Admission rates in emergency departments in Geneva during tennis broadcasting: a retrospective study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Literature provides mixed results regarding the influence of large-scale sporting events on emergency department attendance. To contribute to the research on the subject, we sought to evaluate whether the broadcasting of major tennis tournaments, one of the most popular sports in Switzerland, has an impact on patient admission rates in emergency units in Geneva including 1) type of match 2) the role of a Swiss player, 3) degree of triage, 4) reason of attendance and 5) age of patients. METHODS:Admission rates between periods with tennis matches regarding the semi-finals and finals of 3 major tennis tournaments were compared to equivalent periods without matches from May 2013 to August 2017. Patient admission data was retrieved retrospectively from administrative databases of two Outpatient Emergency Units in Geneva. Patients' admission rates in periods with and without a tennis match were investigated using a negative binomial regression model with mixed effects. RESULTS:We observed a statistically significant decrease (-?10%, 95% CI -17 to -?2, p?=?0.015) in admission rates in periods with a tennis match compared to periods without a tennis match, more pronounced during finals (-?15%, 95% CI -26 to -?3, p?=?0.017) than during semi-finals (-?7%, -?16 to 2, p?=?0.13). In addition, this effect was more pronounced in patients aged between 26 to 64?years of age, a category representing professionnally active people. No modification in the admission rates was detected in the hours preceding and following the matches, nor in type of consultations (traumatology vs non traumatology related admissions). CONCLUSION:Although modest, the results support the hypothesis that the broadcasting of large-scale sporting events such as tennis matches decreases admission rates in emergency units. Further research is required to explore for a potential causal relationship.
Project description:Tennis tournaments often involve playing several consecutive matches interspersed with short periods of recovery.The objective of this study was firstly to assess the impact of several successive tennis matches on the physical performance of competitive players and secondly to evaluate the potential of sports drinks to minimize the fatigue induced by repeated matches.This was a crossover, randomized controlled study. Eight male regionally-ranked tennis players participated in this study. Players underwent a series of physical tests to assess their strength, speed, power and endurance following the completion of three tennis matches each of two hours duration played over three consecutive half-days (1.5 day period for each condition). In the first condition the players consumed a sports drink before, during and after each match; in the second, they drank an identical volume of placebo water. The results obtained were compared with the third 'rest' condition in which the subjects did not play any tennis. Main outcomes measured were maximal isometric strength and fatigability of knee and elbow extensors, 20-m sprint speed, jumping height, specific repeated sprint ability test and hand grip strength.The physical test results for the lower limbs showed no significant differences between the three conditions. Conversely, on the upper limbs the EMG data showed greater fatigue of the triceps brachii in the placebo condition compared to the rest condition, while the ingestion of sports drinks attenuated this fatigue.This study has demonstrated for the first time that, when tennis players are adequately hydrated and ingest balanced meals between matches, then no large drop in physical performance is observed even during consecutive competitive matches.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01353872.
Project description:The performance of professional tennis players in the four major Grand Slam tournaments has always been an important research topic, which advances the understanding of the current development of tennis. However, there is little known about the difference between higher-ranked and lower-ranked players considering match performance statistics. The study was aimed to explore the technical, tactical, and physical performance indicators that best discriminate seeded and non-seeded male players in Grand Slams. A total of 549 matches played by 189 individual players during 2015-2017 Grand Slam men's singles were sampled, with corresponding match statistics gathered for each player observation, concerning players' serving, returning, net point, break point, efficiency, and physical performance. The results showed that the seeded players outperformed the non-seeded players in serve and return, break point, net point, and efficiency-related indicators, while the following indicators contributed most to the separation of two player categories: serve and return of serve points won (%), ace (%), peak serve speed, net points won (%), break point per return game, break point saved, winner and unforced error ratio, and dominance ratio. The research findings evidenced the decreased competitive balance in men's competition during Grand Slams due to a rank-based seeding system, whereas coaches could use the information to fine-tune the training benchmarks and match planning.
Project description:In this study, the nutritional and recovery habits of tennis players pre-, during, and post-match-play were investigated. Seventy tennis players completed a bespoke nutrition and recovery habits questionnaire, with questions related to the following areas: match preparation, intra-match nutritional habits, situation dependent variables, and post-match nutrition and recovery. On match day-1, the consumption of balanced meals consisting of carbohydrate (CHO), fat and protein, with some micronutrient considerations were reported by 51% of players. On match-days, CHOs were prioritised prior to match-play with CHO dominant meals consumed by the majority of players. During matches, all players adopted a nutritional strategy, with water (94%), banana(s) (86%) and sports drinks (50%) commonly used. Carbohydrate rich nutritional aids, including sports drinks (80%) and energy gels (26%) were utilised more readily during long matches (>2 h). The day after match-play, 39% of players reported the consumption of "nothing specific". Multiple post-match recovery strategies were adopted by 80% of players, with foam rolling (77%), ice baths (40%), protein shake intake (37%) and hot baths (26%) most used. Findings indicate highly variable eating and recovery habits in tennis players pre-, during and post-match-play, with scope for improved practices.
Project description:The purpose of this paper was to analyze the changes caused by a one-day tennis tournament in biomarkers of oxidative stress and ?-amylase in saliva in children. The sample was 20 male active children with the following characteristics: (a) age of players = 9.46 ± 0.66 years; (b) weight = 34.8 ± 6.5 kg; (c) height = 136.0 ± 7.9 cm; (d) mean weekly training tennis = 2.9 ± 1.0 h. The tennis competition ran for one day, with four matches for each player. Data were taken from the average duration per match and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Four biomarkers of antioxidant status: uric acid (AU), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of saliva (FRAS, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) as a biomarker of psychological stress were measured in saliva. The time points were baseline (at home before the tournament), pre-competition (immediately before the first match) and post-match (after each match) measurements. The four biomarkers of antioxidant status showed a similar dynamic with lower values at baseline and a progressive increase during the four matches. Overall one-day tennis competition in children showed a tendency to increase antioxidant biomarkers in saliva. In addition, there was an increase in pre-competition sAA possibly associated with psychological stress. Further studies about the possible physiological implications of these findings should be performed in the future.
Project description:The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments.Observational cohort study.Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week).Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012.Tackle-related injury severity ('time-loss' and 'medical attention'), type and location, injury rate per 1000?h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A ?(2) analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters.The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater 'time-loss' injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of 'overall' ('time-loss' and 'medical attention' combined) and 'time-loss' tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of 'overall' and 'time-loss' injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05).There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies targeting the tackle may only be effective once the rate and nature of injuries have been accurately determined.
Project description:This study investigated exposure time, running and skill-related performance in two international u20 rugby union teams during an intensified tournament: the 2015 Junior World Rugby Championship.Both teams played 5 matches in 19 days. Analyses were conducted using global positioning system (GPS) tracking (Viper 2™, Statsports Technologies Ltd) and event coding (Opta Pro®).Of the 62 players monitored, 36 (57.1%) participated in 4 matches and 23 (36.5%) in all 5 matches while player availability for selection was 88%. Analyses of team running output (all players completing >60-min play) showed that the total and peak 5-minute high metabolic load distances covered were likely-to-very likely moderately higher in the final match compared to matches 1 and 2 in back and forward players. In individual players with the highest match-play exposure (participation in >75% of total competition playing time and >75-min in each of the final 3 matches), comparisons of performance in matches 4 and 5 versus match 3 (three most important matches) reported moderate-to-large decreases in total and high metabolic load distance in backs while similar magnitude reductions occurred in high-speed distance in forwards. In contrast, skill-related performance was unchanged, albeit with trivial and unclear changes, while there were no alterations in either total or high-speed running distance covered at the end of matches.These findings suggest that despite high availability for selection, players were not over-exposed to match-play during an intensified u20 international tournament. They also imply that the teams coped with the running and skill-related demands. Similarly, individual players with the highest exposure to match-play were also able to maintain skill-related performance and end-match running output (despite an overall reduction in the latter). These results support the need for player rotation and monitoring of performance, recovery and intervention strategies during intensified tournaments.
Project description:The use of smart devices to obtain real-time data has notably increased in the context of training. These technological tools provide data which monitor the external load and technical-tactical actions related to psychological and physical health in junior tennis players. The purpose of this paper is to monitor technical-tactical actions and physical activity during a current tennis competition in the Green stage using a Zepp Tennis Smart Sensor 2. The participants were 20 junior tennis players (under 10 years of age), with an average age of 9.46 years. The total number of strokes (n= 21,477) during 75 matches was analyzed. The study variables were the following aspects: (a) number of strokes, (b) ball impact in the sweet spot; (c) racket speed; (d) ball spin; (e) calories burned; and (f) match time. The current system of competition, based on knockout, does not meet the World Health Organization's recommendations for daily physical activity time. Players mainly used flat forehands with a lack of variability in technical-tactical actions which did not meet the current learning opportunity criteria of comprehensive methodologies. The competition system in under-11 tennis should be adapted to the players' characteristics by improving the variability and quantity of practice.
Project description:<b>Introduction:</b> Accurate interpretation of activity profile data requires an understanding of the variables influencing player movement during matches. <b>Methods:</b> Over 65,000 stints (player rotations) from all 207 matches of the 2018 Australian Football League (AFL) season were evaluated. The relative activity profile including total distance per minute (TD), high-speed running distance per minute (HSR) and Player Load<sup>TM</sup> per minute (PL) was determined for each stint and analysed against a range of match-related, player-related and environment-related predictor variables using multivariate linear mixed modelling. Effect size statistics along with the uncertainty in the estimates (95% confidence interval) were used to interpret the findings. <b>Results:</b> The smallest important effects on TD, HSR, and PL were calculated as 1.5%, 5.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. Stint duration had small to moderate negative effects on TD (-6%), PL (-7.7%), and HSR (-13%), while recovery duration between stints had a small positive effect on HSR (+7%). There were moderate reductions in TD (-8%), HSR (-23%), and PL (-9.6%) in the last quarter compared to the first quarter of matches, while similar reductions existed in subsequent stints compared to the first stint in each quarter. Moderate to large differences of up to 9% in TD, 48% in HSR and 12% in PL existed between positions. The TD of less experienced players was slightly higher than their more experienced counterparts (2-3%). A 5% increase in body mass was associated with a small reduction in HSR (-5.5%). There were small reductions in TD (-2%), HSR (-10%), and PL (-3%) during the Finals Series compared to the Premiership Season. Moderate levels of rainfall during matches and higher apparent temperatures had small negative effects on TD (-2%) and HSR (-6 and -9%). The number of days break between matches, score margin, match outcome, ground hardness, ground size, and traveling for the current or the previous match had trivial effects on the activity profile. <b>Conclusion:</b> Player position and stage of the match (quarter) had the largest effects on match activity profile while stint duration, recovery duration, stint timing, professional experience, body mass, stage of the season, and weather conditions also had substantial effects.
Project description:The purpose of the present study was to shed light on the behavioral component of emotions by investigating antecedents and consequences of outward emotional reactions during table tennis competitions. With regards to the antecedents of outward emotional reactions, in line with appraisal theories, we considered the importance and the controllability of the situation as two important constructs. Fifteen table tennis matches, involving in total 21 players (7 females) with a mean age of 16.71 (SD = 0.70), were video recorded during the finals of the youth National Championship in Greece. Based on the footage, outward emotional reactions after every point were classified as neutral, positive, or negative. Situational factors in relation to the scoring system, bearing the importance and the controllability of the situation, were formed to assess antecedents of outward emotional reactions. To measure the consequences of outward emotional reactions, the impact on the outcome of the next point was assessed. Generalized linear models with a logit link were computed separately for positive outward emotional reactions after having won a point and negative outward emotional reactions after having lost a point. In general, the results show that while situational factors bearing the importance of the situation could predict positive and negative outward emotional reactions, the effects of situational factors bearing the controllability of the situation were less conclusive. In addition, the results also showed interactive effects between the two constructs for both positive and negative outward emotional reactions. With regard to the consequences of outward emotional reactions, negative and positive outward emotional reactions could not predict the outcome of the next point. To conclude, this study highlights the behavioral component of emotions as a viable alternative to enhance our understanding of the role of emotions in sport.
Project description:Background:Groin injuries are some of the most common injuries tennis players suffer. Several factors (e.g., post-match decrease in hip adductor (ADD) strength) have been proposed as possible mechanisms for increasing the incidence of this type of injury. However, the risk factors of developing groin injuries after a tennis match have not yet been delineated. Objective:The aim of this study was to determine the effect of tennis match-play on isometric ADD and abductor (ABD) strength and passive hip range of motion (ROM). Methods:Twenty-six male tennis players (20.30 ± 4.98 years) took part in this study. Participants completed an evaluation of strength and flexibility hip measurements before and after a simulated tennis match. Dominant and non-dominant passive hip ROM, ADD and ABD isometric strength, and the ADD/ABD strength ratio were measured before and immediately post-match. A global positioning system (GPS) and a session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess the locomotive demands and internal match load. Results:Isometric dominant ADD strength (17.8%, p ? 0.01) and ADD/ABD strength ratio (11.6%, p = 0.04) were lower post-match compared to the pre-match values. No between-limbs differences were observed for isometric ADD strength, ABD strength, and passive hip ROM tests. RPE showed an expected increase between pre- vs. post-match (pre- vs. post-warming-up, 3.42 ± 2.08 vs. 5.62 ± 2.29, p < 0.01). In addition, a significant relationship between ADD strength and the volume of tennis practice per week was found, stablishing that tennis players with lower volume of training per week suffered a reduction in ADD strength in their dominant limb after match-play (r = 0.420, p = 0.04). Conclusion:The assessment of ADD strength and the ADD/ABD strength ratio in the dominant limb may be considered a post-match tool that can be used to identify players who require rest and additional recovery strategies before competing again.