Prebiotics and synbiotics – in ovo delivery for improved lifespan condition in chicken.
ABSTRACT: Commercially produced chickens have become key food-producing animals in the global food system. The scale of production in industrial settings has changed management systems to a point now very far from traditional methods. During the perinatal period, newly hatched chicks undergo processing, vaccination and transportation, which introduces a gap in access to feed and water. This gap, referred to as the hatching window, dampens the potential for microflora inoculation and as such, prevents proper microbiome, gastrointestinal system and innate immunity development. As a consequence, the industrial production of chickens with a poor microbial profile leads to enteric microbial infestation and infectious disease outbreaks, which became even more prevalent after the withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters on many world markets (e.g., the EU).This review presents the rationale, methodology and life-long effects of in ovo stimulation of chicken microflora. In ovo stimulation provides efficient embryonic microbiome colonization with commensal microflora during the perinatal period. A carefully selected bioactive formulation (prebiotics, probiotics alone or combined into synbiotics) is delivered into the air cell of the egg on day 12 of egg incubation. The prebiotic penetrates the outer and inner egg membranes and stimulates development on the innate microflora in the embryonic guts. Probiotics are available after the mechanical breakage of the shell membranes by the chick’s beak at the beginning of hatching (day 19). The intestinal microflora after in ovo stimulation is potent enough for competitive exclusion and programs the lifespan condition. We present the effects of different combinations of prebiotic and probiotic delivered in ovo on day 12 of egg incubation on microflora, growth traits, feed efficiency, intestinal morphology, meat microstructure and quality, immune system development, physiological characteristics and the transcriptome of the broiler chickens.We discuss the differences between in ovo stimulation (day 12 of egg incubation) and in ovo feeding (days 17–18 of egg incubation) and speculate about possible future developments in this field. In summary, decades of research on in ovo stimulation and the lifelong effects support this method as efficient programming of lifespan conditions in commercially raised chickens.
Project description:Synbiotics are synergistic combinations of prebiotics and probiotics. In chickens, synbiotics can be delivered in ovo to expedite colonization of the gut by beneficial bacteria. We therefore aimed to design synbiotics in vitro and validate them in broiler chickens upon in ovo delivery. The probiotic components of the synbiotics were Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. Their growth was assessed in MRS medium supplemented with different prebiotics. Based on in vitro results (hatchability and growth curve), two synbiotics were designed: S1 -Lactobacillus salivarius with galactooligosaccarides (GOS) and S2 -Lactobacillus plantarum with raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO). These synbiotics were delivered to Cobb broiler chicken embryos on day 12 of incubation at optimized doses (105 cfu egg-1 of probiotic, 2 mg egg-1 of prebiotic). Post hatching, 2,400 roosters were reared (600 individuals group-1 divided into eight replicate pens). Microbial communities were analyzed in ileal and cecal digesta on day 21 using FISH. Gene expression analysis (IL1?, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL12, IL18, IFN?, and IFN?) was performed on days 7, 14, 21, and 42 for the spleen and cecal tonsils with RT-qPCR. Body weight and feed intake of the roosters did not differ by the treatments. Microbial populations of Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. in the ileum were higher in S1 and S2 than in the control. In the cecum, the control had the highest bacterial counts. S1 caused significant up-regulation of IL6, IL18, IL1?, IFN?, and IFN? in the spleen on day 21 and IL1? on day 7 (P < 0.05). In cecal tonsils, S1 caused significant down-regulation of IL12, IL8, and IL1? on day 42 and IFN? on day 14 (P < 0.05). S2 did not elicit such patterns in any tissues investigated. Thus, we demonstrate that divergent effects of synbiotics in broiler chickens were reflected in in vitro tests.
Project description:Intestinal mucosa is the interface between the microbial content of the gut and the host's milieu. The goal of this study was to modulate chicken intestinal microflora by in ovo stimulation with galactooligosaccharides (GOS) prebiotic and to demonstrate the molecular responses of the host. The animal trial was performed on meat-type chickens (Ross 308). GOS was delivered by in ovo injection performed into the air cell on day 12 of egg incubation. Analysis of microbial communities and mucosal gene expression was performed at slaughter (day 42 post-hatching). Chyme (for DNA isolation) and intestinal mucosa (for RNA isolation) from four distinct intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and caecum) was sampled. The relative abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in DNA isolated from chyme samples was determined using qPCR. On the host side, the mRNA expression of 13 genes grouped into two panels was analysed with RT-qPCR. Panel (1) included genes related to intestinal innate immune responses (IL-1?, IL-10 and IL-12p40, AvBD1 and CATHL2). Panel (2) contained genes involved in intestinal barrier function (MUC6, CLDN1 and TJAP1) and nutrients sensing (FFAR2 and FFAR4, GLUT1, GLUT2 and GLUT5). GOS increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium in caecum (from 1.3% to 3.9%). Distinct effects of GOS on gene expression were manifested in jejunum and caecum. Cytokine genes (IL-1?, IL-10 and IL-12p40) were up-regulated in the jejunum and caecum of the GOS-treated group. Host defence peptides (AvBD1 and CATHL2) were up-regulated in the caecum of the GOS-treated group. Free fatty acid receptors (FFAR2 and FFAR4) were up-regulated in all three compartments of the intestine (except the duodenum). Glucose transporters were down-regulated in duodenum (GLUT2 and GLUT5) but up-regulated in the hindgut (GLUT1 and GLUT2). In conclusion, GOS delivered in ovo had a bifidogenic effect in adult chickens. It also modulated gene expression related to intestinal immune responses, gut barrier function, and nutrient sensing.
Project description:Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) that are delivered in ovo improve intestinal microbiota composition and mitigate the negative effects of heat stress in broiler chickens. Hubbard hybrids are slow-growing chickens with a high resistance to heat. In this paper, we determined the impact of GOS delivered in ovo on slow-growing chickens that are challenged with heat. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. On day 12 of incubation, GOS (3.5 mg/egg) was delivered into the egg (n = 300). Controls (C) were mock-injected with physiological saline (n = 300). After hatching, the GOS and C groups were split into thermal groups: thermoneutral (TN) and heat stress (HS). HS (30 °C) lasted for 14 days (days 36-50 post-hatching). The spleen (n = 8) was sampled after acute (8.5 h) and chronic (14 days) HS. The gene expression of immune-related (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-17) and stress-related genes (HSP25, HSP90AA1, BAG3, CAT, and SOD) was detected with RT-qPCR. Chronic HS up-regulated the expression of the genes: IL-10, IL-12p40, SOD (p < 0.05), and CAT (p < 0.01). GOS delivered in ovo down-regulated IL-4 (acute p < 0.001; chronic p < 0.01), IL-12p40, CAT and SOD (chronic p < 0.05). The obtained results suggest that slow-growing hybrids are resistant to acute heat and tolerant to chronic heat, which can be supported with in ovo GOS administration.
Project description:In ovo delivery of prebiotics and synbiotics in chickens allows for the development of intestinal microflora prior to hatching, which boosts their robustness. The goal of this study was to determine the transcriptomic profile of the spleen (S), cecal tonsils (CT), and large intestine (LI) of adult chickens injected with prebiotics and synbiotics in ovo. On day 12 of embryo development, incubating eggs were injected with prebiotics: inulin alone (P1) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB2955 (S1), galactooligosaccharides (GOS) alone (P2) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris IBB477 (S2); control group (C) was mock injected with physiological saline. Gene expression analysis was conducted using an Affymetrix Chicken Gene 1.1 ST Array Strip. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEG) were detected in the cecal tonsils of P2 (378 DEG), and were assigned to gene ontology categories: lymphocyte proliferation, activation and differentiation, and cytokine production. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the DEG (CT of P2) indicated the inhibition of humoral and cellular immune responses, e.g., role of NFAT in regulation of immune responses, phagocytosis, production of nitric oxide, NF-?B, IL-8, and CXCR4 signaling. The DEG with the highest up-regulation from S1 and P2 were involved in gene expression (PAPOLA, RPL27A, RPLP1, and RPS29) from P1 and P2 in transport (BEST4, SLC9A3, and SLC13A2), metabolism (OGT, ALPP, CA4, and CA7), signaling (FGG, G3BP2, UBB, G3BP2, CACNA1G, and ATP6V0A4), and immune responses (MSMB, LGALS3, CABIN1, CXCR5, PAX5, and TNFRSF14). Two DEG influencing the complement system (SERPING1 and MIR1674) were down-regulated in P2 and S1. In conclusion, GOS injected in ovo provided the most potent stimulation of the host transcriptome. This is likely due to its strong bifidogenic effect, which triggers proliferation of indigenous embryonic microflora in ovo, and indirectly influences gene expression regulation in host tissues, especially cecal tonsils.
Project description:The aim was to investigate the impact of an automatic in ovo injection of the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) extracted from the seeds of Lupinus luteus L, on the chicken performance and resistance in a production environment. At day 12 of incubation, a total of 57,900 eggs (Ross 308) were divided into two groups: 1/ Control, injected with 0.9% NaCl and 2/ RFO group, injected with 1.9 mg/egg of the lupin seed extract, dissolved in 0.2 mL NaCl. The performance parameters, biochemical indices (lipid profile, hepatic parameters), gut histomorphology and duodenum structure, oxidative stability of the meat and microbiological counts of the major commensal microbiota species were analyzed. Mortality, body weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not affected. By day 42, several health indices were improved with RFO and were reflected in a beneficial lipid blood profile, increased villi surface and better combating opportunistic pathogens through reduction of Clostridia and decreased coccidia counts. The RFO increased meat oxidation, but only at the beginning of the storage. The RFO sourced from local legumes can be considered a promising prebiotic for broiler chickens. In ovo delivery of prebiotics and/or synbiotics should be further optimized as an important strategy for the earliest possible modulation of chicken resistance.
Project description:In order to provide an alternative to day-old chick culling in the layer hatcheries, a noninvasive method for egg sexing is required at an early stage of incubation before onset of embryo sensitivity. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy of blood offers the potential for precise and contactless in ovo sex determination of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus f. dom.) eggs already during the fourth incubation day. However, such kind of optical spectroscopy requires a window in the egg shell, is thus invasive to the embryo and leads to decreased hatching rates. Here, we show that near infrared Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy can be performed on perfused extraembryonic vessels while leaving the inner egg shell membrane intact. Sparing the shell membrane makes the measurement minimally invasive, so that the sexing procedure does not affect hatching rates. We analyze the effect of the membrane above the vessels on fluorescence signal intensity and on Raman spectrum of blood, and propose a correction method to compensate for it. After compensation, we attain a correct sexing rate above 90% by applying supervised classification of spectra. Therefore, this approach offers the best premises towards practical deployment in the hatcheries.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in ovo injection with different ratios of L-arginine (L-Arg) into Ross broiler eggs at three different embryonic developmental stages (eighth day (d), 14th day, and 18th day) on the survival, hatchability, and body weight (BW) of one-day-old hatched chicks. Additionally, we have analyzed the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), the protein expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs), and we have also determined micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormality (NA). In addition, the genotoxic effect was observed in peripheral blood cells such as the presence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in the experimental groups. The results showed that survival and hatching rates as well as body weight were increased on the 14th day of incubation compared to the eighth and 18th day of incubation at lower concentrations of L-Arg. Moreover, the levels of SGOT and SGPT were also significantly (p < 0.05) increased on the 14th day of incubation at the same concentration (100 ?g/?L/egg) of injection. In addition, immunoglobulin (IgM) levels were increased on the 14th day of incubation compared to other days. The protein expressions of HSP-47, HSP-60, and HSP-70 in the liver were significantly down-regulated, whereas the expression of myogenin and myoblast determination protein (MyoD) were significantly up-regulated on the 14th day after incubation when treated with all different doses such as 100 ?g, 1000 ?g, and 2500 ?g/?L/egg, namely 3T1, 3T2, and 3T3, respectively. However, the treatment with low doses of L-Arg down-regulated the expression levels of those proteins on the 14th day of incubation. Histopathology of the liver by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining showed that the majority of liver damage, specifically intracytoplasmic vacuoles, were observed in the 3T1, 3T2, and 3T3 groups. The minimum dose of 100 ?g/mL/egg on the 14th day of incubation significantly prevented intracytoplasmic vacuole damages. These results demonstrate that in ovo administration of L-Arg at (100 ?g/?L/egg) may be an effective method to increase chick BW, hatch rate, muscle growth-related proteins, and promote the immune response through increasing IgM on the 14th day of the incubation period.
Project description:Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the main byproduct from the palm oil industry in several tropical countries that contains considerable amounts of oligosaccharide. We earlier demonstrated beneficial prebiotic effects of oligosaccharides extract of PKC (OligoPKC) in starter and finisher broiler birds. This study was envisaged to elucidate the effects of in ovo and/or oral administration of the OligoPKC on prenatal and post-hatched broiler chicks. A total of 140 broiler (Cobb500) eggs were randomly divided into two groups (n = 70 each), and on day 12 of incubation, eggs in one group received in ovo injection of 0.1 mL (containing 20 mg) of OligoPKC, while those in the other group received 0.1 mL of saline (placebo) solution. Of these in ovo placebo or OligoPKC injected eggs, after hatching, six chicks from each group were sampled for day-one analysis, while 48 chicks from each group were randomly allocated to two dietary regimes involving either no feeding or feeding of OligoPKC through basal diet for a 14 days experiment forming the experimental groups as: (i) saline-injected (Control, C), (ii) OligoPKC-injected (PREBovo), (iii) saline-injected, but fed 1% OligoPKC (PREBd), and (iv) OligoPKC-injected and also 1% OligoPKC (PREBovo+d). In ovo injection of prebiotic OligoPKC had no effect on body weight and serum immunoglobulins concentrations of day old chicks, except for IgG, which was increased significantly (P<0.05). Body weight and feed conversion ratio of 14 days old chicks were neither affected by in ovo injection nor feeding of OligoPKC. However, populations of cecal total bacteria and major beneficial bacteria of the chicks were markedly enhanced by feeding of OligoPKC (PREBd and PREBovo+d > C and PREBovo), but lesser influenced by in ovo OligoPKC injection. Irrespective of its prior in ovo exposure, chicks fed OligoPKC diets had lower population of pathogenic bacteria. Overall serum immunoglobulin status of birds was improved by feeding of OligoPKC but in ovo OligoPKC injection had minor effect on that. In most cases, in ovo OligoPKC injection and feeding of OligoPKC reduced the expression of nutrient transporters in the intestine and improved antioxidant capacity of liver and serum. It is concluded that in ovo injection of OligoPKC increased IgG production and antioxidant capacity in serum and liver of prenatal chicks and had limited carrying-over effects on the post-hatched chicks comparing to the supplementary feeding of OligoPKC.
Project description:We investigated efficacy of in ovo application of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on intestinal expression of EGF receptor (EGFR) during embryogenesis (experiment 1) and posthatch growth performance and gastrointestinal development in broiler chickens (experiment 2). In experiment 1, 450 fertile Ross 708 eggs were allocated to 3 groups (150 eggs/group): 1) control, 2) 160 ?g EGF/kg of egg, and 3) 640 ?g of EGF/kg of egg. Eggs were candled for live embryos on day 16 and injected with the respective treatment solutions on day 17 and sampled for jejunal tissue from day 17 to hatch for EGFR analyses. There was no effect of EGF (P > 0.05) on EGFR expression on day 17 to 20; however, on day 21, EGF increased (P < 0.05) EGFR expression in EGF birds relative to control birds. In experiment 2, 600 fertile Ross 708 eggs were allocated to 5 treatments: 1) intact, no puncture or injection, 2) punched but not injected, 3) control, no EGF, 4) 80 ?g of EGF/kg of egg, and 5) 160 ?g of EGF/kg of egg. The eggs were incubated and candled for live embryos on D 19, treated, and subsequently transferred to the hatcher. Upon hatching, chicks were weighed, and 90 chicks per treatment placed in cages (15 birds/cage) and allowed free access to a standard antibiotic-free corn-soybean diet for 21 D. Feed intake and body weight were monitored on a weekly basis. Samples of birds were necropsied on D 0, 7, 14, and 21 for measurements of intestinal weight and jejunal histomorphology and excreta samples taken on D 3 to 5 and 17 to 19 for apparent retention of dry matter. There was no EGF effect (P > 0.05) on any posthatch response criteria. In conclusion, in ovo application of EGF increased EGFR expression but had no effect on posthatch growth performance, DM retention, and intestinal development. The lack of EGF effect on posthatch response was surprising but suggested in ovo application of EGF may not be a viable approach.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A previous study showed that prebiotics and synbiotics administered in ovo into the egg air cell on the 12th day of incubation enhance the growth and development of chickens. However, the influence of this procedure on the development and efficiency of the innate immune system of broiler chickens is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the early (on the 12th day of embryo development) in ovo administration of selected prebiotics (inulin - Pre1 and Bi2tos - Pre2) and synbiotics (inulin + Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB SL1 - Syn1 and Bi2tos + L. lactis subsp. cremoris IBB SC1 - Syn2) influences the innate immune system. RESULTS:Chickens (broiler, Ross 308) that were treated with Pre1 exhibited a decreased H/L ratio on D7, but an increased H/L ratio was observed on D21 and D35. In the remaining experimental groups, an increase in the H/L ratio was observed on D21 and D35. The oxidative potential of leukocytes measured using the NBT test increased on D21 in Pre2 and Syn1 groups. The rate of the phagocytic ability of leukocytes increased in Pre1 and Syn1 groups on D21. The phagocytic index decreased in Pre1 and Syn2 groups on D21 and D35. Concurrently, the count of WBC in circulating blood decreased on D21 in Pre1, Pre2, and Syn1 groups. The hematocrit value was increased in Syn1 chickens on D21, in Pre1 chickens on D35, and in Syn2 chickens on both time points. CONCLUSIONS:Early in ovo treatment of chicken embryos with prebiotics and synbiotics may temporarily modulate not only the production/maturation of leukocytes but also their reactivity.