Exposure to household air pollution from biomass-burning cookstoves and HbA1c and diabetic status among Honduran women.
ABSTRACT: Household air pollution from biomass cookstoves is estimated to be responsible for more than two and a half million premature deaths annually, primarily in low and middle-income countries where cardiometabolic disorders, such as Type II Diabetes, are increasing. Growing evidence supports a link between ambient air pollution and diabetes, but evidence for household air pollution is limited. This cross-sectional study of 142 women (72 with traditional stoves and 70 with cleaner-burning Justa stoves) in rural Honduras evaluated the association of exposure to household air pollution (stove type, 24-hour average kitchen and personal fine particulate matter [PM2.5 ] mass and black carbon) with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and diabetic status based on HbA1c levels. The prevalence ratio (PR) per interquartile range increase in pollution concentration indicated higher prevalence of prediabetes/diabetes (vs normal HbA1c) for all pollutant measures (eg, PR per 84 ?g/m3 increase in personal PM2.5 , 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-2.01). Results for HbA1c as a continuous variable were generally in the hypothesized direction. These results provide some evidence linking household air pollution with the prevalence of prediabetes/diabetes, and, if confirmed, suggest that the global public health impact of household air pollution may be broader than currently estimated.
Project description:Growing evidence links household air pollution exposure from biomass cookstoves with elevated blood pressure. We assessed cross-sectional associations of 24-hour mean concentrations of personal and kitchen fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), and stove type with blood pressure, adjusting for confounders, among 147 women using traditional or cleaner-burning Justa stoves in Honduras. We investigated effect modification by age and body mass index. Traditional stove users had mean (standard deviation) personal and kitchen 24-hour PM2.5 concentrations of 126 ?g/m3 (77) and 360 ?g/m3 (374), while Justa stove users' exposures were 66 ?g/m3 (38) and 137 ?g/m3 (194), respectively. BC concentrations were similarly lower among Justa stove users. Adjusted mean systolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg higher (95% CI, 0.7-4.3) per unit increase in natural log-transformed kitchen PM2.5 concentration; results were stronger among women of 40 years or older (5.2 mm Hg increase, 95% CI, 2.3-8.1). Adjusted odds of borderline high and high blood pressure (categorized) were also elevated (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.0-2.3). Some results included null values and are suggestive. Results suggest that reduced household air pollution, even when concentrations exceed air quality guidelines, may help lower cardiovascular disease risk, particularly among older subgroups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels affects nearly 3 billion people worldwide and is responsible for an estimated 2.5 million premature deaths and 77 million disability-adjusted life years annually. Investigating the effect of household air pollution on indicators of cardiometabolic disease, such as metabolic syndrome, can help clarify the pathways between this widespread exposure and cardiovascular diseases, which are increasing in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS:Our cross-sectional study of 150 women in rural Honduras (76 with traditional stoves and 74 with cleaner-burning Justa stoves) explored the effect of household air pollution exposure on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Household air pollution was measured by stove type and 24-h average kitchen and personal fine particulate matter [PM2.5] mass and black carbon concentrations. Health endpoints included non-fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, calculated low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, waist circumference to indicate abdominal obesity, and presence of metabolic syndrome (defined by current modified international guidelines: waist circumference???80?cm plus any two of the following: triglycerides?>?200?mg/dL, HDL?<?50?mg/dL, systolic blood pressure???130?mmHg, diastolic blood pressure???85?mmHg, or glycated hemoglobin?>?5.6%). RESULTS:Forty percent of women met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. The prevalence ratio [PR] for metabolic syndrome (versus normal) per interquartile range increase in kitchen PM2.5 and kitchen black carbon was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.34) per 312??g/m3 increase in PM2.5, and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.12) per 73??g/m3 increase in black carbon. There is suggestive evidence of a stronger effect in women ??40 years of age compared to women <?40 (p-value for interaction?=?0.12 for personal PM2.5). There was no evidence of associations between all other exposure metrics and health endpoints. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our study population was high compared to global estimates. We observed a suggestive effect between metabolic syndrome and exposure to household air pollution. These results for metabolic syndrome may be driven by specific syndrome components, such as blood pressure. Longitudinal research with repeated health and exposure measures is needed to better understand the link between household air pollution and indicators of cardiometabolic disease risk.
Project description:Household air pollution is estimated to be responsible for nearly three million premature deaths annually. Measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) may improve the limited understanding of the association of household air pollution and airway inflammation. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of FeNO with exposure to household air pollution (24-h average kitchen and personal fine particulate matter and black carbon; stove type) among 139 women in rural Honduras using traditional stoves or cleaner-burning Justa stoves. We additionally evaluated interaction by age. Results were generally consistent with a null association; we did not observe a consistent pattern for interaction by age. Evidence from ambient and household air pollution regarding FeNO is inconsistent, and may be attributable to differing study populations, exposures, and FeNO measurement procedures (e.g., the flow rate used to measure FeNO).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Growing evidence links household air pollution exposure from biomass-burning cookstoves to cardiometabolic disease risk. Few randomized controlled interventions of cookstoves (biomass or otherwise) have quantitatively characterized changes in exposure and indicators of cardiometabolic health, a growing and understudied burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Ideally, the solution is to transition households to clean cooking, such as with electric or liquefied petroleum gas stoves; however, those unable to afford or to access these options will continue to burn biomass for the foreseeable future. Wood-burning cookstove designs such as the Justa (incorporating an engineered combustion zone and chimney) have the potential to substantially reduce air pollution exposures. Previous cookstove intervention studies have been limited by stove types that did not substantially reduce exposures and/or by low cookstove adoption and sustained use, and few studies have incorporated community-engaged approaches to enhance the intervention. METHODS/DESIGN:We conducted an individual-level, stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial with the Justa cookstove intervention in rural Honduras. We enrolled 230 female primary cooks who were not pregnant, non-smoking, aged 24-59?years old, and used traditional wood-burning cookstoves at baseline. A community advisory board guided survey development and communication with participants, including recruitment and retention strategies. Over a 3-year study period, participants completed 6 study visits approximately 6?months apart. Half of the women received the Justa after visit 2 and half after visit 4. At each visit, we measured 24-h gravimetric personal and kitchen fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, qualitative and quantitative cookstove use and adoption metrics, and indicators of cardiometabolic health. The primary health endpoints were blood pressure, C-reactive protein, and glycated hemoglobin. Overall study goals are to explore barriers and enablers of new cookstove adoption and sustained use, compare health endpoints by assigned cookstove type, and explore the exposure-response associations between PM2.5 and indicators of cardiometabolic health. DISCUSSION:This trial, utilizing an economically feasible, community-vetted cookstove and evaluating endpoints relevant for the major causes of morbidity and mortality in LMICs, will provide critical information for household air pollution stakeholders globally. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02658383 , posted January 18, 2016, field work completed May 2018. Official title, "Community-Based Participatory Research: A Tool to Advance Cookstove Interventions." Principal Investigator Maggie L. Clark, Ph.D. Last update posted July 12, 2018.
Project description:The combustion of biomass and coal is the dominant source of household air pollution (HAP) in China, and contributes significantly to the total burden of disease in the Chinese population. To characterize HAP exposure related to solid fuel use and ventilation patterns, an exposure assessment study of 163 nonsmoking female heads of households enrolled from 30 villages was conducted in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, two neighboring rural counties with high incidence of lung cancer due to the burning of smoky coal (a bituminous coal, which in health evaluations is usually compared to smokeless coal--an anthracite coal available in some parts of the area). Personal and indoor 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected over two consecutive days in each household, with approximately one-third of measurements retaken in a second season. The overall geometric means (GM) of personal PM2.5 concentrations in Xuanwei and Fuyuan were 166 [Geometric Standard Deviation (GSD):2.0] and 146 (GSD:1.9) μg/m(3), respectively, which were similar to the indoor PM2.5 air concentrations [GM(GSD):162 (2.1) and 136 (2.0) μg/m(3), respectively]. Personal PM2.5 was moderately highly correlated with indoor PM2.5 (Spearman r = 0.70, p < 0.0001). Burning wood or plant materials (tobacco stems, corncobs etc.) resulted in the highest personal PM2.5 concentrations (GM:289 and 225 μg/m(3), respectively), followed by smoky coal, and smokeless coal (GM:148 and 115 μg/m(3), respectively). PM2.5 levels of vented stoves were 34-80% lower than unvented stoves and firepits across fuel types. Mixed effect models indicated that fuel type, ventilation, number of windows, season, and burning time per stove were the main factors related to personal PM2.5 exposure. Lower PM2.5 among vented stoves compared with unvented stoves and firepits is of interest as it parallels the observation of reduced risks of malignant and nonmalignant lung diseases in the region.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollution exposures have been shown to adversely impact health through a number of biological pathways associated with glucose metabolism. However, few studies have evaluated the associations between air pollution and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Further, no studies have evaluated these associations in US populations or investigated whether associations differ in diabetic as compared to non-diabetic populations. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and HbA1c levels in both diabetic and non-diabetic older Americans. We also examined the impact of PM2.5 and NO2 on prevalent diabetes mellitus (DM) in this cohort. METHODS:We used multilevel logistic and linear regression models to evaluate the association between long-term average air pollutant levels and prevalence of DM and HbA1c levels, respectively, among 4121 older (57+ years) Americans enrolled in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project between 2005 and 2011. All models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, race, household income, education level, neighborhood socioeconomic status, geographic region, urbanicity and diabetic medication use. We estimated participant-specific exposures to PM2.5 on a six-kilometer grid covering the conterminous U.S. using spatio-temporal models, and to NO2 using nearest measurements from the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. HbA1c levels were measured for participants in each of two data collection waves from dried blood spots and log-transformed prior to analysis. Participants were considered diabetic if they had HbA1c values?6.5% or reported taking diabetic medication. RESULTS:The prevalence of diabetes at study entry was 22.2% (n=916) and the mean HbA1c was 6.0±1.1%. Mean one-year moving average PM2.5 and NO2 exposures were 10.4±3.0?g/m3 and 13.1±7.0 ppb, respectively. An inter-quartile range (IQR, 3.9?g/m3) increase in one-year moving average PM2.5 was positively associated with increased diabetes prevalence (prevalence odds ratio, POR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.53). Similarly, an IQR (8.6 ppb) increase in NO2 was also significantly associated with diabetes prevalence (POR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.48). PM2.5 (1.8%±0.6%, p<0.01) and NO2 (2.0%±0.7%, p<0.01) exposures were associated with higher HbA1c levels in diabetic participants, while only NO2 was significantly associated with HbA1c in non-diabetic participants (0.8%±0.2%, p<0.01). Significant dose response relationships were identified for both pollutants in diabetic participants and for NO2 in non-diabetic participants. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATIONS:In a cohort of older men and women in the United States, PM2.5 and NO2 exposures were significantly associated with prevalence of DM and increased HbA1c levels among both non-diabetic and diabetic participants. These associations suggest that air pollution could be a key risk factor for abnormal glucose metabolism and diabetes in the elderly.
Project description:Smoke from the burning of biomass fuels has been linked with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight, stillbirth, and prematurity.To identify potential underlying mechanisms of adverse perinatal outcomes, we explored the association of placental pathology with household air pollution in pregnant women from urban/periurban Tanzania who cook predominantly with charcoal.Between 2011 and 2013, we measured personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) over 72 hr among a cohort of Tanzanian pregnant women. Placentas were collected after delivery for examination. Placental pathologies of inflammatory, hypoxic, ischemic/hypertensive, infectious and thrombotic etiologies were diagnosed, blinded to exposure levels. Using multiple logistic regression, we explored the association of PM2.5 and CO exposure with placental pathology.One hundred sixteen women had personal air exposure measurements and placental histopathology available for analysis. PM2.5 and CO exposures were moderate [geometric means (GSD) were 40.5 ?g/m3 (17.3) and 2.21 ppm (1.47) respectively]; 88.6% of PM2.5 measurements exceeded World Health Organization air quality guidelines. We observed an increase in the odds (per 1-unit increase in exposure on the ln-scale) of fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) both with increasing PM2.5 [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 5.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 26.8] and CO measurements (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 6.4) in adjusted models only. FTV also was more common among pregnancies complicated by stillbirth or low birth weight.Fetal thrombosis may contribute to the adverse outcomes associated with household air pollution from cook stoves during pregnancy. Larger studies are necessary for confirmation. Citation: Wylie BJ, Matechi E, Kishashu Y, Fawzi W, Premji Z, Coull BA, Hauser R, Ezzati M, Roberts D. 2017. Placental pathology associated with household air pollution in a cohort of pregnant women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Environ Health Perspect 125:134-140;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP256.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite the importance of understanding the connection between air pollution exposure and diabetes, studies investigating links between air pollution and glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults are limited. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to estimate the association of medium-term air pollution exposures with blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among nondiabetics. METHODS:This study included observations from nondiabetic participants (nobs=7,108) of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study at baseline (2000–2003) and follow-up examination (2006–2008). Daily fine particulate matter (aerodynamic?diameter?2.5??m,?PM2.5; aerodynamic?diameter?10??m,?PM10), accumulation mode particle number (PNAM), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposures were estimated at participants’ residences using the spatiotemporal European Air Pollution Dispersion (EURAD) chemistry transport model. We evaluated the associations between medium-term air pollution exposures (28- and 91-d means) and glucose metabolism measures using mixed linear regression and adjusting for season, meteorology, and personal characteristics. A range of other exposure windows (1-, 2-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 45-, 60-, 75-, 105-, 120-, and 182-d means) were also evaluated to identify potentially relevant biological windows. RESULTS:We observed positive associations between PM2.5 and PNAM exposures and blood glucose levels [e.g., 28-d PM2.5: 0.91 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.38, 1.44) per 5.7??g/m3]. PM2.5, PM10, and PNAM exposures were positively associated with HbA1c [e.g., 91-d PM2.5: 0.07 p.p. (95% CI: 0.04, 0.10) per 4.0??g/m3]. Mean exposures during longer exposure windows (75- to 105-d) were most strongly associated with HbA1c, whereas 7- to 45-d exposures were most strongly associated with blood glucose. NO2 exposure was not associated with blood glucose or with HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS:Medium-term PM and PNAM exposures were positively associated with glucose measures in nondiabetic adults. These findings indicate that reducing ambient air pollution levels may decrease the risk of diabetes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2561.
Project description:Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001) and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p?=?0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions.Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.
Project description:The evidence for an association between particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in developing countries was very scarce.To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in China.This is a cross-sectional study based on a nation-wide baseline survey of 11,847 adults who participated in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study from June 2011 to March 2012. The average residential exposure to PM2.5 for each participant in the same period was estimated using a satellite-based spatial statistical model. We determined the association between PM2.5 and T2DM prevalence by multivariable logistic regression models. We also evaluated the association between PM2.5 and fasting glucose and HbA1c levels using multivariable linear regression models. Stratification analyses were conducted to explore potential effect modification.We identified 1760 cases of T2DM, corresponding to 14.9% of the study population. The average PM2.5 exposure for all participants was 72.6?g/m(3) during the study period. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (41.1?g/m(3)) was significantly associated with increased T2DM prevalence (prevalence ratio, PR=1.14), and elevated levels of fasting glucose (0.26mmol/L) and HbA1c (0.08%). The associations of PM2.5 with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and HbA1c were stronger in several subgroups.This nationwide cross-sectional study suggested that long-term exposure to PM2.5 might increase the risk of T2DM in China.