Antimicrobial Chemicals Associate with Microbial Function and Antibiotic Resistance Indoors.
ABSTRACT: Humans purposefully and inadvertently introduce antimicrobial chemicals into buildings, resulting in widespread compounds, including triclosan, triclocarban, and parabens, in indoor dust. Meanwhile, drug-resistant infections continue to increase, raising concerns that buildings function as reservoirs of, or even select for, resistant microorganisms. Support for these hypotheses is limited largely since data describing relationships between antimicrobials and indoor microbial communities are scant. We combined liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry with metagenomic shotgun sequencing of dust collected from athletic facilities to characterize relationships between indoor antimicrobial chemicals and microbial communities. Elevated levels of triclosan and triclocarban, but not parabens, were associated with distinct indoor microbiomes. Dust of high triclosan content contained increased Gram-positive species with diverse drug resistance capabilities, whose pangenomes were enriched for genes encoding osmotic stress responses, efflux pump regulation, lipid metabolism, and material transport across cell membranes; such triclosan-associated functional shifts have been documented in laboratory cultures but not yet from buildings. Antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates were cultured from all but one facility, and resistance often increased in buildings with very high triclosan levels, suggesting links between human encounters with viable drug-resistant bacteria and local biocide conditions. This characterization uncovers complex relationships between antimicrobials and indoor microbiomes: some chemicals elicit effects, whereas others may not, and no single functional or resistance factor explained chemical-microbe associations. These results suggest that anthropogenic chemicals impact microbial systems in or around buildings and their occupants, highlighting an emergent need to identify the most important indoor, outdoor, and host-associated sources of antimicrobial chemical-resistome interactions. IMPORTANCE The ubiquitous use of antimicrobial chemicals may have undesired consequences, particularly on microbes in buildings. This study shows that the taxonomy and function of microbes in indoor dust are strongly associated with antimicrobial chemicals-more so than any other feature of the buildings. Moreover, we identified links between antimicrobial chemical concentrations in dust and culturable bacteria that are cross-resistant to three clinically relevant antibiotics. These findings suggest that humans may be influencing the microbial species and genes that are found indoors through the addition and removal of particular antimicrobial chemicals.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is increasingly widespread, largely due to human influence. Here, we explore the relationship between antibiotic resistance genes and the antimicrobial chemicals triclosan, triclocarban, and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben in the dust microbiome. Dust samples from a mixed-use athletic and educational facility were subjected to microbial and chemical analyses using a combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenome sequencing, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The dust resistome was characterized by identifying antibiotic resistance genes annotated in the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) from the metagenomes of each sample using the Short, Better Representative Extract Data set (ShortBRED). The three most highly abundant antibiotic resistance genes were tet(W), blaSRT-1, and erm(B). The complete dust resistome was then compared against the measured concentrations of antimicrobial chemicals, which for triclosan ranged from 0.5 to 1970 ng/g dust. We observed six significant positive associations between the concentration of an antimicrobial chemical and the relative abundance of an antibiotic resistance gene, including one between the ubiquitous antimicrobial triclosan and erm(X), a 23S rRNA methyltransferase implicated in resistance to several antibiotics. This study is the first to look for an association between antibiotic resistance genes and antimicrobial chemicals in dust.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Understanding important sources and pathways of exposure to common chemicals known or suspected to impact human health is critical to eliminate or reduce the exposure. This is particularly important in areas such as Puerto Rico, where residents have higher exposures to numerous chemicals, as well as higher rates of many adverse health outcomes, compared to the mainland US. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess distributions, time trends, and predictors of urinary triclocarban, phenol, and paraben biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in Northern Puerto Rico. METHODS:We recruited 1003 pregnant women between years 2010 and 2016 from prenatal clinics and collected urine samples and questionnaire data on personal care product use at up to three separate visits, between 16 and 28?weeks gestation. Urine samples were analyzed for triclocarban, seven phenols and four parabens: 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F, triclosan, butylparaben, ethylparaben, methylparaben, and propylparaben. RESULTS:Detectable triclocarban, phenol and paraben concentrations among pregnant women were prevalent and tended to be higher than levels measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population, especially triclocarban, which had a median concentration 37 times higher in Puerto Rico participants (2.6 vs 0.07?ng/mL). A decreasing temporal trend was statistically significant for urine concentrations of BPA during the study period, while the BPA substitute BPS showed an increasing temporal trend. Significant and positive associations were found between biomarker concentrations with the products use in the past 48-h (soap, sunscreen, lotion, cosmetics). There was an increasing trend of triclocarban/triclosan urinary concentrations with increased concentrations of triclocarban/triclosan listed as the active ingredient in the bar soap/liquid soap products reported being used. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest several potential exposure sources to triclocarban, phenols, and parabens in this population and may help inform targeted approaches to reduce exposure.
Project description:Human aromatase (CYP19A1) is an important enzyme, which produces estrogen from androgen for maintaining the female reproductive function and pregnancy. Triclocarban and triclosan are antimicrobial chemicals added to personal care, household, and industrial products. They could be endocrine disruptors and may disrupt human CYP19A1 activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of triclocarban and triclosan on estradiol production and human CYP19A1 activity in JEG-3 cells. Triclocarban and triclosan reduced estradiol production in JEG-3 cells. Triclocarban and triclosan inhibited human CYP19A1 with IC50 values of 15.81 and 6.26??M, respectively. Triclosan competitively inhibited CYP19A1, while triclocarban noncompetitively inhibited this enzyme. Docking study showed that triclosan bound to the steroid-binding pocket of CYP19A1, while triclocarban was off this target, suggesting a different mechanism. In conclusion, triclocarban and triclosan are inhibitors of human CYP19A1.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Environmental phenols, such as parabens, bisphenol A, and triclosan, are ubiquitous in indoor environments because of their use in packaging, plastics, personal care products, and as anti-microbials. The primary pathways of exposure, as well as habits and behaviors that may lead to greater exposure, are still unclear.<h4>Objectives</h4>Herein, we investigate the relationships between phenols found in residential environments by comparing levels in paired samples of house dust and hand wipes with children's urine. In addition, phenols were analyzed in a novel exposure tool, the silicone wristbands, to investigate which external matrix best correlates with individual exposure based on urinary phenol biomarkers.<h4>Methods</h4>Children aged 3-6 years in central North Carolina, United States, provided paired hand wipe (n = 202), wristband (n = 76), and spot urine samples (n = 180), while legal guardians completed questionnaires on habits and behaviors. House dust samples (n = 186) were collected from the main living area during home visits completed between 2014 and 2016.<h4>Results</h4>Environmental phenols were detected frequently in all matrices investigated. Ethyl, methyl, and propylparaben levels observed in hand wipes, dust, and on wristbands were significantly correlated to their associated urinary biomarkers. In addition, intra-paraben correlations were noted, with biomarkers of ethyl, methyl, and propylparabens generally positively and significantly correlated, which suggests co-application of parabens in products. Triclosan levels in dust were positive and significantly correlated with levels in hand wipes and wristbands and with urinary concentrations, suggesting non-personal care product sources may be important in children's overall triclosan exposure. Generally, chemicals on wristbands were more highly correlated with urinary biomarkers than with chemicals in hand wipes or house dust. In addition, more frequent lotion use was positively associated with urinary concentrations of paraben biomarkers.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that the home environment is an important source of exposure which has been under-investigated for some environmental phenols (e.g., triclosan in house dust). Associations between wristbands and biomarkers of exposure, which were stronger than for hand wipes and house dust, suggest that silicone wristbands may provide a suitable exposure assessment tool for some phenols.
Project description:In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration banned the use of specific microbicides in some household and personal wash products due to concerns that these chemicals might induce antibiotic resistance or disrupt human microbial communities. Triclosan and triclocarban (referred to as TCs) are the most common antimicrobials in household and personal care products, but the extent to which TC exposure perturbs microbial communities in humans, particularly during infant development, was unknown. We conducted a randomized intervention of TC-containing household and personal care products during the first year following birth to characterize whether TC exposure from wash products perturbs microbial communities in mothers and their infants. Longitudinal survey of the gut microbiota using 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing showed that TC exposure from wash products did not induce global reconstruction or loss of microbial diversity of either infant or maternal gut microbiotas. Broadly antibiotic-resistant species from the phylum Proteobacteria, however, were enriched in stool samples from mothers in TC households after the introduction of triclosan-containing toothpaste. When compared by urinary triclosan level, agnostic to treatment arm, infants with higher triclosan levels also showed an enrichment of Proteobacteria species. Despite the minimal effects of TC exposure from wash products on the gut microbial community of infants and adults, detected taxonomic differences highlight the need for consumer safety testing of antimicrobial self-care products on the human microbiome and on antibiotic resistance.
Project description:Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain regions: the hypothalamus and white-matter tissue. In addition, a potential association between these npEDCs concentrations and obesity was investigated. Post-mortem brain material was obtained from 24 individuals, made up of 12 obese and 12 normal-weight subjects (defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 and BMI < 25 kg/m², respectively). Nine phenols and seven parabens were measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. In the hypothalamus, seven suspect npEDCs (bisphenol A, triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and benzyl paraben) were detected, while five npEDCs (bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclocarban, methyl-, and n-propyl paraben) were found in the white-matter brain tissue. We observed higher levels of methylparaben (MeP) in the hypothalamic tissue of obese subjects as compared to controls (p = 0.008). Our findings indicate that some suspected npEDCs are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Whether the presence of npEDCs can adversely affect brain function and to which extent the detected concentrations are physiologically relevant needs to be further investigated.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Indoor microbial contamination due to excess moisture is an important contributor to human illness in both residential and occupational settings. However, the census of microorganisms in the indoor environment is limited by the use of selective, culture-based detection techniques. By using clone library sequencing of full-length internal transcribed spacer region combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for 69 fungal species or assay groups and cultivation, we have been able to generate a more comprehensive description of the total indoor mycoflora. Using this suite of methods, we assessed the impact of moisture damage on the fungal community composition of settled dust and building material samples (n = 8 and 16, correspondingly). Water-damaged buildings (n = 2) were examined pre- and post- remediation, and compared with undamaged reference buildings (n = 2). RESULTS: Culture-dependent and independent methods were consistent in the dominant fungal taxa in dust, but sequencing revealed a five to ten times higher diversity at the genus level than culture or qPCR. Previously unknown, verified fungal phylotypes were detected in dust, accounting for 12% of all diversity. Fungal diversity, especially within classes Dothideomycetes and Agaricomycetes tended to be higher in the water damaged buildings. Fungal phylotypes detected in building materials were present in dust samples, but their proportion of total fungi was similar for damaged and reference buildings. The quantitative correlation between clone library phylotype frequencies and qPCR counts was moderate (r = 0.59, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We examined a small number of target buildings and found indications of elevated fungal diversity associated with water damage. Some of the fungi in dust were attributable to building growth, but more information on the material-associated communities is needed in order to understand the dynamics of microbial communities between building structures and dust. The sequencing-based method proved indispensable for describing the true fungal diversity in indoor environments. However, making conclusions concerning the effect of building conditions on building mycobiota using this methodology was complicated by the wide natural diversity in the dust samples, the incomplete knowledge of material-associated fungi fungi and the semiquantitative nature of sequencing based methods.
Project description:We performed a cross-sectional analysis to identify correlates of urinary concentrations of seven phenols (bisphenols A, F, and S; 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,5-dichlorophenol; benzophenone-3; triclosan), triclocarban, and four parabens (butyl, ethyl, methyl, and propyl). We analyzed baseline data from 766 participants in the Study of Environment, Lifestyle, and Fibroids, a prospective cohort study of 1693 Black women aged 23-34 years residing in Detroit, Michigan (2010-2012). We collected data on demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors via telephone interviews, clinic visits, and self-administered questionnaires. For each biomarker, we used linear regression models to estimate mean differences in log-transformed, creatinine-corrected concentrations across factors of interest. Each biomarker was detected in >50% of participants. Median creatinine-corrected concentrations were the highest for methyl paraben (116.8??g/g creatinine), propyl paraben (16.8??g/g creatinine), and benzophenone-3 (13.4??g/g creatinine). Variables most strongly associated with biomarker concentrations included season of urine collection, education, and body mass index (BMI). BMI was positively associated with bisphenol A and S and triclocarban concentrations and inversely associated with butyl and methyl paraben concentrations. In this cohort of Black women, exposure to phenols, parabens, and triclocarban was prevalent and several factors were associated with biomarker concentrations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prenatal exposure to certain xenobiotics has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the associations of triclocarban, phenols and parabens in a cohort of 922 pregnant women in Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats Program (PROTECT). METHODS:Urinary triclocarban, phenols and parabens were measured at three time points in pregnancy (visit 1: 16-20 weeks, visit 2: 20-24 weeks, visit 3: 24-28 weeks gestation). Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were conducted to regress gestational age and birthweight z-scores against each woman's log average concentrations of exposure biomarkers. Logistic regression models were conducted to calculate odds of preterm birth, small or large for gestational age (SGA and LGA) in association with each of the exposure biomarkers. An interaction term between the average urinary biomarker concentration and infant sex was included in models to identify effect modification. The results were additionally stratified by study visit to look for windows of vulnerability. Results were transformed into the change in the birth outcome for an inter-quartile-range difference in biomarker concentration (?). RESULTS:Average benzophenone-3, methyl- and propyl-paraben concentrations were associated with an increase in gestational age [(? 1.90 days; 95% CI: 0.54, 3.26); (? 1.63; 95% CI: 0.37, 2.89); (? 2.06; 95% CI: 0.63, 3.48), respectively]. Triclocarban was associated with a suggestive 2-day decrease in gestational age (??-?1.96; 95% CI: -4.11, 0.19). Bisphenol A measured at visit 1 was associated with a suggestive increase in gestational age (? 1.37; 95% CI: -0.05, 2.79). Triclosan was positively associated with gestational age among males, and negatively associated with gestational age among females. Methyl-, butyl- and propyl-paraben were associated with significant 0.50-0.66 decreased odds of SGA. BPS was associated with an increase in the odds of SGA at visit 3, and a suggestive increase in the odds of LGA at visit 1. CONCLUSION:Benzophenone-3, methyl-paraben and propyl-paraben were associated with an increase in gestational age. Concentrations of triclocarban, which were much higher than reported in other populations, were associated with a suggestive decrease in gestational age. The direction of the association between triclosan and gestational age differed by infant sex. Parabens were associated with a decrease in SGA, and BPS was associated with both SGA and LGA depending on the study visit. Further studies are required to substantiate these findings.
Project description:Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are now ubiquitous contaminants with large reservoirs and high concentrations in buildings. Most of the information documenting BFR levels has been obtained in residences, and other environments that can lead to exposure have received relatively little attention, including offices that contain numerous BFR sources and where individuals spend considerable time. The aim of this study is to characterize BFR concentrations, potential emission sources, and migration pathways in office environments. We measure BFR levels in floor dust, indoor air, ventilation filter dust, and carpets in ten commercial and institutional buildings in Michigan, U.S.A. The median concentration of total BDEs in settled dust was 8754 ng g(-1), at the upper range of levels previously reported. Especially elevated levels were found in offices in buildings that contained known or likely BFR sources, e.g., computer servers. A trends analysis in a newly constructed building showed remarkable increases in concentrations of BFRs in settled dust and indoor air, and apparent steady-state levels were reached 5 to 8 months after building completion, a particularly striking finding given that the building was constructed and furnished several years after the voluntary phase-out of the penta- and octa-mixtures. Airborne particulate matter collected in a building's HVAC system filters contained PBDEs, including BDE-209, at levels exceeding the concentration of floor dust. In conjunction with estimates of building air flow rates, filter efficiency and other parameters, mass balance calculations for this building were used to estimate the emission rates and reservoirs of PBDEs. The widespread distribution of BFRs found in offices in both new and old buildings suggests the significance of workplace exposures, the need for controls to minimize human exposure, intra-building migration, and environmental releases of these chemicals, and the need for monitoring in new buildings to confirm the effectiveness of the PBDE phase-out.