Intraoperative Low-frequency Electroacupuncture under General Anesthesia Improves Postoperative Recovery in a Randomized Trial.
ABSTRACT: Neuronal stimulation improves physiological responses to infection and trauma, but the clinical potential of this strategy is unknown. We hypothesized that transdermal neural stimulation through low-frequency electroacupuncture might control the immune responses to surgical trauma and expedite the postoperative recovery. However, the efficiency of electroacupuncture is questioned due to the placebo effect. Here, electroacupuncture was performed on anesthetized patients to avoid any placebo. This is a prospective double-blinded pilot trial to determine whether intraoperative electroacupuncture on anesthetized patients improves postoperative recovery. Patients with electroacupuncture required 60% less postoperative analgesic, even they had pain scores similar to those in the control patients. Electroacupuncture prevented postoperative hyperglycemia and attenuated serum adrenocorticotropic hormone in the older and heavier group of patients. From an immunological perspective, electroacupuncture did not affect the protective immune responses to surgical trauma, including the induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10. The most significant immunological effect of electroacupuncture was enhancing transforming growth factor-?1 production during surgery in the older and lighter group of patients. These results suggest that intraoperative electroacupuncture on anesthetized patients can reduce postoperative use of analgesics and improve immune and stress responses to surgery.
Project description:Postoperative pain resulting from surgical trauma is a significant challenge for healthcare providers. Opioid analgesics are commonly used to treat postoperative pain; however, these drugs are associated with a number of undesirable side effects.This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of acupuncture and acupuncture-related techniques in treating postoperative pain.MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were searched until Sep 30, 2014.Randomized controlled trials of adult subjects (? 18 years) who had undergone surgery and who had received acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or acupoint electrical stimulation for managing acute post-operative pain were included.We found that patients treated with acupuncture or related techniques had less pain and used less opioid analgesics on Day 1 after surgery compared with those treated with control (P < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis using the leave-one-out approach indicated the findings are reliable and are not dependent on any one study. In addition, no publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that conventional acupuncture and transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) were associated with less postoperative pain one day following surgery than control treatment, while electroacupuncture was similar to control (P = 0.116). TEAS was associated with significantly greater reduction in opioid analgesic use on Day 1 post surgery than control (P < 0.001); however conventional acupuncture and electroacupuncture showed no benefit in reducing opioid analgesic use compared with control (P ? 0.142).Our findings indicate that certain modes of acupuncture improved postoperative pain on the first day after surgery and reduced opioid use. Our findings support the use of acupuncture as adjuvant therapy in treating postoperative pain.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABR) guide placement of the multichannel auditory brainstem implant (ABI) array during surgery. EABRs are also recorded under anesthesia in nontumor pediatric ABI recipients prior to device activation to confirm placement and guide device programming. We examine the influence of anesthesia on evoked response morphology in pediatric ABI users by comparing intraoperative with postoperative EABR recordings. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective review. METHODS:Seven children underwent ABI surgery by way of retrosigmoid craniotomy. General anesthesia included inhaled sevoflurane induction and propofol maintenance during which EABRs were recorded to confirm accurate positioning of the ABI. A mean of 7.7 ± 2.8 weeks following surgery, the ABI was activated under general anesthesia or sedation (dexmedetomidine) and EABR recordings were made. A qualitative analysis of intraoperative and postoperative waveform morphology was performed. RESULTS:Seven subjects (mean age 20.6 months) underwent nine ABI surgeries (seven primary, two revisions) and nine activations. EABRs were observed in eight of nine postoperative recordings. In three cases, intraoperative EABRs during general anesthesia were similar to postoperative EABRs with sedation. In one case, sevoflurane and propofol were used for intra- and postoperative recordings, and waveforms were also similar. In four cases, amplitude and latency changes were observed for intraoperative versus postoperative EABRs. CONCLUSION:Similarity of EABR morphology in the anesthetized versus sedated condition suggests that anesthesia does not have a large effect on far-field evoked potentials. Changes in EABR waveform morphology observed postoperatively may be influenced by other factors such as movements of the surface array. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:4 Laryngoscope, 130:507-513, 2020.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a potent proinflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern, is released in large titers following trauma. The effect of trauma surgery on mtDNA concentration is unknown. We hypothesized that mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) levels would increase proportionately with the magnitude of surgery and both would then decrease rapidly. METHODS: In this prospective pilot, plasma was sampled from 35 trauma patients requiring orthopedic surgical intervention at six perioperative time points. Healthy control subjects (n = 20) were sampled. DNA was extracted, and the mtDNA and nDNA were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Markers of cell necrosis were also assayed (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase). RESULTS: The free plasma mtDNA and nDNA levels (ng/mL) were increased in trauma patients compared with healthy controls at all time points (mtDNA: preoperative period, 108 [46-284]; postoperative period, 96 [29-200]; 7 hours postoperatively, 88 [43-178]; 24 hours, 79 [36-172]; 3 days, 136 [65-263]; 5 days, 166 [101-434] [healthy controls, 11 (5-19)]) (nDNA: preoperative period, 52 [25-130]; postoperative period, 100 [35-208]; 7 hours postoperatively, 75 [36-139]; 24 hours postoperatively, 85 [47-133]; 3 days, 79 [48-117]; 5 days, 99 [41-154] [healthy controls, 29 (16-54)]). Elevated DNA levels did not correlate with markers of cellular necrosis. mtDNA was significantly elevated compared with nDNA at preoperative period (p = 0.003), 3 days (p = 0.003), and 5 days (p = 0.0014). Preoperative mtDNA levels were greater with shorter time from injury to surgery (p = 0.0085). Postoperative mtDNA level negatively correlated with intraoperative crystalloid infusion (p = 0.0017). Major pelvic surgery (vs. minor) was associated with greater mtDNA release 5 days postoperatively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This pilot of heterogeneous orthopedic trauma patients showed that the release of mtDNA and nDNA is sustained for 5 days following orthopedic trauma surgery. Postoperative, circulating DNA is not associated with markers of tissue necrosis but is associated with surgical invasiveness and is inversely related to intraoperative fluid administration. Sustained elevation of mtDNA levels could be of inflammatory origin and may contribute to postinjury dysfunctional inflammation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prospective study, level III.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postoperative mortality occurs in 1-2% of patients undergoing major inpatient surgery. The currently available prediction tools using summaries of intraoperative data are limited by their inability to reflect shifting risk associated with intraoperative physiological perturbations. We sought to compare similar benchmarks to a deep-learning algorithm predicting postoperative 30-day mortality. METHODS:We constructed a multipath convolutional neural network model using patient characteristics, co-morbid conditions, preoperative laboratory values, and intraoperative numerical data from patients undergoing surgery with tracheal intubation at a single medical centre. Data for 60 min prior to a randomly selected time point were utilised. Model performance was compared with a deep neural network, a random forest, a support vector machine, and a logistic regression using predetermined summary statistics of intraoperative data. RESULTS:Of 95 907 patients, 941 (1%) died within 30 days. The multipath convolutional neural network predicted postoperative 30-day mortality with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.867 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.835-0.899). This was higher than that for the deep neural network (0.825; 95% CI: 0.790-0.860), random forest (0.848; 95% CI: 0.815-0.882), support vector machine (0.836; 95% CI: 0.802-870), and logistic regression (0.837; 95% CI: 0.803-0.871). CONCLUSIONS:A deep-learning time-series model improves prediction compared with models with simple summaries of intraoperative data. We have created a model that can be used in real time to detect dynamic changes in a patient's risk for postoperative mortality.
Project description:Activation of microglia and the subsequently elevated inflammatory cytokine release in the brain during surgery predispose individuals to cognitive dysfunction, also known as postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). miR-124 is one of the most abundant microRNAs in the brain that regulates microglial function. Elucidating the role of miR-124 in microglial activation in the context of surgery may therefore promote understanding of as well as therapeutic development for post-surgical disorders involving microglial activation. The downstream targets of miR-124 were investigated using bioinformatic screening and dual-luciferase reporter assay validation, and vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3) was identified as a potential target. The kinetics of miR-124/VAMP3 expression was first examined in vitro in microglial cells (primary microglia and BV2 microglial cells) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. LPS induced a time-dependent decrease of miR-124 and upregulated the expression of VAMP3. Manipulating miR-124/VAMP3 expression by using miR-124 mimics or VAMP3-specific siRNA in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells inhibited BV2 microglial activation-associated inflammatory cytokine release. To further examine the role of miR-124/VAMP3 in a surgical setting, we employed a rat surgical trauma model. Significant microglial activation and altered miR-124/VAMP3 expression were observed following surgical trauma. We also altered miR-124/VAMP3 expression in the rat surgical trauma model by administration of exogenous miR-124 and by using electroacupuncture, which is a clinically applicable treatment that modulates microglial function and minimizes postoperative disorders. We determined that electroacupuncture treatment specifically increases the expression of miR-124 in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Increased miR-124 expression with a concomitant decrease in VAMP3 expression resulted in decreased inflammatory cytokine release related to microglial activation post-surgery. Our study indicates that miR-124/VAMP3 is involved in surgery-induced microglial activation and that targeting miR-124/VAMP3 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for postoperative disorders involving microglial activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acupuncture-balanced anesthesia has been found to offer protective benefits. Electrical stimulation at certain acupoints can potentially promote perioperative gastrointestinal function recovery. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of acupuncture-balanced anesthesia on the postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function, on anesthesia strategies for abdominal surgery, on postoperative pain treatment, and on any associated complications or alterations in immune function. We further seek to verify the protective effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS), to explore possible underlying neuroimmune-endocrine mechanisms, and to thereby develop an optimized acupuncture-balanced anesthesia strategy suitable for abdominal surgery. Together, these findings will provide a scientific basis for the clinical utilization of acupuncture-balanced anesthesia in the context of abdominal surgery. METHODS/DESIGN:This study is a multicenter, large-sample, randomized placebo-controlled trial. All subjects will be patients undergoing elective gastric or colorectal surgery. In Part 1, these patients will be stratified according to surgical site (gastric or colorectal), and randomly divided into four groups based on different perioperative interventions: Con group, which will undergo sham TEAS before, during, and after surgery; T1 group, which will receive TEAS during the preoperative and intraoperative periods, and sham TEAS during the postoperative period; T2 group, which will receive TEAS during the preoperative period, sham TEAS during the intraoperative period, and TEAS during the postoperative period; and T3 group, which will receive TEAS before, during, and after operation. Part 2 of this study will focus solely on colorectal surgery patients. All patients will receive TEAS during the preoperative and intraoperative periods, and they will be randomized into four groups according to different postoperative treatments: Con' group, which will not receive TEAS; T1' group, which will receive sham TEAS; T2' group, which will receive 5-Hz TEAS; and T3' group, which will receive 100-Hz TEAS. Venous blood (5 ml) will be used to measure immunological and inflammatory indexes both at the preoperative stage prior to TEAS and 4-5 days after operation. The primary outcome will be the time to first bowel sounds after surgery. Secondary outcomes will include gastrointestinal functional recovery, analgesic efficacy during the postoperative period, acupuncture-balanced anesthesia efficacy, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and postoperative complications. DISCUSSION:This study is designed to investigate the clinical value of TEAS during various perioperative periods in those undergoing abdominal surgery, with the overall goal of evaluating the clinical value and advantages of acupuncture-balanced anesthesia, and of providing new strategies for improving patient prognoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-TRC-14004435. Registered on 26 March 2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND. Orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) is the primary therapy for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. However, ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) can severely compromise allograft survival. To understand the evolution of immune responses underlying OLT-IRI, we evaluated longitudinal cytokine expression profiles from adult OLT recipients before transplant through 1 month after transplant. METHODS. We measured the expression of 38 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in preoperative and postoperative recipient circulating systemic blood (before transplant and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after transplant) and intraoperative portal blood (before and after reperfusion) of 53 OLT patients and analyzed this expression in relation to biopsy-proven IRI (n = 26 IRI+; 27 IRI-), clinical liver function tests early (days 1-7) after transplant, and expression of genes encoding cytokine receptors in biopsies of donor allograft taken before and after reperfusion. RESULTS. Bilirubin and arginine transaminase levels early after transplant correlated with IRI. Fourteen cytokines were significantly increased in the systemic and/or portal blood of IRI+ recipients that shifted from innate to adaptive-immune responses over time. Additionally, expression of cognate receptors for 10 of these cytokines was detected in donor organ biopsies by RNAseq. CONCLUSION. These results provide a mechanistic roadmap of the early immunological events both before and after IRI and suggest several candidates for patient stratification, monitoring, and treatment. FUNDING. Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32CA009120, Keck Foundation award 986722, and a Quantitative & Computational Biosciences Collaboratory Postdoctoral Fellowship.
Project description:Background: Surgery on posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and pineal region (PR) carries the risks of intraoperative trauma to the brainstem structures, blood loss, venous air embolism (VAE), cardiovascular instability, and other complications. Success in surgery, among other factors, depends on selecting the optimal patient position. Our objective was to find associations between patient positioning, incidence of intraoperative complications, neurological recovery, and the extent of surgery. Methods: This observational study was conducted in two medical centers: The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center (USA) and The Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute (Russian Federation). Patients were distributed in two groups based on the surgical position: sitting position (SP) or horizontal position (HP). The inclusion criteria were adult patients with space-occupying or vascular lesions requiring an open PCF or PR surgery. Perioperative variables were recorded and summarized using descriptive statistics. The post-treatment survival, functional outcome, and patient satisfaction were assessed at 3 months. Results: A total of 109 patients were included in the study: 53 in SP and 56 in HP. A higher proportion of patients in the HP patients had >300 mL intraoperative blood loss compared to the SP group (32 vs. 13%; p = 0.0250). Intraoperative VAE was diagnosed in 40% of SP patients vs. 0% in the HP group (p < 0.0001). However, trans-esophageal echocardiographic (TEE) monitoring was more common in the SP group. Intraoperative hypotension was documented in 28% of SP patients compared to 9% in HP group (p = 0.0126). A higher proportion of SP patients experienced a new neurological symptom compared to the HP group (49 vs. 29%; p = 0.0281). The extent of tumor resection, postoperative 3-months survival, functional outcome, and patient satisfaction were not different in the groups. Conclusions: The SP was associated with, less intraoperative bleeding, increased intraoperative hypotension, VAE, and postoperative neurological deficit. More HP patients experienced macroglossia and increased blood loss. At 3 months, there was no difference of parameters between the two groups. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: registration number NCT03364283.
Project description:To preserve residual hearing during cochlear implant (CI) surgery, it is desirable to use intraoperative monitoring of inner ear function (cochlear monitoring), especially during electrode insertion. A promising method is electrocochleography (ECochG). Within this project, the relations between ongoing responses (ORs), recorded extra- and intracochlearly (EC and IC), and preservation of residual hearing were investigated. Before, during, and after insertion of hearing preservation electrodes, intraoperative ECochG recordings were performed EC using a cotton wick electrode and after insertion also IC using the CI electrode (MED-EL) and a research software tool. The stimulation was delivered acoustically using low frequency tone bursts. The recordings were conducted in 10 adult CI recipients. The amplitudes of IC ORs were detected to be larger than EC ORs. Intraoperative EC thresholds correlated highly to preoperative audiometric thresholds at 1000 Hz, IC thresholds highly at 250 Hz and 500 Hz. The correlations of both intraoperative ECochG recordings to postoperative pure tone thresholds were low. When measured postoperatively at the same appointments, IC OR thresholds correlated highly to audiometric pure tone thresholds. For all patients, it was possible to record ORs during or directly after electrode insertion. Consequently, we conclude that we did not observe any cases with severe IC trauma. Delayed hearing loss could not be predicted with our method. Nevertheless, intraoperative ECochG recordings are a promising tool to gain further insight into mechanisms impacting residual hearing. Postoperatively recorded IC OR thresholds seem to be a reliable tool for frequency specific hearing threshold estimation.
Project description:Major surgeries can result in high rates of adverse postoperative events. Reliable prediction of which patient might be at risk for such events may help guide peri- and postoperative care. We show how archiving and mining of intraoperative hemodynamic data in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) can aid in the prediction of postoperative 180-day mortality and acute renal failure (ARF), improving upon predictions that rely on preoperative information only. From 101 patient records, we extracted 15 preoperative features from clinical records and 41 features from intraoperative hemodynamic signals. We used logistic regression with leave-one-out cross-validation to predict outcomes, and incorporated methods to limit potential model instabilities from feature multicollinearity. Using only preoperative features, mortality prediction achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.44-0.78). By using intraoperative features, performance improved significantly to 0.82 (95% CI: 0.56-0.91, P?=?0.001). Similarly, including intraoperative features (AUC?=?0.82; 95% CI: 0.66-0.94) in ARF prediction improved performance over preoperative features (AUC?=?0.72; 95% CI: 0.50-0.85), though not significantly (P?=?0.32). We conclude that inclusion of intraoperative hemodynamic features significantly improves prediction of postoperative events in OLT. Features strongly associated with occurrence of both outcomes included greater intraoperative central venous pressure and greater transfusion volumes.