In silico analyses for potential key genes associated with gastric cancer.
ABSTRACT: Background:Understanding hub genes involved in gastric cancer (GC) metastasis could lead to effective approaches to diagnose and treat cancer. In this study, we aim to identify the hub genes and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of GC. Methods:To explore potential therapeutic targets for GC,three expression profiles (GSE54129, GSE33651, GSE81948) of the genes were extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The GEO2R online tool was applied to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between GC and normal gastric samples. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was applied to perform Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of these DEGs was constructed using a STRING online software. The hub genes were identified by the CytoHubba plugin of Cytoscape software. Then, the prognostic value of these identified genes was verified by gastric cancer database derived from Kaplan-Meier plotter platform. Results:A total of 85 overlapped upregulated genes and 44 downregulated genes were identified. The majority of the DEGs were enriched in extracellular matrix organization, endodermal cell differentiation, and endoderm formation. Moreover, five KEGG pathways were significantly enriched, including ECM-receptor interaction, amoebiasis, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, focal adhesion, protein digestion and absorption. By combining the results of PPI network and CytoHubba, a total of nine hub genes including COL1A1, THBS1, MMP2, CXCL8, FN1, TIMP1, SPARC, COL4A1, and ITGA5 were selected. The Kaplan-Meier plotter database confirmed that overexpression levels of these genes were associated with reduced overall survival, except for THBS1 and CXCL8. Conclusions:Our study suggests that COL1A1, MMP2, FN1, TIMP1, SPARC, COL4A1, and ITGA5 may be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. Further study is needed to assess the effect of THBS1 and CXCL8 on GC.
Project description:Objective:Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. In the current study, we aim to identify the hub genes and uncover the molecular mechanisms of GC. Methods:The expression profiles of the genes and the miRNAs were extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The identification of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including miRNAs, was performed by the GEO2R. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery was used to perform GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and miRNA-gene network were constructed using Cytoscape software. The hub genes were identified by the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plugin, the CytoHubba plugin and miRNA-gene network. Then, the identified genes were verified by Kaplan-Meier plotter database and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in GC tissue samples. Results:A total of three mRNA expression profiles (GSE13911, GSE79973 and GSE19826) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, including 69, 20 and 27cases separately. A total of 120 overlapped upregulated genes and 246 downregulated genes were identified. The majority of the DEGs were enriched in extracellular matrix organization, collagen catabolic process, collagen fibril organization and cell adhesion. In addition, three KEGG pathways were significantly enriched, including ECM-receptor interaction, protein digestion and absorption, and the focal adhesion pathways. In the PPI network, five significant modules were detected, while the genes in the modules were mainly involved in the ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways. By combining the results of MCODE, CytoHubba and miRNA-gene network, a total of six hub genes including COL1A2, COL1A1, COL4A1, COL5A2, THBS2 and ITGA5 were chosen. The Kaplan-Meier plotter database confirmed that higher expression levels of these genes were related to lower overall survival, except for COL5A2. Experimental validation showed that the rest of the five genes had the same expression trend as predicted. Conclusion:In conclusion, COL1A2, COL1A1, COL4A1, THBS2 and ITGA5 may be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. Moreover, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways play significant roles in the progression of GC.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world, with morbidity and mortality ranking second among all cancers. Accumulating evidences indicate that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are closely correlated with tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms of circRNAs still remain unclear. This study is aimed at determining hub genes and circRNAs and analyzing their potential biological functions in GC. Expression profiles of mRNAs and circRNAs were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data sets of GC and paracancer tissues. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed circRNAs (DE-circRNAs) were identified. The target miRNAs of DE-circRNAs and the bidirectional interaction between target miRNAs and DEGs were predicted. Functional analysis was performed, and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network were established. A total of 456 DEGs and 2 DE-circRNAs were identified with 3 mRNA expression profiles and 2 circRNA expression profiles. GO analysis indicated that DEGs were mainly enriched in extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, and KEGG confirmed that DEGs were mainly associated with focal adhesion, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, extracellular matrix- (ECM)- receptor interaction, and gastric acid secretion. 15 hub DEGs (BGN, COL1A1, COL1A2, FBN1, FN1, SPARC, SPP1, TIMP1, UBE2C, CCNB1, CD44, CXCL8, COL3A1, COL5A2, and THBS1) were identified from the PPI network. Furthermore, the survival analysis indicate that GC patients with a high expression of the following 9 hub DEGs, namely, BGN, COL1A1, COL1A2, FBN1, FN1, SPARC, SPP1, TIMP1, and UBE2C, had significantly worse overall survival. The circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network was constructed based on 1 circRNA, 15 miRNAs, and 45 DEGs. In addition, the 45 DEGs included 5 hub DEGs. These results suggested that hub DEGs and circRNAs could be implicated in the pathogenesis and development of GC. Our findings provide novel evidence on the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network and lay the foundation for future research of circRNAs in GC.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) is the most common malignancy of the stomach. This study was aimed at elucidating the regulatory network of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA and identifying the precise inflammation-related targets in GC. The expression profiles of GSE83521, GSE78091, and GSE33651 were obtained from the GEO database. Interactions between miRNAs and circRNAs were investigated by the Circular RNA Interactome, and targets of miRNAs were predicted with miRTarBase. Then, a circRNA/miRNA/mRNA regulatory network was constructed. Also, functional enrichment analysis of selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was performed. The inflammation-/GC-related targets were collected in the GeneCards and GenLiP3 database, respectively. And a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DE mRNAs was constructed with STRING and Cytoscape to identify hub genes. The genetic alterations, neighboring gene networks, expression levels, and the poor prognosis of hub genes were investigated in cBioPortal, Oncomine, and Human Protein Atlas databases and Kaplan-Meier plotter, respectively. A total of 10 DE miRNAs and 33 DEGs were identified. The regulatory network contained 26 circRNAs, 10 miRNAs, and 1459 mRNAs. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the selected 33 DEGs were involved in negative regulation of fat cell differentiation, response to wounding, extracellular matrix- (ECM-) receptor interaction, and regulation of cell growth pathways. THBS1, FN1, CALM1, COL4A1, CTGF, and IGFBP5 were selected as inflammation-related hub genes of GC in the PPI network. The genetic alterations in these hub genes were related to amplification and missense mutations. Furthermore, the genes RYR2, ERBB2, PI3KCA, and HELZ2 were connected to hub genes in this study. The hub gene levels in clinical specimens were markedly upregulated in GC tissues and correlated with poor overall survival (OS). Our results suggest that THBS1, FN1, CALM1, COL4A1, CTGF, and IGFBP5 were associated with the pathogenesis of gastric carcinogenesis and may serve as biomarkers and inflammation-related targets for GC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The present study aimed to use bioinformatics tools to explore pivotal genes associated with the occurrence of gastric cancer (GC) and assess their prognostic significance, and link with clinicopathological parameters. We also investigated the predictive role of COL1A1, THBS2, and SPP1 in immunotherapy.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We identified differential genes (DEGs) that were up- and down-regulated in the three datasets (GSE26942, GSE13911, and GSE118916) and created protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks from the overlapping DEGs. We then investigated the potential functions of the hub genes in cancer prognosis using PPI networks, and explored the influence of such genes in the immune environment.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 268 overlapping DEGs were identified, of which 230 were up-regulated and 38 were down-regulated. CytoHubba selected the top ten hub genes, which included SPP1, TIMP1, SERPINE1, MMP3, COL1A1, BGN, THBS2, CDH2, CXCL8, and THY1. With the exception of SPP1, survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier database showed that the levels of expression of these genes were associated with overall survival. Genes in the most dominant module explored by MCODE, COL1A1, THBS2, and SPP1, were primarily enriched for two KEGG pathways. Further analysis showed that all three genes could influence clinicopathological parameters and immune microenvironment, and there was a significant correlation between COL1A1, THBS2, SPP1, and PD-L1 expression, thus indicating a potential predictive role for GC response to immunotherapy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>ECM-receptor interactions and focal adhesion pathways are of great significance in the progression of GC. COL1A1, THBS2, and SPP1 may help predict immunotherapy response in GC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent malignant cancer of digestive system. To identify key genes in GC, mRNA microarray GSE27342, GSE29272, and GSE33335 were downloaded from GEO database. METHODS:Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using GEO2R. DAVID database was used to analyze function and pathways enrichment of DEGs. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established by STRING and visualized by Cytoscape software. Then, the influence of hub genes on overall survival (OS) was performed by the Kaplan-Meier plotter online tool. Module analysis of the PPI network was performed using MCODE. Additionally, potential stem loop miRNAs of hub genes were predicted by miRecords and screened by TCGA dataset. Transcription factors (TFs) of hub genes were detected by NetworkAnalyst. RESULTS:In total, 67 DEGs were identified; upregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in biological process (BP) related to angiogenesis and extracellular matrix organization and the downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in BP related to ion transport and response to bacterium. KEGG pathways analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs were enriched in ECM-receptor interaction and the downregulated DEGs were enriched in gastric acid secretion. A PPI network of DEGs was constructed, consisting of 43 nodes and 87 edges. Twelve genes were considered as hub genes owing to high degrees in the network. Hsa-miR-29c, hsa-miR-30c, hsa-miR-335, hsa-miR-33b, and hsa-miR-101 might play a crucial role in hub genes regulation. In addition, the transcription factors-hub genes pairs were displayed with 182 edges and 102 nodes. The high expression of 7 out of 12 hub genes was associated with worse OS, including COL4A1, VCAN, THBS2, TIMP1, COL1A2, SERPINH1, and COL6A3. CONCLUSIONS:The miRNA and TFs regulation network of hub genes in GC may promote understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of gastric cancer and provide potential targets for GC diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in China. Most patients with gastric cancer have no obvious early symptoms; thus, many of them are in the middle and late stages of gastric cancer at first diagnosis and miss the best treatment opportunity. Molecular targeted therapy is particularly important in changing this status quo. <h4>Methods</h4> Three microarray datasets (GSE29272, GSE33651, and GSE54129) were selected from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using GEO2R. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was used to analyze the functional features of these DEGs and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) of these DEGs was visualized by Cytoscape software. The expressions of hub genes were evaluated based on Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). Moreover, we used the online Kaplan-Meier plotter survival analysis tool to evaluate the prognostic values of hub genes. The Target Scan database was used to predict microRNAs that could regulate the target gene, collagen type IV alpha 1 chain (COL4A1). The OncomiR database was used to analyze the expression levels of three microRNAs, as well as the relationships with tumor stage, grade, and prognosis. <h4>Results</h4> We identified 78 DEGs, including 53 upregulated genes and 25 downregulated genes. The DEGs were mainly enriched in extracellular matrix organization, extracellular structure organization, and response to wounding. Moreover, three KEGG pathways were markedly enriched, including focal adhesion, complement and coagulation cascades, and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction. Among these 78 genes, we selected 10 hub genes. The overexpression levels of these hub genes were closely related to poor prognosis and the development of gastric cancer (except for COL3A1, LOX, and CXCL8). Moreover, we found that microRNA-29a-3p, miR-29b-3p, and miR-29c-3p were the potential microRNAs that could regulate the target gene, COL4A1. <h4>Conclusions</h4> Our results showed that FN1, COL1A1, TIMP1, COL1A2, SPARC, COL4A1, and SERPINE1 could contribute to the development of novel molecular targets and biomarker-driven treatments for gastric cancer.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The current treatment methods available for advanced gastric cancer are not very promising. Hence, it is important to explore novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic agents to treat gastric cancer (GC). This study aimed to identify hub genes associated with GC prognosis and explore potential drugs for its treatment.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Three gene expression data of GC and normal tissues were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and processed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We conducted a comprehensive analysis of DEGs, including functional enrichment analysis, construction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, identification of hub genes, survival analysis and expression verification of hub genes. Finally, we constructed the network of miRNA-mRNA, and predicted the drugs that might be effective for GC treatment.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 340 DEGs, including 94 up-regulated and 246 down-regulated genes, were identified. Among the up-regulated DEGs, the enrichment terms were primarily related to tumorigenesis and tumor progression, extracellular matrix organization, and collagen catabolic process. Additionally, 10 hub genes (<i>FN1, COL3A1, COL1A2, BGN, THBS2, COL5A2, THBS1, COL5A1, SPARC</i>, and <i>COL4A1</i>) were identified, out of which 7 genes were significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) in GC. The expression levels of these 7 hub genes were verified using real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and the GEPIA2 (Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis) server. A regulatory network of miRNA-mRNA was also constructed, and the top 4 interactive miRNAs (hsa-miR-29b-3p, hsa-miR-140-3p, hsa-miR-29a-3p, and hsa-miR-29c-3p) that targeted the most hub genes were identified. Finally, fourteen small molecules were predicted to be effective in treating GC.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The identification of the hub genes, miRNA-mRNA network, and potential candidate drugs associated with GC provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms and treatment of GC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common solid malignant tumors worldwide with a high-recurrence-rate. Identifying the molecular signatures and specific biomarkers of GC might provide novel clues for GC prognosis and targeted therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>Gene expression profiles were obtained from the ArrayExpress and Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were picked out by R software. The hub genes were screened by cytohubba plugin. Their prognostic values were assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and the gene expression profiling interactive analysis (GEPIA). Finally, qRT-PCR in GC tissue samples was established to validate these DEGs.<h4>Results</h4>Total of 295 DEGs were identified between GC and their corresponding normal adjacent tissue samples in E-MTAB-1440, GSE79973, GSE19826, GSE13911, GSE27342, GSE33335 and GSE56807 datasets, including 117 up-regulated and 178 down-regulated genes. Among them, 7 vital upregulated genes (HMMR, SPP1, FN1, CCNB1, CXCL8, MAD2L1 and CCNA2) were selected. Most of them had a significantly worse prognosis except SPP1. Using qRT-PCR, we validated that their transcriptions in our GC tumor tissue were upregulated except SPP1 and FN1, which correlated with tumor relapse and predicts poorer prognosis in GC patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We have identified 5 upregulated DEGs (HMMR, CCNB1, CXCL8, MAD2L1, and CCNA2) in GC patients with poor prognosis using integrated bioinformatical methods, which could be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC treatment.
Project description:The present study aimed to identify differentially regulated genes between the peritumoral brain zone (PBZ) and tumor core (TC) of glioblastoma (GBM), to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms and provide a target for the treatment of tumors. The GSE13276 and GSE116520 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the PBZ and TC were obtained using the GEO2R tool. The bioinformatics and evolutionary genomics online tool Venn was used to identify common DEGs between the two datasets. The Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery online tool was used to analyze enriched pathways of the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins online tool was used to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs. Hub genes were identified using Cytohubba, a plug-in for Cytoscape. The Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) database was utilized to perform survival analysis. In total, 75 DEGs, including 12 upregulated and 63 downregulated genes, were identified. In the GO term analysis, these DEGs were mainly enriched in 'regulation of angiogenesis' and 'central nervous system development'. Furthermore, in the KEGG pathway analysis, the DEGs were mainly enriched in 'bladder cancer' and 'endocytosis'. When filtering the results of the PPI network analysis using Cytohubba, a total of 10 hub genes, including proteolipid protein 1, myelin associated oligodendrocyte basic protein, contactin 2, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, myelin basic protein, myelin associated glycoprotein, SRY-box transcription factor 10, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and plasmolipin, were identified. These hub genes were further subjected to GO term and KEGG pathway analysis, and were revealed to be enriched in 'central nervous system development', 'bladder cancer' and 'rheumatoid arthritis'. These hub genes were used to perform survival analysis using the GEPIA database, and it was determined that VEGFA and CXCL8 were significantly associated with a reduction in the overall survival of patients with GBM. In conclusion, the results suggest that the recurrence of GBM is associated with high gene expression levels VEGFA and CXCL8, and the development of the central nervous system.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during the pathogenesis of periodontitis by bioinformatics analysis.<h4>Methods</h4>GEO2R was used to screen DEGs in GSE10334 and GSE16134. Then, the overlapped DEGs were used for further analysis. g:Profiler was used to perform Gene Ontology analysis and pathway analysis for upregulated and downregulated DEGs. The STRING database was used to construct the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, which was further visua-lized and analyzed by Cytoscape software. Hub genes and key modules were identified by cytoHubba and MCODE plug-ins, respectively. Finally, transcription factors were predicted via iRegulon plug-in.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 196 DEGs were identified, including 139 upregulated and 57 downregulated DEGs. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in immune-related pathways including immune system, viral protein interaction with cytokine and cytokine receptor, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, leukocyte transendothelial migration, and chemokine receptors bind chemokines. On the contrary, the downregulated DEGs were mainly related to the formation of the cornified envelope and keratinization. The identified hub genes in the PPI network were CXCL8, CXCL1, CXCR4, SEL, CD19, and IKZF1. The top three modules were involved in chemokine response, B cell receptor signaling pathway, and interleukin response, respectively. iRegulon analysis revealed that IRF4 scored the highest.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The pathogenesis of periodontitis was closely associated with the expression levels of the identified hub genes including CXCL8, CXCL1, CXCR4, SELL, CD19, and IKZF1. IRF4, the predicted transcription factor, might serve as a dominant upstream regulator.