Genetic variants at the 16p13 locus confer risk for eosinophilic esophagitis.
ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus triggered by immune hypersensitivity to food. Herein, we tested whether genetic risk factors for known, non-allergic, immune-mediated diseases, particularly those involving autoimmunity, were associated with EoE risk. We used the high-density Immunochip platform, encoding 200,000 genetic variants for major auto-immune disease. Accordingly, 1214 subjects with EoE of European ancestry and 3734 population controls were genotyped and assessed using data directly generated or imputed from the previously published GWAS. We found lack of association of EoE with the genetic variants in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, II, and III genes and nearly all other loci using a highly powered study design with dense genotyping throughout the locus. Importantly, we identified an EoE risk locus at 16p13 with genome-wide significance (Pcombined=2.05?×?10-9, odds ratio?=?0.76-0.81). This region is known to encode for the genes CLEC16A, DEXI, and CIITI, which are expressed in immune cells and esophageal epithelial cells. Suggestive EoE risk were also seen 5q23 (intergenic) and 7p15 (JAZF1). Overall, we have identified an additional EoE risk locus at 16p13 and highlight a shared and unique genetic etiology of EoE with a spectrum of immune-associated diseases.
Project description:More than a decade after the discovery of a novel type 1 diabetes risk locus on chromosome 16p13, there remains complexity and controversy over the specific gene(s) that regulate diabetes pathogenesis. A new study by Nieves-Bonilla et al. shows that one of these genes, DEXI, is unlikely to contribute to type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and positions the endolysosomal E3 ubiquitin ligase CLEC16A as the primary culprit by which this gene locus influences diabetes risk.
Project description:Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in childhood and likely represents an extreme of normal behavior. ADHD significantly impacts learning in school-age children and leads to impaired functioning throughout the life span. There is strong evidence for a genetic etiology of the disorder, although putative alleles, principally in dopamine-related pathways suggested by candidate-gene studies, have very small effect sizes. We use affected-sib-pair analysis in 203 families to localize the first major susceptibility locus for ADHD to a 12-cM region on chromosome 16p13 (maximum LOD score 4.2; P=.000005), building upon an earlier genomewide scan of this disorder. The region overlaps that highlighted in three genome scans for autism, a disorder in which inattention and hyperactivity are common, and physically maps to a 7-Mb region on 16p13. These findings suggest that variations in a gene on 16p13 may contribute to common deficits found in both ADHD and autism.
Project description:The chromosome 16p13 region has been associated with several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS). CLEC16A has been reported as the most likely candidate gene in the region, since it contains the most disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as an imunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. However, here we report that intron 19 of CLEC16A, containing the most autoimmune disease-associated SNPs, appears to behave as a regulatory sequence, affecting the expression of a neighbouring gene, DEXI. The CLEC16A alleles that are protective from T1D and MS are associated with increased expression of DEXI, and no other genes in the region, in two independent monocyte gene expression data sets. Critically, using chromosome conformation capture (3C), we identified physical proximity between the DEXI promoter region and intron 19 of CLEC16A, separated by a loop of >150 kb. In reciprocal experiments, a 20 kb fragment of intron 19 of CLEC16A, containing SNPs associated with T1D and MS, as well as with DEXI expression, interacted with the promotor region of DEXI but not with candidate DNA fragments containing other potential causal genes in the region, including CLEC16A. Intron 19 of CLEC16A is highly enriched for transcription-factor-binding events and markers associated with enhancer activity. Taken together, these data indicate that although the causal variants in the 16p13 region lie within CLEC16A, DEXI is an unappreciated autoimmune disease candidate gene, and illustrate the power of the 3C approach in progressing from genome-wide association studies results to candidate causal genes.
Project description:Myoclonic epilepsies with onset in infancy and childhood are clinically and etiologically heterogeneous. Although genetic factors are thought to play an important role, to date very little is known about the etiology of these disorders. We ascertained a large Italian pedigree segregating a recessive idiopathic myoclonic epilepsy that starts in early infancy as myoclonic seizures, febrile convulsions, and tonic-clonic seizures. We typed 304 microsatellite markers spanning the 22 autosomes and mapped the locus on chromosome 16p13 by linkage analysis. A maximum LOD score of 4.48 was obtained for marker D16S3027 at recombination fraction 0. Haplotype analysis placed the critical region within a 3.4-cM interval between D16S3024 and D16S423. The present report constitutes the first example of an idiopathic epilepsy that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
Project description:The diffuse variant of follicular lymphoma (dFL) is a rare variant of FL lacking t(14;18) that was first described in 2009. In this study, we use a comprehensive approach to define unifying pathologic and genetic features through gold-standard pathologic review, FISH, SNP-microarray, and next-generation sequencing of 16 cases of dFL. We found unique morphologic features, including interstitial sclerosis, microfollicle formation, and rounded nuclear cytology, confirmed absence of t(14;18) and recurrent deletion of 1p36, and showed a novel association with deletion/CN-LOH of 16p13 (inclusive of CREBBP, CIITA, and SOCS1). Mutational profiling demonstrated near-uniform mutations in CREBBP and STAT6, with clonal dominance of CREBBP, among other mutations typical of germinal-center B-cell lymphomas. Frequent CREBBP and CIITA codeletion/mutation suggested a mechanism for immune evasion, while subclonal STAT6 activating mutations with concurrent SOCS1 loss suggested a mechanism of BCL-xL/BCL2L1 upregulation in the absence of BCL2 rearrangements. A review of the literature showed significant enrichment for 16p13 and 1p36 loss/CN-LOH, STAT6 mutation, and CREBBP and STAT6 comutation in dFL, as compared with conventional FL. With this comprehensive approach, our study demonstrates confirmatory and novel genetic associations that can aid in the diagnosis and subclassification of this rare type of lymphoma.
Project description:Here we perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of multiple myeloma (MM) survival. In a meta-analysis of 306 MM patients treated at UCSF and 239 patients treated at the Mayo clinic, we find a significant association between SNPs near the gene FOPNL on chromosome 16p13 and survival (rs72773978; P=6 × 10(-10)). Patients with the minor allele are at increased risk for mortality (HR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.94-3.58) relative to patients homozygous for the major allele. We replicate the association in the IMMEnSE cohort including 772 patients, and a University of Utah cohort including 318 patients (rs72773978 P=0.044). Using publicly available data, we find that the minor allele was associated with increased expression of FOPNL and increased expression of FOPNL was associated with higher expression of centrosomal genes and with shorter survival. Polymorphisms at the FOPNL locus are associated with survival among MM patients.
Project description:The biological effects of susceptibility loci are rarely reported in gastric tumorigenesis. We conducted a large-scale cross-ancestry genetic study in 18,852 individuals and identified the potential causal variant rs3850997 T>G at 16p13 significantly associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.83 to 0.91, P = 2.13 × 10-9]. This risk effect was mediated through the mapped long noncoding RNA GCLET (Gastric Cancer Low-Expressed Transcript; ORindirect = 0.987, 95% CI = 0.975 to 0.999, P = 0.018). Mechanistically, rs3850997 exerted an allele-specific long-range regulatory effect on GCLET by affecting the binding affinity of CTCF. Furthermore, GCLET increased FOXP2 expression by competing with miR-27a-3p, and this regulation remarkably affected in vitro, in vivo, and clinical gastric cancer phenotypes. The findings highlight the genetic functions and implications for the etiology and pathology of cancers.
Project description:We completed fine mapping of nine positional candidate regions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an extended population sample of 308 affected sibling pairs (ASPs), constituting the largest linkage sample of families with ADHD published to date. The candidate chromosomal regions were selected from all three published genomewide scans for ADHD, and fine mapping was done to comprehensively validate these positional candidate regions in our sample. Multipoint maximum LOD score (MLS) analysis yielded significant evidence of linkage on 6q12 (MLS 3.30; empiric P=.024) and 17p11 (MLS 3.63; empiric P=.015), as well as suggestive evidence on 5p13 (MLS 2.55; empiric P=.091). In conjunction with the previously reported significant linkage on the basis of fine mapping 16p13 in the same sample as this report, the analyses presented here indicate that four chromosomal regions--5p13, 6q12, 16p13, and 17p11--are likely to harbor susceptibility genes for ADHD. The refinement of linkage within each of these regions lays the foundation for subsequent investigations using association methods to detect risk genes of moderate effect size.
Project description:Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an antigen-driven disease mediated by an abnormal immune Th2 response.The objective of this article is to investigate genes associated with regulating immune responses leading to disease susceptibility.Twenty-seven tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) selected in five candidate genes (TLR3, TLR4, FOXP3, FLG and TSLP) were genotyped in 218 EoE patients and 376 controls. Skin prick tests were carried out in EoE patients with a panel of 17 aeroallergens and 22 plant- and animal-derived foods.Five tSNPs located in the TSLP locus and one tSNP located in the TLR3 locus were significantly associated with EoE. The interactions between TLR3 and TSLP loci were analyzed. TLR3+/TSLP- and TLR3-/TSLP+ individuals showed a significantly reduced susceptibility to EoE compared to TLR3-/TSLP- individuals (OR?=?0.66, p?=?0.036 and OR?=?0.23, p?=?0.00014, respectively). Likewise, TLR3+/TSLP+ individuals showed the most decreased susceptibility of developing EoE (OR?=?0.16, p?=?0.0001). However, the interaction gain attributed to the combination of both genes was negative (IG?=?-4.52%), which indicated redundancy or independent effect. Additionally, TLR3 locus was found to be associated with aeroallergen and food sensitization in EoE patients (OR?=?9.67, pc?=?0.025 and OR?=?0.53, pc?=?0.048, respectively).TLR3 constitutes a novel genetic susceptibility locus for developing EoE, and the effects would be independent of TSLP.
Project description:Psoriasis (PS) and Crohn disease (CD) have been shown to be epidemiologically, pathologically, and therapeutically connected, but little is known about their shared genetic causes. We performed meta-analyses of five published genome-wide association studies on PS (2,529 cases and 4,955 controls) and CD (2,142 cases and 5,505 controls), followed up 20 loci that showed strongest evidence for shared disease association and, furthermore, tested cross-disease associations for previously reported PS and CD risk alleles in additional 6,115 PS cases, 4,073 CD cases, and 10,100 controls. We identified seven susceptibility loci outside the human leukocyte antigen region (9p24 near JAK2, 10q22 at ZMIZ1, 11q13 near PRDX5, 16p13 near SOCS1, 17q21 at STAT3, 19p13 near FUT2, and 22q11 at YDJC) shared between PS and CD with genome-wide significance (p < 5 × 10(-8)) and confirmed four already established PS and CD risk loci (IL23R, IL12B, REL, and TYK2). Three of the shared loci are also genome-wide significantly associated with PS alone (10q22 at ZMIZ1, p(rs1250544) = 3.53 × 10(-8), 11q13 near PRDX5, p(rs694739) = 3.71 × 10(-09), 22q11 at YDJC, p(rs181359) = 8.02 × 10(-10)). In addition, we identified one susceptibility locus for CD (16p13 near SOCS1, p(rs4780355) = 4.99 × 10(-8)). Refinement of association signals identified shared genome-wide significant associations for exonic SNPs at 10q22 (ZMIZ1) and in silico expression quantitative trait locus analyses revealed that the associations at ZMIZ1 and near SOCS1 have a potential functional effect on gene expression. Our results show the usefulness of joint analyses of clinically distinct immune-mediated diseases and enlarge the map of shared genetic risk loci.