Transcriptomic Landscape of Treatment-Naive Ulcerative Colitis.
ABSTRACT: Background and Aims:Ulcerative colitis [UC] is a chronic inflammatory disease that effects the gastrointestinal tract and is considered one of the most prominent and common forms of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. This study aimed to define and describe the entire transcriptomic landscape in a well-stratified, treatment-naïve UC patient population compared with control patients by using next-generation technology, RNA-Seq. Methods:Mucosal biopsies from treatment-naïve UC patients [n = 14], and healthy controls [n = 16] underwent RNA-Seq. Principal component analysis [PCA], cell deconvolution methods, and diverse statistical methods were applied to obtain and characterise a dataset of significantly differentially expressed genes [DEGs]. Results:Analyses revealed 1480 significantly DEGs in treatment-naïve UC when compared with controls. Cell populations of monocytes, T cells, neutrophils, B cells/ lymphoid cells, and myeloid cells were increased during inflammation, whereas the fraction of epithelial cells were reduced in UC, which is reflected by the DEGs; 79 DEGs were identified as IBD susceptibility genes, and 58 DEGs were expressed in a gender-specific manner. MUC5B, REG3A, DEFA5, and IL33 might be considered as colorectal cancer [CRC] risk factors following UC in males. AQP9 together with CLDN2 may have a role regulating tissue-specific physiological properties in tight junctions in UC. An additional functional role for AQP9 in the synthesis and/or the function of mucus can be implied. Conclusions:This study reveals new potential players in UC pathogenesis in general, and provides evidence for a gender-dependent pathogenesis for UC. These results can be useful for the development of personalised treatment strategies for UC in the future.
Project description:Host genetics shape the gut microbiota, and gut dysbiosis increases the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Paneth cells and microbiota have interactions that contribute to immune regulation. ?-defensin-5 (HD5) and regenerating islet-derived protein 3 alpha (Reg3A) are the most abundant Paneth cell antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for HD5 (DEFA5) and Reg3A (REG3A) predict aGVHD risk. We analysed pre-transplant recipient peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from randomized Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) studies 0201 (94 patients with bone marrow and 93 with peripheral blood grafts) and 0901 (86 patients with myeloablative and 77 with reduced-intensity conditioning; all using peripheral blood grafts). In multivariable analysis (with a SNP × graft source interaction term in CTN-0201 and a SNP × conditioning intensity term in CTN-0901), DEFA5 rs4415345 and rs4610776 were associated with altered incidence of aGVHD grade II-IV [rs4415345 G vs. C: hazard ratio (HR) 0·58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0·37-0·92, P = 0·02; rs4610776 T vs. A: HR 1·53, 95% CI 1·01-2·32, P = 0·05] in CTN-0201, but not CTN-0901, suggesting a stronger effect in bone marrow allografts. REG3A SNP was not associated with aGVHD. Host genetics may influence aGVHD risk by modulating Paneth cell function.
Project description:Background and Aims:The aim of this study was to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation status in treatment-naïve ulcerative colitis [UC], and to explore the relationship between DNA methylation patterns and gene expression levels in tissue biopsies from a well-stratified treatment-naïve UC patient group. Methods:Mucosal biopsies from treatment-naïve patients [n = 10], and a healthy control group [n = 11] underwent genome-wide DNA bisulfite sequencing. Principal component analysis [PCA] and diverse statistical methods were applied to obtain a dataset of differentially methylated genes. DNA methylation annotation was investigated using the UCSC Genome Browser. Gene set enrichments were obtained using the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes [KEGG] and PANTHER. Results:Of all significantly differentially expressed genes [DEGs], 25% correlated with DNA methylation patterns; 30% of these genes were methylated at CpG sites near their transcription start site [TSS]. Hyper-methylation was observed for genes involved in homeostasis and defence, whereas hypo-methylation was observed for genes playing a role in immune response [i.e. chemokines and interleukins]. Of the differentially DNA methylated genes, 25 were identified as inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] susceptibility genes. Four genes [DEFFA6, REG1B, BTNL3, OLFM4] showed DNA methylation in the absence of known CpG islands. Conclusions:Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis revealed distinctive functional patterns for hyper-and hypo-methylation in treatment-naïve UC. These distinct patterns could be of importance in the development and pathogenesis of UC. Further investigation of DNA methylation patterns may be useful in the development of the targeting of epigenetic processes, and may allow new treatment and target strategies for UC patients.
Project description:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) characterized by occurrence in the rectum and sigmoid colon of young adults. However, the functional roles of transcription factors (TFs) and their regulating target genes and pathways are not fully known in ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we collected gene expression data to identify differentially expressed TFs (DETFs). We found that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in the target genes of HOXA2, IKZF1, KLF2, XBP1, EGR2, ETV7, BACH2, CBFA2T3, HLF, and NFE2. TFs including BACH2, CBFA2T3, EGR2, ETV7, NFE2, and XBP1, and their target genes were significantly enriched in signaling by interleukins. BACH2 target genes were enriched in estrogen receptor- (ESR-) mediated signaling and nongenomic estrogen signaling. Furthermore, to clarify the functional roles of immune cells on the UC pathogenesis, we estimated the immune cell proportions in all the samples. The accumulated effector CD8 and reduced proportion of naïve CD4 might be responsible for the adaptive immune response in UC. The accumulation of plasma in UC might be associated with increased gut permeability. In summary, we present a systematic study of the TFs by analyzing the DETFs, their regulating target genes and pathways, and immune cells. These findings might improve our understanding of the TFs in the pathogenesis of UC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The bioactive metabolites of omega 3 and omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 and ω-6) are known as oxylipins and endocannabinoids (eCBs). These lipid metabolites are involved in prompting and resolving the inflammatory response that leads to the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to quantify these bioactive lipids in the colonic mucosa and to evaluate the potential link to cytokine gene expression during inflammatory events in ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS:Colon biopsies were taken from 15 treatment-naïve UC patients, 5 deep remission UC patients, and 10 healthy controls. Thirty-five oxylipins and 11 eCBs were quantified by means of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of mRNA for 10 cytokines were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:Levels of ω-6-related oxylipins were significantly elevated in treatment-naïve patients with respect to controls, whereas the levels of ω-3 eCBs were lower. 15S-Hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid (15S-HETrE) was significantly upregulated in UC deep remission patients compared with controls. All investigated cytokines had significantly higher mRNA levels in the inflamed mucosa of treatment-naïve UC patients. Cytokine gene expression was positively correlated with several ω-6 arachidonic acid-related oxylipins, whereas negative correlation was found with lipoxin, prostacyclin, and the eCBs. CONCLUSIONS:Increased levels of ω-6-related oxylipins and decreased levels of ω-3-related eCBs are associated with the debut of UC. This highlights the altered balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in IBD and suggests potential targets for intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Intestinal microbiota is considered to play a crucial role in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to describe faecal microbiota composition and dynamics in a large cohort of children with de novo (naïve) IBD, in comparison to healthy paediatric controls (HC). METHODS:In this prospective study, performed at two tertiary centres, faecal samples from newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve paediatric IBD patients were collected prior to bowel cleansing for colonoscopy (t0) and 1, 3 and 6 weeks and 3 months after initiation of therapy. The microbial profiles of Crohn's disease (CD) and Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were compared with HC and linked to therapeutic response. Microbiota composition was analysed by IS-pro technology. RESULTS:Microbial profiles of 104 new IBD-patients (63 CD, 41 UC, median age 14.0 years) were compared to 61 HC (median 7.8 years). IBD was mainly characterised by decreased abundance of Alistipes finegoldii and Alistipes putredinis, which characterize a healthy state microbial core. The classifier including these core species as predictors achieved an AUC of the ROC curve of .87. Core bacteria tended to regain abundance during treatment, but did not reach healthy levels. CONCLUSION:Faecal microbiota profiles of children with de novo CD and UC can be discriminated from HC with high accuracy, mainly driven by a decreased abundance of species shaping the microbial core in the healthy state. Paediatric IBD can therefore be characterized by decreased abundance of certain bacterial species reflecting the healthy state rather than by the introduction of pathogens.
Project description:Intestinal dysbiosis is one of the causes underlying the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Besides bacteria, microbiota comprises both prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses, that together compose the gut virome. Few works have defined the viral composition of stools, while the virome populating intestinal mucosae from early-diagnosed IBD patients has never been studied. Here we show that, by in-depth metagenomic analysis of RNA-Seq data obtained from gut mucosae of young treatment-naïve patients, early-diagnosed for CD and UC, and from healthy subjects (Ctrl), UC patients display significantly higher levels of eukaryotic Hepadnaviridae transcripts by comparison with both Ctrl and CD patients, whereas CD patients show increased abundance of Hepeviridae versus Ctrl. Moreover, we found that UC gut mucosa is characterized by lower levels of Polydnaviridae and Tymoviridae, whereas the mucosa of patients with CD showed a reduced abundance of Virgaviridae. Our findings support the idea that certain eukaryotic viruses might trigger intestinal inflammation and contribute to IBD pathogenesis and pave the way not only for the discovery of novel diagnostic biomarkers but also for the development of anti-viral drugs for the treatment of IBD.
Project description:This study aimed to identify genes that may play a role in development of ulcerative colitis (UC) and gain insight into its pathogenesis.Gene expression profiling data, including samples collected from 13 early-stage UC (EUC), 8 advanced-stage UC (AUC), and 5 control subjects, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database under the accession number of GSE9452. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in EUC and AUC compared with controls. DEGs for EUC and AUC, as well as AUC-specific DEGs were subjected to pathway enrichment analysis. Random Walk with Restart (RWR) was used to identify DEGs that are critical in UC based on a protein-to-protein interaction (PPI) network and the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathway downloaded from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. IL17 and transforming growth factor beta TGF-β) expression levels in colonic tissue from patients with UC and normal colonic mucosa from healthy adults were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC).A total of 3511 and 911 DEGs were identified in AUC and EUC, respectively. The overlapping DEGs and the AUC-specific DEGs were both enriched in pathways related to immunity, such as antigen processing and presentation. AUC-specific DEGs were related to cell migration, such as ECM-receptor interaction. Following DEG prioritization, TLR4 and STAT1 were linked with EUC, AUC, and CD. The upregulated gene TGFB increased the number of Th17 cells, as verified by IHC. Furthermore, PIK3R1, CREBBP, and STAT1 were part of high-degree nodes in the PPI sub-network.The upregulated gene TGFB may regulate IL17 expression in UC. PIK3R1 may participate in immunity and CREBBP may interact with STAT1 in the development and progression of UC.
Project description:Around a 20-30% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are diagnosed before they are 18 years old. Anti-TNF drugs can induce and maintain remission in IBD, however, up to 30% of patients do not respond. The aim of the work was to identify markers that would predict an early response to anti-TNF drugs in pediatric patients with IBD. The study population included 43 patients aged <18 years with IBD who started treatment with infliximab or adalimumab. Patients were classified into primary responders (n = 27) and non-responders to anti-TNF therapy (n = 6). Response to treatment could not be analyzed in 10 patients. Response was defined as a decrease in over 15 points in the disease activity indexes from week 0 to week 10 of infliximab treatment or from week 0 to week 26 of adalimumab treatment. The expression profiles of nine genes in total RNA isolated from the whole-blood of pediatric IBD patients taken before biologic administration and after 2 weeks were analyzed using qPCR and the 2-??Ct method. Before initiation and after 2 weeks of treatment the expression of SMAD7 was decreased in patients who were considered as non-responders (p value < 0.05). Changes in expression were also observed for TLR2 at T0 and T2, although that did not reach the level of statistical significance. In addition, the expression of DEFA5 decreased 1.75-fold during the first 2 weeks of anti-TNF treatment in responders, whereas no changes were observed in non-responders. Expression of the SMAD7 gene is a pharmacogenomic biomarker of early response to anti-TNF agents in pediatric IBD. TLR2 and DEFA5 need to be validated in larger studies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Adsorptive granulomonocytapheresis (GMA) with the Adacolumn has been introduced as a non-pharmacologic treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, a subset of patients who might respond well to GMA needs to be targeted. This study was conducted at three IBD centers to determine factors affecting the efficacy of GMA in patients with moderately-to-severely active UC. METHODS:From January 2008 to December 2017, a total of 894 active episodes (first attack or relapse) in 593 patients were treated with GMA. Clinical remission was defined as normal stool frequency and no rectal bleeding. Multiple clinical and laboratory parameters at entry were considered for efficacy assessment. RESULTS:Clinical remission was achieved during 422 (47%) of the 894 treatment cases. In the multivariate analysis, predictors for favorable response to GMA were age ?60 years, UC duration <1 year, Mayo endoscopic subscore 2 (vs. 3), steroid naïve UC, and biologic naïve UC. Clinical remission rate was 70% in patients with four of the five factors, 52% in patients with three factors, 46% in patients with two factors, 39% in patients with one factor, and 18% in patients with none of these factors. Overall, the clinical remission rate was significantly higher in patients with a greater number of the five predictors (P?<?0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:GMA appeared to be effective in steroid naïve and biologic naïve patients with short duration of UC. Elderly patients (>60 years) and those with severe endoscopic activity did not respond well to GMA. Additional, well designed, prospective, controlled trials should strengthen our findings.
Project description:The human microbiome is of considerable interest to pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) researchers with 1 potential mechanism for disease development being aberrant immune handling of the intestinal bacteria. This study analyses the fecal microbiome through treatment in newly diagnosed PIBD patients and compares to cohabiting siblings where possible. Patients were recruited on clinical suspicion of PIBD before diagnosis. Treatment-naïve fecal samples were collected, with further samples at 2 and 6 weeks into treatment. Samples underwent 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) gene sequencing and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) analysis, results were analyzed using quantitative-insights-into-microbial-ecology. Six PIBD patients were included in the cohort: 4 Crohn disease (CD), 1 ulcerative colitis (UC), 1 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unclassified, and median age 12.6 (range 10-15.1 years); 3 patients had an unaffected healthy sibling recruited. Microbial diversity (observed species/Chao1/Shannon diversity) was reduced in treatment-naïve patients compared to siblings and patients in remission. Principal coordinate analysis using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and UniFrac revealed microbial shifts in CD over the treatment course. In treatment-naïve PIBD, there was reduction in functional ability for amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate handling compared to controls (P?=?.038) and patients in remission (P?=?.027). Metabolic function returned to normal after remission was achieved. SCFA revealed consistent detection of lactate in treatment-naïve samples. This study adds in-depth 16S rRNA sequencing analysis on a small longitudinal cohort to the literature and includes sibling controls and patients with UC/IBD unclassified. It highlights the initial dysbiosis, reduced diversity, altered functional potential, and subsequent shifts in bacteria from diagnosis over time to remission.