Sulforaphane promotes chlamydial infection by suppressing mitochondrial protein oxidation and activation of complement C3.
ABSTRACT: Sulforaphane (SFN), a phytochemical found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent with reported effects in cancer chemoprevention and suppression of infection with intracellular pathogens. Here we report on the impact of SFN on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), a common sexually transmitted pathogen responsible for 131 million new cases annually worldwide. Astoundingly, we find that SFN as well as broccoli sprouts extract (BSE) promote Ct infection of human host cells. Both the number and size of Ct inclusions were increased when host cells were pretreated with SFN or BSE. The initial investigations presented here point to both the antioxidant and thiol alkylating properties of SFN as regulators of Ct infection. SFN decreased mitochondrial protein sulfenylation and promoted Ct development, which were both reversed by treatment with mitochondria-targeted paraquat (MitoPQ). Inhibition of the complement component 3 (complement C3) by SFN was also identified as a mechanism by which SFN promotes Ct infections. Mass spectrometry analysis found alkylation of cysteine 1010 (Cys1010) in complement C3 by SFN. The studies reported here raise awareness of the Ct infection promoting activity of SFN, and also identify potential mechanisms underlying this activity.
Project description:Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from crucifers, has numerous health benefits. SFN bioavailability from dietary sources is a critical determinant of its efficacy in humans. A key factor in SFN absorption is the release of SFN from its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, by myrosinase. Dietary supplements are used in clinical trials to deliver consistent SFN doses, but myrosinase is often inactivated in available supplements. We evaluated SFN absorption from a myrosinase-treated broccoli sprout extract (BSE) and are the first to report effects of twice daily, oral dosing on SFN exposure in healthy adults.Subjects consumed fresh broccoli sprouts or the BSE, each providing 200 ?mol SFN daily, as a single dose and as two 100-?mol doses taken 12 h apart. Using HPLC-MS/MS, we detected ?3 x higher SFN metabolite levels in plasma and urine of sprout consumers, indicating enhanced SFN absorption from sprouts. Twelve-hour dosing retained higher plasma SFN metabolite levels at later time points than 24-hour dosing. No dose responses were observed for molecular targets of SFN (i.e. heme oxygenase-1, histone deacetylase activity, p21).We conclude that the dietary form and dosing schedule of SFN may impact SFN absorption and efficacy in human trials.
Project description:The activity and function of T-cells are influenced by the intra- and extracellular redox milieu. Oxidative stress induces hypo responsiveness of untransformed T-cells. Vice versa increased glutathione (GSH) levels or decreased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) prime T-cell metabolism for inflammation, e.g., in rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, balancing the T-cell redox milieu may represent a promising new option for therapeutic immune modulation. Here we show that sulforaphane (SFN), a compound derived from plants of the Brassicaceae family, e.g., broccoli, induces a pro-oxidative state in untransformed human T-cells of healthy donors or RA patients. This manifested as an increase of intracellular ROS and a marked decrease of GSH. Consistently, increased global cysteine sulfenylation was detected. Importantly, a major target for SFN-mediated protein oxidation was STAT3, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of T<sub>H</sub>17-related genes. Accordingly, SFN significantly inhibited the activation of untransformed human T-cells derived from healthy donors or RA patients, and downregulated the expression of the transcription factor ROR?t, and the T<sub>H</sub>17-related cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, which play a major role within the pathophysiology of many chronic inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. The inhibitory effects of SFN could be abolished by exogenously supplied GSH and by the GSH replenishing antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Together, our study provides mechanistic insights into the mode of action of the natural substance SFN. It specifically exerts T<sub>H</sub>17 prone immunosuppressive effects on untransformed human T-cells by decreasing GSH and accumulation of ROS. Thus, SFN may offer novel clinical options for the treatment of T<sub>H</sub>17 related chronic inflammatory/autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Project description:Many phytochemicals possess cancer-preventive properties, some putatively through phase II metabolism-mediated mutagen/oxidant quenching. We applied human lung cells in vitro to investigate the effects of several candidate phytopreventive agents, including green tea extracts (GTE), broccoli sprout extracts (BSE), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), sulforaphane (SFN), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), on inducing phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) at mRNA and protein levels. Primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC), and lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were exposed to diet-achievable levels of GTE and BSE (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/L), or individual index components EGCG, SFN, PEITC, BITC (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 micromol/L) for 24 h, 48 h, and 6 d, respectively. mRNA assays employed RNA-specific quantitative RT-PCR and protein assays employed Western blotting. We found that in NHBE cells, while GSTP1 mRNA levels were slightly but significantly increased after exposure to GTE or BSE, NQO1 mRNA increased to 2- to 4-fold that of control when exposed to GTE, BSE, or SFN. Effects on NQO1 mRNA expression in HBEC cells were similar. NQO1 protein expression increased up to 11.8-fold in SFN-treated NHBE cells. Both GSTP1 and NQO1 protein expression in A549 cells were constitutively high but not induced under any condition. Our results suggest that NQO1 is more responsive to the studied chemopreventive agents than GSTP1 in human lung cells and there is discordance between single agent and complex mixture effects. We conclude that modulation of lung cell phase II metabolism by chemopreventive agents requires cell- and agent-specific discovery and testing.
Project description:Sulforaphane (SFN) is a kind of isothiocyanate derived from broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables. Because of its roles of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor through multiple targets and various mechanisms, SFN has drawn broad attention of the researchers. One of the most important target of SFN is nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), wildly known for its ability to regulate the expression of a series of cytoprotective enzymes with antioxidative, prosurvival, and detoxification effects. Multiple researches have shown that SFN protects against central nervous system diseases through Nrf2pathway. In this article, we list SFN contents in common cruciferous vegetables, and summarize recent advances in the protective effects of SFN against acute brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases through activating Nrf2 signaling pathway.
Project description:Sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, is implicated as a possible therapy for airway inflammation via induction of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In this proof-of-concept clinical study, we show that supplementation of SFN with broccoli sprout homogenate in healthy human subjects did not induce expression of antioxidant genes or protect against neutrophilic airway inflammation in an ozone-exposure model. Therefore, dietary sulforaphane supplementation is not a promising candidate for larger scale clinical trials targeting airway inflammation.NCT01625130 . Registered 19 June, 2012.
Project description:Nrf2 is essential to antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated host defense. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a phytochemical antioxidant known to affect multiple cellular targets including Nrf2-ARE pathway in chemoprevention. However, the role of SFN in non-malignant airway disorders remain unclear. To test if pre-activation of Nrf2-ARE signaling protects lungs from oxidant-induced acute injury, wild-type (Nrf2+/+) and Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2-/-) mice were given SFN orally or as standardized broccoli sprout extract diet (SBE) before hyperoxia or air exposure. Hyperoxia-induced pulmonary injury and oxidation indices were significantly reduced by SFN or SBE in Nrf2+/+ mice but not in Nrf2-/- mice. SFN upregulated a large cluster of basal lung genes that are involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, energy metabolism, and cardiovascular protection only in Nrf2+/+ mice. Bioinformatic analysis elucidated ARE-like motifs on these genes. Transcript abundance of the mitochondrial machinery genes remained significantly higher after hyperoxia exposure in SFN-treated Nrf2+/+ mice than in SFN-treated Nrf2-/- mice. Nuclear factor-?B was suggested to be a central molecule in transcriptome networks affected by SFN. Minor improvement of hyperoxia-caused lung histopathology and neutrophilia by SFN in Nrf2-/- mice implies Nrf2-independent or alternate effector mechanisms. In conclusion, SFN is suggested to be as a preventive intervention in a preclinical model of acute lung injury by linking mitochondria and Nrf2. Administration of SFN alleviated acute lung injury-like pathogenesis in a Nrf2-dependent manner. Potential AREs in the SFN-inducible transcriptome for mitochondria bioenergetics provided a new insight into the downstream mechanisms of Nrf2-mediated pulmonary protection.
Project description:Cruciferous vegetables have been associated with the chemoprevention of cancer. Epigenetic regulators have been identified as important targets for prostate cancer chemoprevention. Treatment of human prostate cancer cells with sulforaphane (SFN), a chemical from broccoli and broccoli sprouts, inhibits epigenetic regulators such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, but it is not known whether consumption of a diet high in broccoli sprouts impacts epigenetic mechanisms in an in vivo model of prostate cancer.In the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, we tested the hypothesis that a broccoli sprout diet suppresses prostate cancer, inhibits HDAC expression, alters histone modifications, and changes the expression of genes regulated by HDACs.TRAMP mice were fed a 15% broccoli sprout or control AIN93G diet; tissue samples were collected at 12 and 28 wk of age.Mice fed broccoli sprouts had detectable amounts of SFN metabolites in liver, kidney, colon, and prostate tissues. Broccoli sprouts reduced prostate cancer incidence and progression to invasive cancer by 11- and 2.4-fold at 12 and 28 wk of age, respectively. There was a significant decline in HDAC3 protein expression in the epithelial cells of prostate ventral and anterior lobes at age 12 wk. Broccoli sprout consumption also decreased histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation in the ventral lobe (age 12 wk), and decreased histone H3 lysine 18 acetylation in all prostate lobes (age 28 wk). A decline in p16 mRNA levels, a gene regulated by HDAC3, was associated with broccoli sprout consumption, but no significant changes were noted at the protein level.Broccoli sprout intake was associated with a decline in prostate cancer occurrence and HDAC3 protein expression in the prostate, extending prior work that implicated loss of HDAC3/ corepressor interactions as a key preventive mechanism by SFN in vivo.
Project description:Sulforaphane (SFN), a natural compound derived from broccoli/broccoli sprouts, has been demonstrated to be used as an antitumor agent in different types of cancers. However, its antitumor effect in thyroid cancer remains largely unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of SFN for thyroid cancer and explore the mechanisms underlying antitumor effects of SFN by in vitro and in vivo studies. Our data demonstrated that SFN significantly inhibited thyroid cancer cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibited thyroid cancer cell migration and invasion by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and expression of Slug, Twist, MMP-2 and -9. Mechanically, SFN inhibited thyroid cancer cell growth and invasiveness through repressing phosphorylation of Akt, enhancing p21 expression by the activation of Erk and p38 signaling cascades, and promoting mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent pathway. Growth of xenograft tumors derived from thyroid cancer cell line FTC133 in nude mice was also significantly inhibited by SFN. Importantly, we did not find significant effect of SFN on body weight and liver function of mice. Collectively, we for the first time demonstrate that SFN is a potentially effective antitumor agent for thyroid cancer.
Project description:The consumption of Brassica vegetables provides beneficial effects through organic isothiocyanates (ITCs), products of the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolate secondary metabolites. The ITC l-sulforaphane (l-SFN) is the principle agent in broccoli that demonstrates several modes of anticancer action. While the anticancer properties of ITCs like l-SFN have been extensively studied and l-SFN has been the subject of multiple human clinical trials, the scope of this work has largely been limited to those derivatives found in nature. Previous studies have demonstrated that structural changes in an ITC can lead to marked differences in a compound's potency to 1)?inhibit the growth of cancer cells, and 2)?alter cellular transcriptional profiles. This study describes the preparation of a library of non-natural aryl ITCs and the development of a bifurcated screening approach to evaluate the dose- and time-dependence on antiproliferative and chemopreventive properties against human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated using a commercial MTS cell viability assay. Chemopreventive properties were evaluated using an antioxidant response element (ARE)-promoted luciferase reporter assay. The results of this study have led to the identification of 1)?several key structure-activity relationships and 2)?lead ITCs for continued development.