Characterization of Sigma Factor Genes in Streptomyces lividans TK24 Using a Genomic Library-Based Approach for Multiple Gene Deletions.
ABSTRACT: Alternative sigma factors control numerous aspects of bacterial life, including adaptation to physiological stresses, morphological development, persistence states and virulence. This is especially true for the physiologically complex actinobacteria. Here we report the development of a robust gene deletions system for Streptomyces lividans TK24 based on a BAC library combined with the ?-Red recombination technique. The developed system was validated by systematically deleting the most highly expressed genes encoding alternative sigma factors and several other regulatory genes within the chromosome of S. lividans TK24. To demonstrate the possibility of large scale genomic manipulations, the major part of the undecylprodigiosin gene cluster was deleted as well. The resulting mutant strains were characterized in terms of morphology, growth parameters, secondary metabolites production and response to thiol-oxidation and cell-wall stresses. Deletion of SLIV_12645 gene encoding S. coelicolor SigR1 ortholog has the most prominent phenotypic effect, resulted in overproduction of actinorhodin and coelichelin P1 and increased sensitivity to diamide. The secreted proteome analysis of SLIV_12645 mutant revealed SigR1 influence on trafficking of proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis and refactoring. The reported here gene deletion system will further facilitate work on S. lividans strain improvement as a host for either secondary metabolites or protein production and will contribute to basic research in streptomycetes physiology, morphological development, secondary metabolism. On the other hand, the systematic deletion of sigma factors encoding genes demonstrates the complexity and conservation of regulatory processes conducted by sigma factors in streptomycetes.
Project description:Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) versus Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces lividans TK24 using high density 105,000 x 60-mer ink-jet in situ synthesized arrays.
Project description:By the direct comparison of illuminated and non-illuminated microtiter plate cultures of Streptomyces lividans TK24 transcriptomes, the effects of differing cultivation systems by the relevance of light, a parameter that is usually out of scope during heterotrophic bioprocesses, could be addressed.
Project description:The Streptomyces lividans lsp gene encodes a type II signal peptidase (Lsp) that cleaves the type II leader peptides of lipoproteins. Transcriptional profiling of the bacterium depleted of the lsp gene mainly resulted in deactivation of the sigma U regulon, as well as in downregulation of genes involved in the biogenesis and function of ribosomes and genes encoding some major secretory proteins as determined by hybridisation of commercially available S. lividans genome-wide microarrays. Almost 50% of the dowregulated genes have been described as forming part of the stringent response in streptomycetes. The gene encoding the S. lividans extracellular foldase, the lipoprotein FkpA, is equally downregulated. Therefore, the deletion of lsp from the S. livdans genome temporarily triggers a cellular stress where the stringent response is, at least, partially induced. All microarray analyses were performed with RNA samples obtained from three independent cultures grown under identical conditions. The cDNA obtained from each RNA preparation of the Lsp-deficient strain was hybridised with the cDNA obtained from the equivalent RNA preparation of the wild type strain (S. lividans TK21).
Project description:Members of the genus Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria that are used as important cell factories to produce secondary metabolites and secrete heterologous proteins. They possess some of the largest bacterial genomes and thus proteomes. Understanding their complex proteomes and metabolic regulation will improve any genetic engineering approach.Here, we performed a comprehensive annotation of the subcellular localization of the proteome of Streptomyces lividans TK24 and developed the Subcellular Topology of Polypeptides in Streptomyces database (SToPSdb) to make this information widely accessible. We first introduced a uniform, improved nomenclature that re-annotated the names of?~?4000 proteins based on functional and structural information. Then protein localization was assigned de novo using prediction tools and edited by manual curation for 7494 proteins, including information for 183 proteins that resulted from a recent genome re-annotation and are not available in current databases. The S. lividans proteome was also linked with those of other model bacterial strains including Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Escherichia coli K-12, based on protein homology, and can be accessed through an open web interface. Finally, experimental data derived from proteomics experiments have been incorporated and provide validation for protein existence or topology for 579 proteins. Proteomics also reveals proteins released from vesicles that bleb off the membrane. All export systems known in S. lividans are also presented and exported proteins assigned export routes, where known.SToPSdb provides an updated and comprehensive protein localization annotation resource for S. lividans and other streptomycetes. It forms the basis for future linking to databases containing experimental data of proteomics, genomics and metabolomics studies for this organism.
Project description:Transglutaminases (TGase), which are synthesized as a zymogen (pro-TGase) in Streptomyces sp., are important enzymes in the food industry. Because this pro-peptide is essential for the correct folding of Streptomyces TGase, TGase is usually expressed in an inactive pro-TGase form, which is then converted to active TGase by the addition of activating proteases in vitro. In this study, Streptomyces hygroscopicus TGase was actively produced by Streptomyces lividans through promoter engineering and codon optimization.A gene fragment (tg1, 2.6 kb) that encoded the pro-TGase and its endogenous promoter region, signal peptide and terminator was amplified from S. hygroscopicus WSH03-13 and cloned into plasmid pIJ86, which resulted in pIJ86/tg1. After fermentation for 2 days, S. lividans TK24 that harbored pIJ86/tg1 produced 1.8 U/mL of TGase, and a clear TGase band (38 kDa) was detected in the culture supernatant. These results indicated that the pro-TGase was successfully expressed and correctly processed into active TGase in S. lividans TK24 by using the TGase promoter. Based on deletion analysis, the complete sequence of the TGase promoter is restricted to the region from -693 to -48. We also identified a negative element (-198 to -148) in the TGase promoter, and the deletion of this element increased the TGase production by 81.3 %, in contrast to the method by which S. lividans expresses pIJ86/tg1. Combining the deletion of the negative element of the promoter and optimization of the gene codons, the yield and productivity of TGase reached 5.73 U/mL and 0.14 U/mL/h in the recombinant S. lividans, respectively.We constructed an active TGase-producing strain that had a high yield and productivity, and the optimized TGase promoter could be a good candidate promoter for the expression of other proteins in Streptomyces.
Project description:Streptomyces coelicolor Müller contains two superoxide dismutases (SODs), nickel-containing (NiSOD) and iron- and zinc-containing SOD (FeZnSOD). The sodF gene encoding FeZnSOD was isolated by using PCR primers corresponding to the N-terminal peptide sequence of the purified FeZnSOD and a C-terminal region conserved among known FeSODs and MnSODs. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited highest similarity to Mn- and FeSODs from Propionibacterium shermanii and Mycobacterium spp. The transcription start site of the sodF gene was determined by primer extension. When the sodF gene was cloned in pIJ702 and introduced into Streptomyces lividans TK24, it produced at least 30 times more FeZnSOD than the control cells. We disrupted the sodF gene in S. lividans TK24 and found that the disruptant did not produce any FeZnSOD enzyme activity but produced more NiSOD. The expression of the cloned sodF gene in TK24 cells was repressed significantly by Ni, consistent with the regulation pattern in nonoverproducing cells. This finding suggests that the cloned sodF gene contains the cis-acting elements necessary for Ni regulation. When the sodF mRNA in S. coelicolor Muller cells was analyzed by S1 mapping of both 5' and 3' ends, we found that Ni caused a reduction in the level of monocistronic sodF transcripts. Ni did not affect the stability of sodF mRNA, indicating that it regulates transcription. S. lividans TK24 cells overproducing FeZnSOD became more resistant to oxidants such as menadione and lawsone than the control cells, suggesting the protective role of FeZnSOD. However, the sodF disruptant survived as well as the wild-type strain in the presence of these oxidants, suggesting the complementing role of NiSOD increased in the disruptant.
Project description:In the past two decades, metabolomics has proved to be a valuable tool with many potential applications in different areas of science. However, there are still some challenges that need to be addressed, particularly for multicenter studies. These challenges are mainly attributed to various sources of fluctuation and unwanted variations that can be introduced at pre-analytical, analytical, and/or post-analytical steps of any metabolomics experiment. Thus, this study aimed at using Streptomyces lividans TK24 as the model organism in a cross-laboratory experiment in Manchester and Leuven to evaluate the reproducibility of a standard sample preparation method, and determine the optimal sample format (cell extract or quenched biomass) required to preserve the metabolic profile of the cells during cross-lab sample transportation and storage. Principal component analysis (PCA) scores plot of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data from both laboratories displayed clear growth-dependent clustering patterns which was in agreement with the Procrustes analysis findings. In addition, the data generated in Manchester displayed tight clustering of cell pellets (quenched biomass) and metabolite extracts, confirming the stability of both sample formats during the transportation and storage period.
Project description:We cloned a 9.4-kb DNA fragment from Streptomyces scabies ATCC 41973 that allows the nonpathogen Streptomyces lividans 66 TK24 to necrotize and colonize potato tuber slices and produce scab-like symptoms on potato minitubers. Deletion analysis demonstrated that activity was conferred by a 1.6-kb DNA region. Sequence analysis of a 2.4-kb DNA fragment spanning the DNA region necessary for activity revealed three open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF1, designated ORFtnp, showed high levels of identity with the first 233 amino acids of the putative transposases of the IS1164 elements from Rhodococcus rhodochrous (71%) and Mycobacterium bovis (68%), members of the Staphylococcus aureus IS256 family of transposases. No significant homologies to ORF2 and ORF3 were found in the nucleic acid and protein databases. ORFtnp is located 5' of ORF3. ORF2 is incomplete and is located 3' of ORF3. Subcloning of the individual ORFs demonstrated that ORF3, designated nec1, is sufficient for necrotizing activity in S. lividans 66 TK24. S. lividans 66 TK24 expressing nec1 does not produce thaxtomin A but produces an unidentified extracellular water-soluble compound that causes necrosis on potato tuber discs. The G+C content of nec1 suggests that it has moved horizontally from another genus. Southern analysis of ORFtnp and nec1 demonstrate that these genes are physically linked in Streptomyces strains, including S. scabies and Streptomyces acidiscabies strains, that are pathogenic on potato and that produce the phytotoxin thaxtomin A. These data suggest that nec1 may have been mobilized into S. scabies through a transposition event mediated by ORFtnp.