A synthesis approach of mouse studies to identify genes and proteins in arterial thrombosis and bleeding.
ABSTRACT: Antithrombotic therapies reduce cardiovascular diseases by preventing arterial thrombosis and thromboembolism, but at expense of increased bleeding risks. Arterial thrombosis studies using genetically modified mice have been invaluable for identification of new molecular targets. Because of low sample sizes and heterogeneity in approaches or methodologies, a formal meta-analysis to compare studies of mice with single-gene defects encountered major limitations. To overcome these, we developed a novel synthesis approach to quantitatively scale 1514 published studies of arterial thrombus formation (in vivo and in vitro), thromboembolism, and tail-bleeding of genetically modified mice. Using a newly defined consistency parameter (CP), indicating the strength of published data, comparisons were made of 431 mouse genes, of which 17 consistently contributed to thrombus formation without affecting hemostasis. Ranking analysis indicated high correlations between collagen-dependent thrombosis models in vivo (FeCl3 injury or ligation/compression) and in vitro. Integration of scores and CP values resulted in a network of protein interactions in thrombosis and hemostasis (PITH), which was combined with databases of genetically linked human bleeding and thrombotic disorders. The network contained 2946 nodes linked to modifying genes of thrombus formation, mostly with expression in megakaryocytes. Reactome pathway analysis and network characteristics revealed multiple novel genes with potential contribution to thrombosis/hemostasis. Studies with additional knockout mice revealed that 4 of 8 (Apoe, Fpr2, Ifnar1, Vps13a) new genes were modifying in thrombus formation. The PITH network further: (i) revealed a high similarity of murine and human hemostatic and thrombotic processes and (ii) identified multiple new candidate proteins regulating these processes.
Project description:Genetically modified mice are indispensable for establishing the roles of platelets in arterial thrombosis and hemostasis. Microfluidics assays using anticoagulated whole blood are commonly used as integrative proxy tests for platelet function in mice. In the present study, we quantified the changes in collagen-dependent thrombus formation for 38 different strains of (genetically) modified mice, all measured with the same microfluidics chamber. The mice included were deficient in platelet receptors, protein kinases or phosphatases, small GTPases or other signaling or scaffold proteins. By standardized re-analysis of high-resolution microscopic images, detailed information was obtained on altered platelet adhesion, aggregation and/or activation. For a subset of 11 mouse strains, these platelet functions were further evaluated in rhodocytin- and laminin-dependent thrombus formation, thus allowing a comparison of glycoprotein VI (GPVI), C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC2) and integrin ?6?1 pathways. High homogeneity was found between wild-type mice datasets concerning adhesion and aggregation parameters. Quantitative comparison for the 38 modified mouse strains resulted in a matrix visualizing the impact of the respective (genetic) deficiency on thrombus formation with detailed insight into the type and extent of altered thrombus signatures. Network analysis revealed strong clusters of genes involved in GPVI signaling and Ca2+ homeostasis. The majority of mice demonstrating an antithrombotic phenotype in vivo displayed with a larger or smaller reduction in multi-parameter analysis of collagen-dependent thrombus formation in vitro. Remarkably, in only approximately half of the mouse strains that displayed reduced arterial thrombosis in vivo, this was accompanied by impaired hemostasis. This was also reflected by comparing in vitro thrombus formation (by microfluidics) with alterations in in vivo bleeding time. In conclusion, the presently developed multi-parameter analysis of thrombus formation using microfluidics can be used to: (i) determine the severity of platelet abnormalities; (ii) distinguish between altered platelet adhesion, aggregation and activation; and (iii) elucidate both collagen and non-collagen dependent alterations of thrombus formation. This approach may thereby aid in the better understanding and better assessment of genetic variation that affect in vivo arterial thrombosis and hemostasis.
Project description:Despite advances in antithrombotic therapy, the risk of recurrent coronary/cerebrovascular ischemia or venous thromboembolism remains high. Dual pathway antithrombotic blockade, using both antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, offers the promise of improved thrombotic protection; however, widespread adoption remains tempered by substantial risk of major bleeding. Here, we report a dual pathway therapeutic capable of site-specific targeting to activated platelets and therapeutic enrichment at the site of thrombus growth to allow reduced dosing without compromised antithrombotic efficacy. We engineered a recombinant fusion protein, SCE5-TAP, which consists of a single-chain antibody (SCE5) that targets and blocks the activated GPIIb/IIIa complex, and tick anticoagulant peptide (TAP), a potent direct inhibitor of activated factor X (FXa). SCE5-TAP demonstrated selective platelet targeting and inhibition of thrombosis in murine models of both carotid artery and inferior vena cava thrombosis, without a significant impact on hemostasis. Selective targeting to activated platelets provides an attractive strategy to achieve high antithrombotic efficacy with reduced risk of bleeding complications.
Project description:Polyphosphate is an inorganic procoagulant polymer. Here we develop specific inhibitors of polyphosphate and show that this strategy confers thromboprotection in a factor XII-dependent manner. Recombinant Escherichia coli exopolyphosphatase (PPX) specifically degrades polyphosphate, while a PPX variant lacking domains 1 and 2 (PPX_?12) binds to the polymer without degrading it. Both PPX and PPX_?12 interfere with polyphosphate- but not tissue factor- or nucleic acid-driven thrombin formation. Targeting polyphosphate abolishes procoagulant platelet activity in a factor XII-dependent manner, reduces fibrin accumulation and impedes thrombus formation in blood under flow. PPX and PPX_?12 infusions in wild-type mice interfere with arterial thrombosis and protect animals from activated platelet-induced venous thromboembolism without increasing bleeding from injury sites. In contrast, targeting polyphosphate does not provide additional protection from thrombosis in factor XII-deficient animals. Our data provide a proof-of-concept approach for combating thrombotic diseases without increased bleeding risk, indicating that polyphosphate drives thrombosis via factor XII.
Project description:Platelets are crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis and exacerbate tissue injury following ischemia and reperfusion. Important regulators of platelet function are G proteins controlled by seven transmembrane receptors. The Gi protein G?(i2) mediates platelet activation in vitro, but its in vivo role in hemostasis, arterial thrombosis, and postischemic infarct progression remains to be determined. Here we show that mice lacking G?(i2) exhibit prolonged tail-bleeding times and markedly impaired thrombus formation and stability in different models of arterial thrombosis. We thus generated mice selectively lacking G?(i2) in megakaryocytes and platelets (Gna(i2)(fl/fl)/PF4-Cre mice) and found bleeding defects comparable to those in global G?(i2)-deficient mice. To examine the impact of platelet G?(i2) in postischemic thrombo-inflammatory infarct progression, Gna(i2)(fl/fl)/PF4-Cre mice were subjected to experimental models of cerebral and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke Gna(i2)(fl/fl)/PF4-Cre mice developed significantly smaller brain infarcts and fewer neurological deficits than littermate controls. Following myocardial ischemia, Gna(i2)(fl/fl)/PF4-Cre mice showed dramatically reduced reperfusion injury which correlated with diminished formation of the ADP-dependent platelet neutrophil complex. In conclusion, our data provide definitive evidence that platelet G?(i2) not only controls hemostatic and thrombotic responses but also is critical for the development of ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo.
Project description:Salidroside is the main bioactive component in Rhodiola rosea and possesses multiple biological and pharmacological properties. However, whether salidroside affects platelet function remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate salidroside's effect on platelet function. Human or mouse platelets were treated with salidroside (0-20 ?M) for 1 hour at 37°C. Platelet aggregation, granule secretion, and receptors expression were measured together with detection of platelet spreading and clot retraction. In addition, salidroside (20 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into mice followed by measuring tail bleeding time, arterial and venous thrombosis. Salidroside inhibited thrombin- or CRP-induced platelet aggregation and ATP release and did not affect the expression of P-selectin, glycoprotein (GP) Ib?, GPVI and ?IIb?3. Salidroside-treated platelets presented decreased spreading on fibrinogen or collagen and reduced clot retraction with decreased phosphorylation of c-Src, Syk and PLC?2. Additionally, salidroside significantly impaired hemostasis, arterial and venous thrombus formation in mice. Moreover, in thrombin-stimulated platelets, salidroside inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (T308/S473) and GSK3? (Ser9). Further, addition of GSK3? inhibitor reversed the inhibitory effect of salidroside on platelet aggregation and clot retraction. In conclusion, salidroside inhibits platelet function and thrombosis via AKT/GSK3? signaling, suggesting that salidroside may be a novel therapeutic drug for treating thrombotic or cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Blood coagulation starts immediately after damage to the vascular endothelium. This system is essential for minimizing blood loss from an injured blood vessel but also contributes to vascular thrombosis. Although it has long been thought that the intrinsic coagulation pathway is not important for clotting in vivo, recent data obtained with genetically altered mice indicate that contact phase proteins seem to be essential for thrombus formation. We show that recombinant Ixodes ricinus contact phase inhibitor (Ir-CPI), a Kunitz-type protein expressed by the salivary glands of the tick Ixodes ricinus, specifically interacts with activated human contact phase factors (FXIIa, FXIa, and kallikrein) and prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in vitro. The effects of Ir-CPI were also examined in vivo using both venous and arterial thrombosis models. Intravenous administration of Ir-CPI in rats and mice caused a dose-dependent reduction in venous thrombus formation and revealed a defect in the formation of arterial occlusive thrombi. Moreover, mice injected with Ir-CPI are protected against collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism. Remarkably, the effective antithrombotic dose of Ir-CPI did not promote bleeding or impair blood coagulation parameters. To conclude, our results show that a contact phase inhibitor is an effective and safe antithrombotic agent in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Perioperative bridging in atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with low thromboembolic rates but high bleeding rates. Recent guidance cautions the practice of bridging except in high risk patients. However, the practice of bridging varies widely and little data exist regarding appropriate anticoagulation intensity when using intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH). HYPOTHESIS:To determine if high intensity UFH infusion regimens are associated with increased bleeding rates compared to low intensity regimens for bridging patients with AF. METHODS:We conducted a single center retrospective cohort study of admitted patients with non-valvular AF receiving UFH for ≥24 hours. UFH intensities were chosen at the providers' discretion. The primary endpoint was the rate of bleeding defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis during UFH infusion or within 24 hours of discontinuation. The secondary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular events, arterial thromboembolism, venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarctions and death during UFH infusion. RESULTS:A total of 497 patients were included in this analysis. Warfarin was used in 82.1% and direct acting oral anticoagulants in 14.1% of patients. The rate of any bleed was higher among high intensity compared to low intensity UFH regimens (10.5% vs 4.9%, odds ratio = 2.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-4.90). Major bleeding was significantly higher among high intensity compared to low intensity UFH regimens. There was no difference in composite thrombotic events or death. CONCLUSIONS:Low intensity UFH infusions, targeting lower anticoagulation targets, were associated with decreased bleeding rates without a signal of increased thromboembolic events in hospitalized AF patients.
Project description:Objective- Factor XI (FXI) contributes to thrombotic disease while playing a limited role in normal hemostasis. We generated a unique, humanized anti-FXI antibody, AB023, which blocks factor XIIa-mediated FXI activation without inhibiting FXI activation by thrombin or the procoagulant function of FXIa. We sought to confirm the antithrombotic activity of AB023 in a baboon thrombosis model and to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics in healthy adult subjects. Approach and Results- In a primate model of acute vascular graft thrombosis, AB023 reduced platelet and fibrin accumulation within the grafts by >75%. To evaluate the safety of AB023, we performed a first-in-human study in healthy adult volunteers without any serious adverse events. Overall, 10 of 21 (48%) subjects experienced 20 treatment-emergent adverse events, with 7 of 16 (44%) subjects following active treatment and 3 of 5 (60%) subjects following placebo. AB023 did not increase bleeding or prothrombin times. Anticoagulation was verified by a saturable ?2-fold prolongation of the partial thromboplastin time for over 1 month after the highest dose. Conclusions- AB023, which inhibits contact activation-initiated blood coagulation in vitro and experimental thrombus formation in primates, produced a dose-dependent duration of limited anticoagulation without drug-related adverse effects in a phase 1 trial. When put in context with earlier observations suggesting that FXI contributes to venous thromboembolism and cardiovascular disease, although contributing minimally to hemostasis, our data further justify clinical evaluation of AB023 in conditions where contact-initiated FXI activation is suspected to have a pathogenic role. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03097341.
Project description:A limitation of current antiplatelet therapies is their inability to separate thrombotic events from bleeding occurrences. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to platelet activation is important for the development of improved therapies. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatases have emerged as critical regulators of platelet function.This is the first report implicating the dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) in platelet signaling and thrombosis. This phosphatase is highly expressed in human and mouse platelets. Platelets from DUSP3-deficient mice displayed a selective impairment of aggregation and granule secretion mediated by the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2. DUSP3-deficient mice were more resistant to collagen- and epinephrine-induced thromboembolism compared with wild-type mice and showed severely impaired thrombus formation on ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury. Intriguingly, bleeding times were not altered in DUSP3-deficient mice. At the molecular level, DUSP3 deficiency impaired Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, subsequently reducing phosphorylation of phospholipase C?2 and calcium fluxes. To investigate DUSP3 function in human platelets, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of DUSP3 was developed. This compound specifically inhibited collagen- and C-type lectin-like receptor 2-induced human platelet aggregation, thereby phenocopying the effect of DUSP3 deficiency in murine cells.DUSP3 plays a selective and essential role in collagen- and C-type lectin-like receptor 2-mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation in vivo. Inhibition of DUSP3 may prove therapeutic for arterial thrombosis. This is the first time a protein tyrosine phosphatase, implicated in platelet signaling, has been targeted with a small-molecule drug.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated a role of neutrophils in both venous and arterial thrombosis. A key prothrombotic feature of neutrophils is their ability to release web-like structures composed of DNA filaments coated with histones and granule proteins referred to as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs were discovered over a decade ago as part of our first line of host defense against invading microorganisms. Although NETs have a protective role against pathogens, recent data suggest that an uncontrolled and excessive NET formation within the vasculature may contribute to pathological thrombotic disorders. In vitro studies suggest that NETs promote vessel occlusion by providing a scaffold for platelets, red blood cells, extracellular vesicles, and procoagulant molecules, such as von Willebrand factor and tissue factor. In addition, NET components enhance coagulation by both activating the intrinsic pathway and degrading an inhibitor of the extrinsic pathway (tissue factor pathway inhibitor). NET formation has, therefore, been proposed to contribute to thrombus formation and propagation in arterial, venous, and cancer-associated thrombosis. This review will describe animal and human studies suggesting a role of NETs in the pathogenesis of various thrombotic disorders. Targeting NETs may be a novel approach to reduce thrombosis without affecting hemostasis.