ABSTRACT: Macrophages form an important component of the innate immune system and serve as first responders against invading pathogens. While pathways critical for initiation of inflammatory responses between macrophages and other LysM+ myeloid cells are largely similar, it remains unknown whether a specific pathway has differential effects on inflammatory responses mediated between these cells. Recent studies demonstrated that depletion of SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, blocked inflammatory responses generated by macrophages and dendritic cells in response to LPS in cell culture settings. However, the in vivo role of Sag on modulation of macrophages and neutrophil is not known. Here we generated LysM-Cre/Sag fl/fl mice with selective Sag deletion in myeloid lineage, and found that in contrast to in vitro observations, LysM-Cre/Sag fl/fl mice showed increased serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and enhanced mortality in response to LPS. Interestingly, while Sag -/- macrophages released less proinflammatory cytokines, Sag -/- neutrophils released more. Mechanistically, expression of a list of genes response to LPS was significantly altered in bone marrow cells from LysM-Cre +/Sag fl/fl mice after LPS challenge. Specifically, induction by LPS of myeloperoxidase (Mpo), a key neutrophil enzyme, and Elane, neutrophil expressed elastase, was significantly decreased upon Sag depletion. Collectively, our study revealed that Sag plays a differential role in the activation of macrophages and neutrophils.
Project description:Although uncontrolled inflammatory response plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI), the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the development of this disorder remain poorly understood. SOCS3 is an important negative regulator of IL-6-type cytokine signaling. SOCS3 is induced in lung during LPS-induced lung injury, suggesting that generation of SOCS3 may represent a regulatory product during ALI. In the current study, we created mice lacking SOCS3 expression in macrophages and neutrophils (LysM-cre SOCS3(fl/fl)). We evaluated the lung inflammatory response to LPS in both LysM-cre SOCS3(fl/fl) mice and the wild-type (WT) mice (SOCS3(fl/fl)). LysM-cre SOCS3(fl/fl) mice displayed significant increase of the lung permeability index (lung vascular leak of albumin), neutrophils, lung neutrophil accumulation (myeloperoxidase activity), and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines in bronchial alveolar lavage fluids compared to WT mice. These phenotypes were consistent with morphological evaluation of lung, which showed enhanced inflammatory cell influx and intra-alveolar hemorrhage. We further identify the transcription factor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ? as a critical downstream target of SOCS3 in LPS-induced ALI. These results indicate that SOCS3 has a protective role in LPS-induced ALI by suppressing C/EBP? activity in the lung. Elucidating the function of SOCS3 would represent prospective targets for a new generation of drugs needed to treat ALI.
Project description:Zn plays a key role in controlling macrophage function during an inflammatory event. Cellular Zn homeostasis is regulated by two families of metal transporters, the SLC39A family of importers and the SLC30A family of exporters; however, the precise role of these transporters in maintaining macrophage function is poorly understood. Using macrophage-specific Slc39a10-knockout (Slc39a10fl/fl;LysM-Cre+ ) mice, we found that Slc39a10 plays an essential role in macrophage survival by mediating Zn homeostasis in response to LPS stimulation. Compared with Slc39a10fl/fl mice, Slc39a10fl/fl;LysM-Cre+ mice had significantly lower mortality following LPS stimulation as well as reduced liver damage and lower levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, reduced intracellular Zn concentration in Slc39a10fl/fl;LysM-Cre+ macrophages led to the stabilization of p53, which increased apoptosis upon LPS stimulation. Concomitant knockout of p53 largely rescued the phenotype of Slc39a10fl/fl;LysM-Cre+ mice. Finally, the phenotype in Slc39a10fl/fl;LysM-Cre+ mice was mimicked in wild-type mice using the Zn chelator TPEN and was reversed with Zn supplementation. Taken together, these results suggest that Slc39a10 plays a role in promoting the survival of macrophages through a Zn/p53-dependent axis in response to inflammatory stimuli.
Project description:Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (Tet2) mediates demethylation of DNA. We here sought to determine the expression and function of Tet2 in macrophages upon exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and in the host response to LPS induced lung and peritoneal inflammation, and during <i>Escherichia (E.) coli</i> induced peritonitis. LPS induced <i>Tet2</i> expression in mouse macrophages and human monocytes in vitro, as well as in human alveolar macrophages after bronchial instillation in vivo. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from myeloid Tet2 deficient (<i>Tet2<sup>fl/fl</sup>LysM<sup>Cre</sup></i>) mice displayed enhanced production of IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 upon stimulation with several Toll-like receptor agonists; similar results were obtained with LPS stimulated alveolar and peritoneal macrophages. Histone deacetylation was involved in the effect of Tet2 on IL-6 production, whilst methylation at the <i>Il6</i> promoter was not altered by Tet2 deficiency. <i>Tet2<sup>fl/fl</sup>LysM<sup>Cre</sup></i> mice showed higher IL-6 and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar and peritoneal lavage fluid after intranasal and intraperitoneal LPS administration, respectively, whilst other inflammatory responses were unaltered. <i>E. coli</i> induced stronger production of IL-1β and IL-6 by Tet2 deficient peritoneal macrophages but not in peritoneal lavage fluid of <i>Tet2<sup>fl/fl</sup>LysM<sup>Cre</sup></i> mice after in vivo intraperitoneal infection. <i>Tet2<sup>fl/fl</sup>LysM<sup>Cre</sup></i> mice displayed enhanced bacterial growth during <i>E. coli</i> peritonitis, which was associated with a reduced capacity of <i>Tet2<sup>fl/fl</sup>LysM<sup>Cre</sup></i> peritoneal macrophages to inhibit the growth of <i>E. coli</i> in vitro. Collectively, these data suggest that Tet2 is involved in the regulation of macrophage functions triggered by LPS and during <i>E. coli</i> infection.
Project description:Why ocular mucosa is paucibacterial is unknown. Many different mechanisms have been suggested but the comprehensive experimental studies are sparse. We found that a deficiency in L-plastin (LCP1), an actin bundling protein, resulted in an ocular commensal overgrowth, characterized with increased presence of conjunctival Streptococcal spp. The commensal overgrowth correlated with susceptibility to P. aeruginosa-induced keratitis. L-plastin knock-out (KO) mice displayed elevated bacterial burden in the P. aeruginosa-infected corneas, altered inflammatory responses, and compromised bactericidal activity. Mice with ablation of LPL under the LysM Cre (LysM. Cre pos LPL fl/fl ) and S100A8 Cre (S100A8.Cre pos LPL fl/fl ) promoters had a similar phenotype to the LPL KOs mice. In contrast, infected CD11c.Cre pos LPL fl/fl mice did not display elevated susceptibility to infection, implicating the myeloid L-plastin-sufficient cells (e.g., macrophages and neutrophils) in maintaining ocular homeostasis. Mechanistically, the elevated commensal burden and the susceptibility to infection were linked to defects in neutrophil frequencies at steady state and during infection and compromised bactericidal activities upon priming. Macrophage exposure to commensal organisms primed neutrophil responses to P. aeruginosa, augmenting PMN bactericidal capacity in an L-plastin dependent manner. Cumulatively, our data highlight the importance of neutrophils in controlling ocular paucibacteriality, reveal molecular and cellular events involved in the process, and suggest a link between commensal exposure and resistance to infection.
Project description:Macrophages regulate innate immunity to maintain intestinal homeostasis and play pathological roles in intestinal inflammation. Activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promotes cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival, and wound closure in several cell types. However, the impact of EGFR in macrophages remains unclear. This study was to investigate whether EGFR activation in macrophages regulates cytokine production and intestinal inflammation. We found that EGFR was activated in colonic macrophages in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and in patients with ulcerative colitis. DSS-induced acute colitis was ameliorated, and recovery from colitis was promoted in Egfr(fl/fl)LysM-Cre mice with myeloid cell-specific deletion of EGFR, compared with LysM-Cre mice. DSS treatment increased IL-10 and TNF levels during the acute phase of colitis, and increased IL-10 but reduced TNF levels during the recovery phase in Egfr(fl/fl)LysM-Cre mice. An anti-IL-10 neutralizing Ab abolished these effects of macrophage-specific EGFR deletion on DSS-induced colitis in Egfr(fl/fl)LysM-Cre mice. LPS stimulated EGFR activation and inhibition of EGFR kinase activity enhanced LPS-stimulated NF-?B activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, induction of IL-10 production by EGFR kinase-blocked RAW 264.7 cells, in response to LPS plus IFN-?, correlated with decreased TNF production. Thus, although selective deletion of EGFR in macrophages leads to increases in both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to inflammatory stimuli, the increase in the IL-10 level plays a role in suppressing proinflammatory cytokine production, resulting in protection of mice from intestinal inflammation. These results reveal an integrated response of macrophages regulated by EGFR in intestinal inflammatory disorders.
Project description:Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on leukocytes, endothelia, and epithelia that regulates biological processes including barrier function and immune responses. While JAM-A has been reported to facilitate tissue infiltration of leukocytes under inflammatory conditions, the contributions of leukocyte-expressed JAM-A in vivo remain unresolved. We investigated the role of leukocyte-expressed JAM-A in acute peritonitis induced by zymosan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or TNF? using mice with selective loss of JAM-A in myelomonocytic cells (LysM-Cre;Jam-afl/fl). Surprisingly, in LysM-Cre;Jam-afl/fl mice, loss of JAM-A did not affect neutrophil (PMN) recruitment into the peritoneum in response to zymosan, LPS, or TNF? although it was significantly reduced in Jam-aKO mice. In parallel, Jam-aKO peritoneal macrophages exhibited diminished CXCL1 chemokine production and decreased activation of NF-kB, whereas those from LysM-Cre;Jam-afl/fl mice were unaffected. Using Villin-Cre;Jam-afl/fl mice, targeted loss of JAM-A on intestinal epithelial cells resulted in increased intestinal permeability along with reduced peritoneal PMN migration as well as lower levels of CXCL1 and active NF-kB similar to that observed in Jam-aKO animals. Interestingly, in germ-free Villin-Cre;Jam-afl/fl mice, PMN recruitment was unaffected suggesting dependence on gut microbiota. Such observations highlight the functional link between a leaky gut and regulation of innate immune responses.
Project description:<b>Rationale:</b> Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an immune regulator and an important driver of fibrosis in chronic lung injury, however, its role in acute lung injury (ALI) remains unknown. Previous work has shown that global deletion of galectin-3 reduces collagen deposition in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model (MacKinnon et al., Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2012, 185, 537-46). An inhaled Gal-3 inhibitor, GB0139, is undergoing Phase II clinical development for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This work aims to elucidate the role of Gal-3 in the myeloid and mesenchymal compartment on the development of acute and chronic lung injury. <b>Methods:</b> <i>LgalS3</i> <sup>fl/fl</sup> mice were generated and crossed with mice expressing the myeloid (<i>LysM</i>) and mesenchymal (<i>Pdgfrb</i>) cre drivers to yield <i>LysM-cre</i> <sup><i>+/-</i></sup> <i>/LgalS3</i> <sup><i>fl/fl</i></sup> and <i>Pdgfrb-cre</i> <sup><i>+/-</i></sup> <i>/LgalS3</i> <sup><i>fl/fl</i></sup> mice. The response to acute (bleomycin or LPS) or chronic (bleomycin) lung injury was compared to globally deficient <i>Gal-3</i> <sup><i>-/-</i></sup> mice. <b>Results:</b> Myeloid depletion of Gal-3 led to a significant reduction in Gal-3 expression in alveolar macrophages and neutrophils and a reduction in neutrophil recruitment into the interstitium but not into the alveolar space. The reduction in interstitial neutrophils corelated with decreased levels of pulmonary inflammation following acute bleomycin and LPS administration. In addition, myeloid deletion decreased Gal-3 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and reduced lung fibrosis induced by chronic bleomycin. In contrast, no differences in BAL Gal-3 levels or fibrosis were observed in <i>Pdgfrb-cre</i> <sup><i>+/-</i></sup> <i>/LgalS3</i> <sup><i>fl/fl</i></sup> <i>mice.</i> <b>Conclusions:</b> Myeloid cell derived Galectin-3 drives acute and chronic lung inflammation and supports direct targeting of galectin-3 as an attractive new therapy for lung inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pain is a predominant symptom in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients that results from joint inflammation and is augmented by central sensitization. Regulator of G-protein signaling 12 (RGS12) is the largest protein in the RGS protein family and plays a key role in the development of inflammation. This study investigated the regulation of RGS12 in inflammatory pain and explored the underlying mechanisms and potential RA pain targets.<h4>Methods</h4>Macrophage-specific RGS12-deficient (LysM-Cre<sup>+</sup>;RGS12<sup>fl/fl</sup>) mice were generated by mating RGS12<sup>fl/fl</sup> mice with LysM-Cre<sup>+</sup> transgenic mice. Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) models were induced in LysM-Cre<sup>+</sup>;RGS12<sup>fl/fl</sup> mice by the administration of a cocktail of five monoclonal antibodies and LPS. Mouse nociception was examined using the von Frey and heat plate tests. Primary macrophages and RAW264.7 cells were used to analyze the regulatory function and mechanism of RGS12 <i>in vitro</i>. The expression and function of RGS12 and COX2 (cyclooxygenase 2) were determined by real-time PCR, ELISA, and luciferase assays.<h4>Results</h4>Ablation of RGS12 in macrophages decreased pain-related phenotypes, such as paw swelling, the clinical score, and the inflammatory score, in the CAIA model. LysM-Cre<sup>+</sup>;RGS12<sup>fl/fl</sup> mice displayed increased resistance to thermal and mechanical stimulation from day 3 to day 9 during CAIA, indicating the inhibition of inflammatory pain. Overexpression of COX2 and PGE2 in macrophages enhanced RGS12 expression, and PGE2 regulated RGS12 expression through the G-protein-coupled receptors EP2 and EP4. Furthermore, RGS12 or the RGS12 PTB domain strengthened the transcriptional regulation of COX2 by NF-κB, whereas inhibiting NF-κB suppressed RGS12-mediated regulation of COX2 in macrophages.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results demonstrate that the deletion of RGS12 in macrophages attenuates inflammatory pain, which is likely due to impaired regulation of the COX2/PGE2 signaling pathway.
Project description:Comparative analysis of gene expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from trsp knockout mice (Trspfl/fl-LysM-Cre+/-) and Control (Trspfl/fl-LysM-Cre-/-) mice. Selenium, a micronutrient whose deficiency in the diet causes immune dysfunction and inflammatory disorders, exerts its physiological effects partly in the form of selenium-containing proteins (selenoproteins). Incorporation of selenium into the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec), and subsequently into selenoproteins, is mediated by Sec tRNA[Ser]Sec. To identify macrophage-specific selenoprotein function, we generated mice with the Sec tRNA[Ser]Sec gene specifically deleted in myeloid cells. These mutant mice were devoid of the selenoproteome in macrophages, yet exhibited largely normal inflammatory responses. However, selenoprotein deficiency led to aberrant expression of extracellular matrix-related genes, and diminished migration of macrophages in a protein gel matrix. Therefore, selenium status may affect immune defense and tissue homeostasis through its effect on selenoprotein expression and the trafficking of tissue macrophages. We have generated mice in which we have selectively removed the selenocysteine tRNA gene (trsp) in macrophages under the control of LysM-Cre promoter. Microarray analysis was performed on RNA samples taken from bone marrow-derived macrophages in knockout and control mice. 1. Control unstimulated 2. Knockout unstimulated 3. Control lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated (4h) 4. Knockout LPS stimulated (4h). Three replicates for each condition. Thus, a total of 12 samples.
Project description:Biliverdin reductase (BVR)-A is a pleotropic enzyme converting biliverdin to bilirubin and a signaling molecule that has cytoprotective and immunomodulatory effects. We recently showed that biliverdin inhibits the expression of complement activation fragment 5a receptor one (C5aR1) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In this study, we investigated the role of BVR-A in determining macrophage inflammatory phenotype and function via regulation of C5aR1. We assessed expression of C5aR1, M1-like macrophage markers, including chemokines (RANTES, IP-10), as well as chemotaxis in response to LPS and C5a in bone marrow-derived macrophages from BVR fl/fl and LysM-Cre:BVR fl / fl mice (conditional deletion of BVR-A in myeloid cells). In response to LPS, macrophages isolated from LysM-Cre:BVR fl/fl showed significantly elevated levels of C5aR1 as well as chemokines (RANTES, IP10) but not proinflammatory markers, such as iNOS and TNF. An increase in C5aR1 expression was also observed in peritoneal macrophages and several tissues from LysM-Cre:BVR fl/fl mice in a model of endotoxemia. In addition, knockdown of BVR-A resulted in enhanced macrophage chemotaxis toward C5a. Part of the effects of BVR-A deletion on chemotaxis and RANTES expression were blocked in the presence of a C5aR1 neutralizing Ab, confirming the role of C5a-C5aR1 signaling in mediating the effects of BVR. In summary, BVR-A plays an important role in regulating macrophage chemotaxis in response to C5a via modulation of C5aR1 expression. In addition, macrophages lacking BVR-A are characterized by the expression of M1 polarization-associated chemokines, the levels of which depend in part on C5aR1 signaling.