Transcriptomic and microRNA analyses of gene networks regulated by eicosapentaenoic acid in brown adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.
ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates chemical energy as heat via thermogenesis and protects against obesity by increasing energy expenditure. However, regulation of BAT by dietary factors remains largely unexplored at the mechanistic level. We investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on BAT metabolism. Male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat) or HF diet supplemented with EPA (HF-EPA, 6.75% kcal EPA) for 11?weeks. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and microRNA (miRNA) profiling were performed on RNA from BAT using Illumina HiSeq and Illumina Genome Analyzer NextSeq, respectively. We conducted pathway analyses using ingenuity pathway analysis software (IPA®) and validated some genes and miRNAs using qPCR. We identified 479 genes that were differentially expressed (2-fold change, n?=?3, P???0.05) in BAT from HF compared to HF-EPA. Genes negatively correlated with thermogenesis such as hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit inhibitor (Hif1an), were downregulated by EPA. Pathways related to thermogenesis such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) were upregulated by EPA while pathways associated with obesity and inflammation such as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) were downregulated by EPA. MiRNA profiling identified nine and six miRNAs that were upregulated and downregulated by EPA, respectively (log2 fold change?>?1.25, n?=?3, P???0.05). Key regulatory miRNAs which were involved in thermogenesis, such as miR-455-3p and miR-129-5p were validated using qPCR. In conclusion, the depth of transcriptomic and miRNA profiling revealed novel mRNA-miRNA interaction networks in BAT which are involved in thermogenesis, and regulated by EPA.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates chemical energy as heat and has the potential to be a protective strategy to prevent obesity. microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as important posttranscriptional factors affecting the thermogenic function of BAT. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated energy metabolism in BAT is not fully understood. Here, we explored the roles of miR-22 in BAT thermogenesis and energy metabolism. <b>Methods:</b> Using global and conditional knockout mice as <i>in vivo</i> models and primary brown adipocytes as an <i>in vitro</i> system, we investigated the function of miR-22 in BAT thermogenesis <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i>. <b>Results:</b> miR-22 expression was upregulated in BAT in response to cold exposure and during brown preadipocyte differentiation. Both global and conditional knockout mice displayed BAT whitening, impaired cold tolerance, and decreased BAT thermogenesis. Moreover, we found that miR-22 deficiency impaired BAT glycolytic capacity, which is critical for thermogenesis. The mechanistic results revealed that miR-22 activated the mTORC1 signaling pathway by directly suppressing Tsc1 and concomitantly directly suppressing Hif1an, an inhibitor of Hif1?, which promotes glycolysis and maintains thermogenesis. <b>Conclusions:</b> Our findings identify miR-22 as a critical regulator in the control of thermogenesis in BAT and as a potential therapeutic target for human metabolic disorders.
Project description:This study aims to investigate the global profiling of genes and miRNAs expression to explore the regulatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese mice. We used male mice, fed either a high-fat diet (HF) or HF supplemented with EPA (HF-EPA), for 11 weeks. RNA, and small RNA profiling, were performed by RNAseq analysis. We conducted analyses using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software (IPA®) and validated candidate genes and miRNAs related to lipid mediators and inflammatory pathways using qRT-PCR. We identified 153 genes differentially downregulated, and 62 microRNAs differentially expressed in VAT from HF-EPA compared to HF. Genes with a positive association with inflammation, chemotaxis, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cell death, such as Irf5, Alox5ap, Tlrs, Cd84, Ccr5, Ccl9, and Casp1, were downregulated by EPA. Moreover, EPA significantly reduced LTB4 levels, a lipid mediator with a central role in inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. The pathways and mRNA/microRNA interactions identified in our study corroborated with data validated for inflammatory genes and miRNAs. Together, our results identified key VAT inflammatory targets and pathways, which are regulated by EPA. These targets merit further investigation to better understand the protective mechanisms of EPA in obesity-associated inflammation.
Project description:To understand differences in microRNA (miRNA) signatures between two different diets with and without EPA in brown, subcutaneous, and viscerl tissue from C57BL/6 mice to understand mechanistic insight regarding their contribution to metabolic disorders in obesity. We performed small RNA-sequencing of brown, subcutaneous adipose from high fat diet (45% kcal from fat) and high fat diet supplemented with EPA (45% Kcal from fat, 6.75% EPA). Using the Gunaratne Next Generation pipeline (published in Creighton et al. 2009) miRNA expression profiles were identified. Counts of each unique read were normalized to total usable reads, and had 40 counts added. We mapped about 13.8 million sequence reads per sample to the Mus musculus genome (build mm 10). AS a total 1251 miRNAs were identified in three adipose tissue and out of which in bown adipose tissue 15 showd differential expression between BF-HF and BF-EPA .IN subcutaneous adipose tissue 3 miRNAs showed differntial expression between SUB-HF and SUB-EPA. EPA differentially regulate specific miRNAs expression in brown, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue. Overall design: Method : We performed small RNA-sequencing of brown, subcutaneous adipose from high fat diet (45% kcal from fat) and high fat diet supplemented with EPA (45% Kcal from fat, 6.75% EPA). Results:Using the Gunaratne Next Generation pipeline (published in Creighton et al. 2009) miRNA expression profiles were identified. Counts of each unique read were normalized to total usable reads, and had 40 counts added. We mapped about 13.8 million sequence reads per sample to the Mus musculus genome (build mm 10). AS a total 1251 miRNAs were identified in three adipose tissue and out of which in bown adipose tissue 15 showd differential expression between BF-HF and BF-EPA .IN subcutaneous adipose tissue 3 miRNAs showed differntial expression between SUB-HF and SUB-EPA. Conclusion : EPA differentially regulate specific miRNAs expression in brown, subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue
Project description:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates chemical energy as heat and can counteract obesity. MicroRNAs are emerging as key regulators in development and disease. Combining microRNA and mRNA microarray profiling followed by bioinformatic analyses, we identified miR-455 as a new regulator of brown adipogenesis. miR-455 exhibits a BAT-specific expression pattern and is induced by cold and the browning inducer BMP7. In vitro gain- and loss-of-function studies show that miR-455 regulates brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis. Adipose-specific miR-455 transgenic mice display marked browning of subcutaneous white fat upon cold exposure. miR-455 activates AMPK?1 by targeting HIF1an, and AMPK promotes the brown adipogenic program and mitochondrial biogenesis. Concomitantly, miR-455 also targets the adipogenic suppressors Runx1t1 and Necdin, initiating adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, the data reveal a novel microRNA-regulated signaling network that controls brown adipogenesis and may be a potential therapeutic target for human metabolic disorders.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C) is implicated in central regulation of energy homeostasis. Our aim was to investigate whether CPT1C in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is involved in the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the early stages of diet-induced obesity.<h4>Methods</h4>CPT1C KO and wild type (WT) mice were exposed to short-term high-fat (HF) diet feeding or to intracerebroventricular leptin administration and BAT thermogenesis activation was evaluated. Body weight, adiposity, food intake, and leptinemia were also assayed.<h4>Results</h4>Under 7 days of HF diet, WT mice showed a maximum activation peak of BAT thermogenesis that counteracted obesity development, whereas this activation was impaired in CPT1C KO mice. KO animals evidenced higher body weight, adiposity, hyperleptinemia, ER stress, and disrupted hypothalamic leptin signaling. Leptin-induced BAT thermogenesis was abolished in KO mice. These results indicate an earlier onset leptin resistance in CPT1C KO mice. Since AMPK in the VMH is crucial in the regulation of BAT thermogenesis, we analyzed if CPT1C was a downstream factor of this pathway. Genetic inactivation of AMPK within the VMH was unable to induce BAT thermogenesis and body weight loss in KO mice, indicating that CPT1C is likely downstream AMPK in the central mechanism modulating thermogenesis within the VMH. Quite opposite, the expression of CPT1C in the VMH restored the phenotype.<h4>Conclusion</h4>CPT1C is necessary for the activation of BAT thermogenesis driven by leptin, HF diet exposure, and AMPK inhibition within the VMH. This study underscores the importance of CPT1C in the activation of BAT thermogenesis to counteract diet-induced obesity.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets.<h4>Methods</h4>Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7).<h4>Results</h4>Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1? and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience) and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint), explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets.<h4>Conclusion</h4>All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by increased adaptive thermogenesis in BAT.
Project description:The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide, concurrent with increased obesity. Thus, there is urgent need for research that can lead to effective NAFLD prevention/treatment strategies. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), improve inflammation- and dyslipidemia-related metabolic disorders; however, mechanisms mediating the benefits of n-3 PUFAs in NAFLD treatment are less understood. We previously reported that EPA reversed obesity-induced hepatic steatosis in high-fat (HF)-fed B6 mice. Utilizing a combination of biochemical analyses of liver tissues from HF and HF-EPA-fed mice and a series of in vitro studies in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-stimulated HepG2 cells, we dissect the mechanistic effects of EPA in reducing hepatic steatosis, including the role of EPA-targeted microRNAs (miRNA). With EPA, hepatic lipid metabolism was improved in HF-EPA mice, as indicated by decreased protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (<i>Acaca</i>) gene, and increased mRNA levels for the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (<i>Ppar?</i>), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (<i>Cpt</i>) 1a and 2 genes in the HF-EPA mice. Additionally, inflammation was reduced, as shown by decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (<i>Tnf?</i>) gene expression. Accordingly, EPA also significantly reduced <i>FASN</i> and <i>ACACA</i> mRNAs in human HepG2 cells. Glycolysis, estimated by extracellular acidification rate, was significantly reduced in HepG2 cells treated with EPA vs. vehicle. Furthermore, we identified several miRNAs that are regulated by EPA in mouse liver, including miR-19b-3p, miR-21a-5p, and others, which target lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways. In conclusion, our findings provide novel mechanistic evidence for beneficial effects of EPA in NAFLD, through the identification of specific genes and miRNAs, which may be further exploited as future NAFLD therapies.
Project description:SCOPE:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and has been proposed as an anti-obesity target. It was reported previously that a high-fat (HF) diet enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) significantly increased UCP1 and other thermogenic markers in BAT. It is hypothesized that these effects are mediated through UCP1-dependent regulation. METHODS AND RESULTS:Wild-type (WT) and UCP1 knockout (KO) B6 male mice were housed at thermoneutrality and fed a HF diet, without or with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-enriched fish oil. HF-fed KO mice were heavier and had higher BAT lipid content than other groups. Protective effects of EPA in WT, previously observed at 22 °C (reduced adiposity, improved glucose tolerance, and increased UCP1), disappeared at thermoneutrality. Mitochondrial proteins, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX I), COX I, II, and IV were reduced in the KO mice compared to WT. Unexpectedly, EPA attenuated weight and fat mass gain and improved glucose tolerance in the KO mice. Finally, EPA increased BAT peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1?) protein and gene expression, and whole-body oxygen consumption in KO mice, consistent with increased mitochondria DNA (mtDNA)/nuclear DNA (nucDNA) ratio. CONCLUSIONS:EPA rescued the weight gain and glucose intolerance in UCP1 KO mice at thermoneutrality, independent of UCP1; these effects may be mediated in part via increased oxygen consumption and BAT PGC1?.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important in regulating metabolic stress. In this study, we determined the expression and structural characteristics of 20 miRNAs in brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) during torpor in thirteen-lined ground squirrels. Using a modified stem-loop technique, we found that during torpor, expression of six miRNAs including let-7a, let-7b, miR-107, miR-150, miR-222 and miR-31 was significantly downregulated in WAT (P<0.05), which was 16%-54% of euthermic non-torpid control squirrels, whereas expression of three miRNAs including miR-143, miR-200a and miR-519d was found to be upregulated by 1.32-2.34-fold. Similarly, expression of more miRNAs was downregulated in BAT during torpor. We detected reduced expression of 6 miRNAs including miR-103a, miR-107, miR-125b, miR-21, miR-221 and miR-31 (48%-70% of control), while only expression of miR-138 was significantly upregulated (2.91±0.8-fold of the control, P<0.05). Interestingly, miRNAs found to be downregulated in WAT during torpor were similar to those dysregulated in obese humans for increased adipogenesis, whereas miRNAs with altered expression in BAT during torpor were linked to mitochondrial ?-oxidation. miRPath target prediction analysis showed that miRNAs downregulated in both WAT and BAT were associated with the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, while the miRNAs upregulated in WAT were linked to transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) signaling. Compared to mouse sequences, no unique nucleotide substitutions within the stem-loop region were discovered for the associated pre-miRNAs for the miRNAs used in this study, suggesting no structure-influenced changes in pre-miRNA processing efficiency in the squirrel. As well, the expression of miRNA processing enzyme Dicer remained unchanged in both tissues during torpor. Overall, our findings suggest that changes of miRNA expression in adipose tissues may be linked to distinct biological roles in WAT and BAT during hibernation and may involve the regulation of signaling cascades.
Project description:In response to cold or β3-adrenoreceptor stimulation brown adipose tissue (BAT) promotes non-shivering thermogenesis, leading to energy dissipation. BAT has long been thought to be absent or scarce in adult humans. The recent discovery of thermogenic brite/beige adipocytes has opened the way to development of novel innovative strategies to combat overweight/obesity and associated diseases. Thus it is of great interest to identify regulatory factors that govern the brite adipogenic program. Here, we carried out global microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling on human adipocytes to identify miRNAs that are regulated upon the conversion from white to brite adipocytes. Among the miRNAs that were differentially expressed, we found that Let-7i-5p was down regulated in brite adipocytes. A detailed analysis of the Let-7i-5p levels showed an inverse expression of UCP1 in murine and human brite adipocytes both in vivo and in vitro. Functional studies with Let-7i-5p mimic in human brite adipocytes in vitro revealed a decrease in the expression of UCP1 and in the oxygen consumption rate. Moreover, the Let-7i-5p mimic when injected into murine sub-cutaneous white adipose tissue inhibited partially β3-adrenergic activation of the browning process. These results suggest that the miRNAs Let-7i-5p participates in the recruitment and the function of brite adipocytes.