levels in PI3K? KO. This imbalanced environment in PI3K? KO-infected mice culminated in enhanced lung neutrophil infiltration, reactive oxygen species release, and lung damage that together with the increased viral loads, contributed to higher mortality in PI3K? KO mice compared with WT mice. In humans, we tested the genetic association of disease severity in influenza A/H1N1pdm09-infected patients with three potentially functional PIK3CG single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1129293, rs17847825, and rs2230460. We observed that SNPs rs17847825 and rs2230460 (A and T alleles, respectively) were significantly associated with protection from severe disease using the recessive model in patients infected with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Altogether, our results suggest that PI3K? is crucial in balancing antiviral and inflammatory responses to IAV infection.
Project description:An immune response of appropriate magnitude should be robust enough to control pathogen spread but not simultaneously lead to immunopathology. Primary infection with influenza A virus (IAV) results in a localized pulmonary infection and inflammation and elicits an IAV-specific CD8 T cell immune response necessary for viral clearance. Clearance of IAV-infected cells, and recovery from infection, is mediated by perforin/granzyme B- and Fas/FasL-mediated mechanisms. We recently reported that TRAIL is another means by which IAV-specific CD8 T cells can kill IAV-infected cells. The current study examined the role of TRAIL in the pulmonary CD8 T cell response to a clinically significant IAV [A/PR/8/34 (PR8; H1N1)] infection (i.e., leads to observable, but limited, morbidity and mortality in wild-type [WT] mice). Compared with WT mice, IAV-infected Trail(-/-) mice experienced increased morbidity and mortality despite similar rates of viral clearance from the lungs. The increased morbidity and mortality in Trail(-/-) mice correlated with increased pulmonary pathology and inflammatory chemokine production. Analysis of lung-infiltrating lymphocytes revealed increased numbers of IAV-specific CD8 T cells in infected Trail(-/-) mice, which correlated with increased pulmonary cytotoxic activity and increased pulmonary expression of MIG and MIP-1?. In addition, there was decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation of IAV-specific CD8 T cells in the lungs of Trail(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. Together, these data suggest that TRAIL regulates the magnitude of the IAV-specific CD8 T cell response during a clinically significant IAV infection to decrease the chance for infection-induced immunopathology.
Project description:Treatments against influenza A viruses (IAV) have to be updated regularly due to antigenic drift and drug resistance. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are considered effective therapeutic targets of acute lung inflammatory injury. This study aimed to explore the effects of PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib on IAV-induced lung injury and the underlying mechanisms. Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice were intranasally infected with IAV strain H1N1 to mimic pneumonia experimentally. Olaparib at different doses was intraperitoneally injected 2 days before and 5 consecutive days after virus stimulation. On day 6 post-infection, lung tissues as well as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were sampled for histological and biochemical analyses. Olaparib increased the survival rate of IAV mice dose-dependently. Olaparib remarkably reduced IAV mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) level, and inflammatory cell infiltration in IAV lungs. Moreover, olaparib significantly reduced the level of interleukin (IL)-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interferon (IFN)-?, IL-6, and IL-4 and increased IL-10 in IAV lungs. Also, olaparib efficiently reduced IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), TNF-?, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL10, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)3, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) release in IAV BALF. Olaparib decreased PARylated protein content and p65, I?B? phosphorylation in IAV lung tissues. This study successfully constructed the pneumonia murine model using IAV. Olaparib decreased IAV-induced mortality in mice, lung injury, and cytokine production possibly via modulation of PARP-1/NF-?B axis.
Project description:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replicates primarily in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and the resulting lung damage is influenced by strain virulence. To better understand the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection, we performed a longitudinal study of the PAM population and lung cytokines in specific pathogen-free pigs infected either with the highly pathogenic Lena strain or with the low pathogenic Finistere strain in comparison to uninfected pigs. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood were collected to follow viral, cellular and cytokine changes in lung with respect to clinical signs and systemic events. Compared to Finistere-infected pigs, Lena-infected pigs exhibited more severe clinical signs and 10- to 100-fold higher viral loads in BALF and blood. Similarly, they showed an earlier drop in BALF cell viability and phagocytic activity along with a decrease in the macrophage count. From 8 to 15 days post-infection (dpi), monocytes increased both in BALF and blood from Lena-infected pigs. BALF and blood showed contrasting cytokine patterns, with low increase of IFN-? and TNF-? levels and high increase for IL-1? and IL-8 in BALF after Lena-infection. In contrast, in the blood, the increase was marked for IFN-? and TNF-? but limited for IL-1? and IL-8. Down-regulation of PAM functions combined with inflammatory cytokine and monocyte recruitment may promote lung pathogenesis and virus replication in PRRSV infections with the highly pathogenic Lena strain. In contrast, the low pathogenic Finistere strain showed prolonged viral replication in lung, possibly related to the weak IFN-? response.
Project description:Although asthmatics has been considered to be highly susceptible to respiratory viral infection and most studies have focused on exacerbation of asthma by influenza A virus (IAV) infection, few experimental evidences exist to directly demonstrate that asthmatic mice are actually resistant to IAV infection. Here, we show that asthmatic mice are not highly susceptible to IAV in the early stage of infection and type III interferon (IFN) maintains antiviral immune response in the lung of IAV-infected asthmatic mouse resulting in inhibition of initial viral spread. C57BL/6 mice with allergic asthma were infected with IAV (WS/33: H1N1) and survival rate, body weight, viral titer, histopathological findings of lung and cytokine profiles including IFNs and Th2 cytokines were measured. Notably, asthmatic mice were significantly resistant to IAV and showed lower viral load until 7?days after infection. Furthermore, IAV-infected asthmatic mice exhibited decreased Th2-related inflammation in lung tissue until 7?days. These increased antiviral resistant mechanism and reduced Th2 inflammation were attributable to rapid induction of type III IFNs and blockade of type III IFNs in asthmatic lung led to aggravated IAV infection and to enhance the production of Th2 cytokines. Asthmatic mice showed bi-phasic responses against IAV-caused lung infection such as rapid production of type III IFNs and subsequent induction of type II IFNs. Actually, IAV-infected asthmatic mice become vulnerable to IAV infection after 7?days with noticeable morbidity and severe weight loss. However, intranasal administration of type III IFNs protects completely asthmatic mice from IAV-mediated immunopathology and lung infection until 14?days after infection. Taken together, our study indicates that the rapid induction of type III IFN might be distinctive immunological findings in the respiratory tract of IAV-infected asthmatic mice at the early stage of infection and crucial for suppression of initial viral spread in vivo asthma accompanying with restriction of Th2 cytokine productions.
Project description:Influenza A Virus (IAV) triggers an exuberant host response that promotes acute lung injury. However, the determinants of the pathological host response to IAV remain incompletely understood. In the current study, we identified interferon (IFN)-γ-regulated subset of monocytes, CCR2+ monocytes, as a driver of lung damage during IAV pathogenesis. IFN-γ regulated the recruitment and inflammatory phenotype of CCR2+ monocytes, and CCR2 (CCR2-/-) and IFN-γ (IFN-γ-/-) deficient mice exhibited reduced lung inflammation, pathology, and increased resistance against bacterial co-infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn). Adoptive transfer of WT (IFN-γR1+), but not IFN-γR1 deficient (IFN-γR1-) CCR2+ monocytes, restored the wild-type (WT)-like pathological phenotype of lung damage in IAV-infected CCR2-/- mice. The CD8+ T cells were the most significant source of IFN-γ in IAV-infected lungs. Collectively, our data highlight that IFN-γ regulates CCR2+ monocyte-mediated lung pathology during IAV pathogenesis. Overall design: scRNAseq profiles of mock, 7 days post-viral infection