Recognition of the Diglycine C-End Degron by CRL2KLHDC2 Ubiquitin Ligase.
ABSTRACT: Aberrant proteins can be deleterious to cells and are cleared by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. A group of C-end degrons that are recognized by specific cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligases (CRLs) has recently been identified in some of these abnormal polypeptides. Here, we report three crystal structures of a CRL2 substrate receptor, KLHDC2, in complex with the diglycine-ending C-end degrons of two early-terminated selenoproteins and the N-terminal proteolytic fragment of USP1. The E3 recognizes the degron peptides in a similarly coiled conformation and cradles their C-terminal diglycine with a deep surface pocket. By hydrogen bonding with multiple backbone carbonyls of the peptides, KLHDC2 further locks in the otherwise degenerate degrons with a compact interface and unexpected high affinities. Our results reveal the structural mechanism by which KLHDC2 recognizes the simplest C-end degron and suggest a functional necessity of the E3 to tightly maintain the low abundance of its select substrates.
Project description:Degrons are minimal elements that mediate the interaction of proteins with degradation machineries to promote proteolysis. Despite their central role in proteostasis, the number of known degrons remains small, and a facile technology to characterize them is lacking. Using a strategy combining global protein stability (GPS) profiling with a synthetic human peptidome, we identify thousands of peptides containing degron activity. Employing CRISPR screening, we establish that the stability of many proteins is regulated through degrons located at their C terminus. We characterize eight Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complex adaptors that regulate C-terminal degrons, including six CRL2 and two CRL4 complexes, and computationally implicate multiple non-CRLs in end recognition. Proteome analysis revealed that the C termini of eukaryotic proteins are depleted for C-terminal degrons, suggesting an E3-ligase-dependent modulation of proteome composition. Thus, we propose that a series of "C-end rules" operate to govern protein stability and shape the eukaryotic proteome.
Project description:The proteolysis-assisted protein quality control system guards the proteome from potentially detrimental aberrant proteins. How miscellaneous defective proteins are specifically eliminated and which molecular characteristics direct them for removal are fundamental questions. We reveal a mechanism, DesCEND (destruction via C-end degrons), by which CRL2 ubiquitin ligase uses interchangeable substrate receptors to recognize the unusual C termini of abnormal proteins (i.e., C-end degrons). C-end degrons are mostly less than ten residues in length and comprise a few indispensable residues along with some rather degenerate ones. The C-terminal end position is essential for C-end degron function. Truncated selenoproteins generated by translation errors and the USP1 N-terminal fragment from post-translational cleavage are eliminated by DesCEND. DesCEND also targets full-length proteins with naturally occurring C-end degrons. The C-end degron in DesCEND echoes the N-end degron in the N-end rule pathway, highlighting the dominance of protein "ends" as indicators for protein elimination.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Degrons are short linear motifs, bound by E3 ubiquitin ligase to target protein substrates to be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Mutations leading to deregulation of degron functionality disrupt control of protein abundance due to mistargeting of proteins destined for degradation and often result in pathologies. Targeting degrons by small molecules also emerges as an exciting drug design strategy to upregulate the expression of specific proteins. Despite their essential function and disease targetability, reliable identification of degrons remains a conundrum. Here, we developed a deep learning-based model named Degpred that predicts general degrons directly from protein sequences. <h4>Results</h4> We showed that the BERT-based model performed well in predicting degrons singly from protein sequences. Then, we used the deep learning model Degpred to predict degrons proteome-widely. Degpred successfully captured typical degron-related sequence properties and predicted degrons beyond those from motif-based methods which use a handful of E3 motifs to match possible degrons. Furthermore, we calculated E3 motifs using predicted degrons on the substrates in our collected E3-substrate interaction dataset and constructed a regulatory network of protein degradation by assigning predicted degrons to specific E3s with calculated motifs. Critically, we experimentally verified that a predicted SPOP binding degron on CBX6 prompts CBX6 degradation and mediates the interaction with SPOP. We also showed that the protein degradation regulatory system is important in tumorigenesis by surveying degron-related mutations in TCGA. <h4>Conclusions</h4> Degpred provides an efficient tool to proteome-wide prediction of degrons and binding E3s singly from protein sequences. Degpred successfully captures typical degron-related sequence properties and predicts degrons beyond those from previously used motif-based methods, thus greatly expanding the degron landscape, which should advance the understanding of protein degradation, and allow exploration of uncharacterized alterations of proteins in diseases. To make it easier for readers to access collected and predicted datasets, we integrated these data into the website http://degron.phasep.pro/. <h4>Supplementary Information</h4> The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12915-022-01364-6.
Project description:Specific signals (degrons) regulate protein turnover mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here we systematically analyse known degrons and propose a tripartite model comprising the following: (1) a primary degron (peptide motif) that specifies substrate recognition by cognate E3 ubiquitin ligases, (2) secondary site(s) comprising a single or multiple neighbouring ubiquitinated lysine(s) and (3) a structurally disordered segment that initiates substrate unfolding at the 26S proteasome. Primary degron sequences are conserved among orthologues and occur in structurally disordered regions that undergo E3-induced folding-on-binding. Posttranslational modifications can switch primary degrons into E3-binding-competent states, thereby integrating degradation with signalling pathways. Degradation-linked lysines tend to be located within disordered segments that also initiate substrate degradation by effective proteasomal engagement. Many characterized mutations and alternative isoforms with abrogated degron components are implicated in disease. These effects result from increased protein stability and interactome rewiring. The distributed nature of degrons ensures regulation, specificity and combinatorial control of degradation.
Project description:The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the primary pathway responsible for the recognition and degradation of misfolded, damaged, or tightly regulated proteins. The conjugation of a polyubiquitin chain, or polyubiquitination, to a target protein requires an increasingly diverse cascade of enzymes culminating with the E3 ubiquitin ligases. Protein recognition by an E3 ligase occurs through a specific sequence of amino acids, termed a degradation sequence or degron. Recently, degrons have been incorporated into novel reporters to monitor proteasome activity; however only a limited few degrons have successfully been incorporated into such reporters. The goal of this work was to evaluate the ubiquitination kinetics of a small library of portable degrons that could eventually be incorporated into novel single cell reporters to assess proteasome activity. After an intensive literary search, eight degrons were identified from proteins recognized by a variety of E3 ubiquitin ligases and incorporated into a four component degron-based substrate to comparatively calculate ubiquitination kinetics. The mechanism of placement of multiple ubiquitins on the different degron-based substrates was assessed by comparing the data to computational models incorporating first order reaction kinetics using either multi-monoubiquitination or polyubiquitination of the degron-based substrates. A subset of three degrons was further characterized to determine the importance of the location and proximity of the ubiquitination site lysine with respect to the degron. Ultimately, this work identified three candidate portable degrons that exhibit a higher rate of ubiquitination compared to peptidase-dependent degradation, a desired trait for a proteasomal targeting motif.
Project description:Since the discovery of ubiquitin conjugation as a cellular mechanism that triggers proteasomal degradation, the mode of substrate recognition by the ubiquitin-ligation system has been the holy grail of research in the field. This entails the discovery of recognition determinants within protein substrates, which are part of a degron, and explicit E3 ubiquitin (Ub)-protein ligases that trigger their degradation. Indeed, many protein substrates and their cognate E3's have been discovered in the past 40 years. In the course of these studies, various degrons have been randomly identified, most of which are acquired through post-translational modification, typically, but not exclusively, protein phosphorylation. Nevertheless, acquired degrons cannot account for the vast diversity in cellular protein half-life times. Obviously, regulation of the proteome is largely determined by inherent degrons, that is, determinants integral to the protein structure. Inherent degrons are difficult to predict since they consist of diverse sequence and secondary structure features. Therefore, unbiased methods have been employed for their discovery. This review describes the history of degron discovery methods, including the development of high throughput screening methods, state of the art data acquisition and data analysis. Additionally, it summarizes major discoveries that led to the identification of cognate E3 ligases and hitherto unrecognized complexities of degron function. Finally, we discuss future perspectives and what still needs to be accomplished towards achieving the goal of understanding how the eukaryotic proteome is regulated via coordinated action of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Project description:Selective protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is thought to be governed primarily by the recognition of specific motifs - degrons - present in substrate proteins. The ends of proteins - the N- and C-termini - have unique properties, and an important subset of protein-protein interactions involve the recognition of free termini. The first degrons to be discovered were located at the extreme N-terminus of proteins, a finding which initiated the study of the N-degron (formerly N-end rule) pathways, but only in the last few years has it emerged that a diverse set of C-degron pathways target analogous degron motifs located at the extreme C-terminus of proteins. In this minireview we summarise the N-degron and C-degron pathways currently known to operate in human cells, focussing primarily on those that have been discovered in recent years. In each case we describe the cellular machinery responsible for terminal degron recognition, and then consider some of the functional roles of terminal degron pathways. Altogether, a broad spectrum of E3 ubiquitin ligases mediate the recognition of a diverse array of terminal degron motifs; these degradative pathways have the potential to influence a wide variety of cellular functions.
Project description:The N-end rule relates the regulation of the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. Degradation signals (degrons) that are targeted by the N-end rule pathway include a set called N-degrons. The main determinant of an N-degron is a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a protein. In eukaryotes, the N-end rule pathway is a part of the ubiquitin system and consists of two branches, the Ac/N-end rule and the Arg/N-end rule pathways. The Ac/N-end rule pathway targets proteins containing N(?) -terminally acetylated (Nt-acetylated) residues. The Arg/N-end rule pathway recognizes unacetylated N-terminal residues and involves N-terminal arginylation. Together, these branches target for degradation a majority of cellular proteins. For example, more than 80% of human proteins are cotranslationally Nt-acetylated. Thus most proteins harbor a specific degradation signal, termed (Ac)N-degron, from the moment of their birth. Specific N-end rule pathways are also present in prokaryotes and in mitochondria. Enzymes that produce N-degrons include methionine-aminopeptidases, caspases, calpains, Nt-acetylases, Nt-amidases, arginyl-transferases and leucyl-transferases. Regulated degradation of specific proteins by the N-end rule pathway mediates a legion of physiological functions, including the sensing of heme, oxygen, and nitric oxide; selective elimination of misfolded proteins; the regulation of DNA repair, segregation and condensation; the signaling by G proteins; the regulation of peptide import, fat metabolism, viral and bacterial infections, apoptosis, meiosis, spermatogenesis, neurogenesis, and cardiovascular development; and the functioning of adult organs, including the pancreas and the brain. Discovered 25 years ago, this pathway continues to be a fount of biological insights.
Project description:Substrates of the N-end rule pathway are recognized by the Ubr1 E3 ubiquitin ligase through their destabilizing amino-terminal residues. Our previous work showed that the Ubr1 E3 and the Ufd4 E3 together target an internal degradation signal (degron) of the Mgt1 DNA repair protein. Ufd4 is an E3 enzyme of the ubiquitin-fusion degradation (UFD) pathway that recognizes an N-terminal ubiquitin moiety. Here we show that the RING-type Ubr1 E3 and the HECT-type Ufd4 E3 interact, both physically and functionally. Although Ubr1 can recognize and polyubiquitylate an N-end rule substrate in the absence of Ufd4, the Ubr1-Ufd4 complex is more processive in that it produces a longer substrate-linked polyubiquitin chain. Conversely, Ubr1 can function as a polyubiquitylation-enhancing component of the Ubr1-Ufd4 complex in its targeting of UFD substrates. We also found that Ubr1 can recognize the N-terminal ubiquitin moiety. These and related advances unify two proteolytic systems that have been studied separately for two decades.
Project description:Intracellular proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates numerous processes and contributes to protein quality control (PQC) in all eukaryotes. Covalent attachment of ubiquitin to other proteins is specified by the many ubiquitin ligases (E3s) expressed in cells. Here we determine the E3s in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that function in degradation of proteins bearing various PQC degradation signals (degrons). The E3 Ubr1 can function redundantly with several E3s, including nuclear-localized San1, endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear membrane-embedded Doa10, and chromatin-associated Slx5/Slx8. Notably, multiple degrons are targeted by more ubiquitylation pathways if directed to the nucleus. Degrons initially assigned as exclusive substrates of Doa10 were targeted by Doa10, San1, and Ubr1 when directed to the nucleus. By contrast, very short hydrophobic degrons-typical targets of San1-are shown here to be targeted by Ubr1 and/or San1, but not Doa10. Thus, distinct types of PQC substrates are differentially recognized by the ubiquitin system in a compartment-specific manner. In human cells, a representative short hydrophobic degron appended to the C-terminus of GFP-reduced protein levels compared with GFP alone, consistent with a recent study that found numerous natural hydrophobic C-termini of human proteins can act as degrons. We also report results of bioinformatic analyses of potential human C-terminal degrons, which reveal that most peptide substrates of Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are of low hydrophobicity, consistent with previous data showing CRLs target degrons with specific sequences. These studies expand our understanding of PQC in yeast and human cells, including the distinct but overlapping PQC E3 substrate specificity of the cytoplasm and nucleus.