Data on metabolic profiling of spongy tissue disorder in Mangifera indica cv. Alphonso.
ABSTRACT: Data in this article presents aroma volatiles and fatty acids composition of mesocarp specific malady namely spongy tissue disorder in Mangifera indica cv. Alphonso. Quantitative changes in various aroma volatile compound classes as well as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in spongy tissue vis-à-vis healthy mesocarp have been analyzed throughout the development of the disorder. Statistical data analysis correlates the dynamic changes in the aroma volatiles composition to that of the modulation in the fatty acids profile.
Project description:Spongy tissue disorder, a mesocarp specific malady, severely affects the flavor and pulp characters of Alphonso mango fruit reducing its consumer acceptability. Here, we investigated comparative metabolomic changes that occur during ripening in healthy and spongy tissue-affected fruits using high resolution mass spectrometric analysis. During the spongy tissue formation, 46 metabolites were identified to be differentially accumulated. These putative metabolites belong to various primary and secondary metabolic pathways potentially involved in maintaining the quality of the fruit. Analysis revealed metabolic variations in tricarboxylic acid cycle and gamma amino butyric acid shunt generating reactive oxygen species, which causes stressed conditions inside the mesocarp. Further, reduced levels of antioxidants and enzymes dissipating reactive oxygen species in mesocarp deteriorate the fruit physiology. This oxidative stress all along affects the level of amino acids, sugars and enzymes responsible for flavor generation in the fruit. Our results provide metabolic insights into spongy tissue development in ripening Alphonso mango fruit.
Project description:Data in this article presents fatty acid composition of three mango cultivars; Alphonso, Pairi and Kent through fruit development and ripening. Change in the ?-6 and ?-3 fatty acids level during mango fruit development and ripening is depicted. Also, data on aroma volatile 'lactones' composition from pulp and skin tissues of these cultivars at their ripe stage, respectively is provided. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates modulation in lactone content with that of fatty acid composition and content during fruit development and ripening in all the three mango cultivars.
Project description:Functional and nutritional compounds are increased during foxtail millet germination while bad smell is produced due to the fatty acid oxidation. To eliminate the unpleasant aroma, the origins of the volatiles must be known. A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed forty-nine volatiles containing 8 ketones, 10 aldehydes, 20 alkanes, 4 alcohols, 5 alkenes, and 2 furans were tentatively identified, and they increased during the germination of the foxtail millet. To identify the origin of some volatiles, model experiments by adding 6 fatty acids to the crude enzymes of the foxtail millet was designed, and 17 volatiles could be detected. The saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid and stearic acid) had no contributions to the formation of the volatiles, whereas the unsaturated fatty acid played important roles in the formation of volatiles. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, palmitoleic acid and linoleic acid produced most aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones, while linolenic acid produced the most alkanes and alkenes. This study will be helpful for controlling the smell of germinated seeds from the raw material selection.
Project description:The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and alpha-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[(13)C(6)]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective alpha-keto acids, utilizing alpha-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6 kDa and 42.7 kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants.
Project description:Aroma is a crucial attribute for wine quality, particularly in white wines. Traditionally, the consumption of young white wines is recommended over the year following grape harvest due to potential aroma losses that would worsen wine quality. This study aimed to investigate the evolution of volatile compounds, odor activity value-based aroma notes, and sensory perception in Treixadura (Vitis vinifera L.) dry white wines during a 24-month bottle-aging period. Volatile composition was determined by gas chromatography, and wine sensory evaluation was performed by experts. Wine samples had similar volatile compositions at the time of bottling. The volatile contents of the wines were respectively 322.9, 302.7, 323.0, and 280.9 mg L-1 after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of bottle storage. Most of the volatiles tended to maintain constant concentrations, or with slight increases in all families of volatiles except for acetates and carbonyl compounds, until two years after harvest (18 months of bottle storage) and, then, concentrations reduced sharply. After 24 months of storage in the bottle, the concentrations of terpenes, C6 compounds, higher alcohols, ethyl esters, fatty acids, acetates, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were reduced by 32%, 47%, 11%, 39%, 50%, 74%, 41%, and 54%, respectively. The 18-month bottle-aged wines showed the highest concentrations of volatiles, as well as the best performance in the sensory evaluation, suggesting that a good balance of the aroma attributes was achieved on this date. In conclusion, the current study suggests that Treixadura wines expressed their maximum aroma potential two years after grape harvest.
Project description:Analysis of food volatiles generated by processing are widely reported but comparisons across studies is challenging in part because most reports are inherently semi-quantitative for most analytes due to limited availability of chemical standards. We recently introduced a novel strategy for creation of broad spectrum isotopic standards for accurate quantitative food chemical analysis. Here we apply the principle to quantification of 25 volatiles in seven thermally oxidised edible oils. After extended oxidation, total volatiles of high n-3 oils (flax, fish, cod liver) were 120-170 mg/kg while low n-3 vegetable oils were <50mg/kg. Separate experiments on thermal degradation of d5-ethyl linolenate indicate that off-aroma volatiles originate throughout the n-3 molecule and not solely the n-3 terminal end. These data represent the first report using broad-spectrum isotopically labelled standards for quantitative characterisation of processing-induced volatile generation across related foodstuffs, and verify the origin of specific volatiles from parent n-3 fatty acids.
Project description:To understand the individual enological function of different unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), the separated effects of three different UFAs, linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), on yeast fermentation and aroma compounds were investigated in the alcoholic fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The results showed that, besides concentration, UFAs types could also influence fermentation process and volatiles in final wine. Low concentrations of UFAs (12 and 60 mg/L), especially LA and OA, significantly promoted fermentation activity and most volatiles when compared to the control, however, the effect became the inhibition with increasing concentrations of UFAs (120 and 240 mg/L). It was interesting to find that OA addition (12 and 60 mg/L) could generate more acetate esters (especially isoamyl acetate) in wine, while 12 mg/L LA facilitated more fatty acids formation (octanoic acid and decanoic acid). In comparison, 120 and 240 mg/L ALA produced more amount of C6 alcohols (1-hexanol) and higher alcohols (isobutyl alcohol and 2,3-butanediol). UFAs additions were unfavorable for ethyl esters formation, except for an increment of ethyl hexanoate in 12 mg/L OA wine. As a result, different aromatic profiles of wines were generated by variations of UFAs types and levels, as shown by PCA. The transcriptional data revealed that the expressions of aroma-related genes, such as BAT1, BAT2, PDC1, PDC5, PDC6, ACC1, FAS1, ATF1, EEB1, and EHT1 were correlated with aroma compounds productions in different treatments. Our data suggested that the three UFAs have different enological functions and they could generate different aromatic profiles. Thus, besides concentrations, it is essential to consider the types of UFAs when applying the strategy to adjust UFAs contents to modulate the aromatic quality of wines.
Project description:Many fermentation volatiles important to wine aroma potentially arise from yeast metabolism of hexose sugars, but assessing the relative importance of these pathways is challenging due to high endogenous hexose substrate concentrations. To overcome this problem, gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) was used to measure high-precision (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of volatiles in wines produced from juices spiked with tracer levels (0.01-1 APE) of uniformly labeled [U-(13)C]-glucose. The contribution of hexose to individual volatiles was determined from the degree of (13)C enrichment. As expected, straight-chain fatty acids and their corresponding ethyl esters were derived almost exclusively from hexoses. Most fusel alcohols and their acetate esters were also majority hexose-derived, indicating the importance of anabolic pathways for their formation. Only two compounds were not derived primarily from hexoses (hexanol and isobutyric acid). This approach can be extended to other food systems or substrates for studying precursor-product relationships.
Project description:Aroma-related volatiles, together with sugars and acids, play an important role in determining fruit flavor quality. Characteristic volatiles of peach fruit are mainly derived from fatty acids such as linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3). In the present study, six genes encoding fatty acid desaturases (FAD) were cloned, including two ?-6 FAD genes (PpFAD2, PpFAD6) and four ?-3 FAD genes (PpFAD3-1, PpFAD3-2, PpFAD7 and PpFAD8). Heterologous expression of peach FADs in tobacco plants showed that PpFAD3-1, and PpFAD3-2 significantly reduced contents of 18:2, and accumulated significant higher levels of 18:3. In the case of volatiles, transgenic plants produced lower concentrations of hexanal and higher levels of (E)-2-hexenal. Consequently, the ratio of the (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal was about 5- and 3-fold higher than that of wild type (WT) in PpFAD3-1 and PpFAD3-2 transformants, respectively. No significant changes in volatile profiles were observed in transgenic plants overexpressing the four other peach FAD genes. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis showed that ripe fruit had high PpFAD3-1 and low PpFAD3-2 transcript levels. In contrast, high PpFAD3-2 and low PpFAD3-1 transcript levels were observed in young fruit. These results indicate a temporal regulation of these two ?-3 FADs during development and ripening, influencing peach fruit volatile formation.
Project description:Alphonso is known as the "King of mangos" due to its unique flavor, attractive color, low fiber pulp and long shelf life. We analyzed the transcriptome of Alphonso mango through Illumina sequencing from seven stages of fruit development and ripening as well as flower. Total transcriptome data from these stages ranged between 65 and 143?Mb. Importantly, 20,755 unique transcripts were annotated and 4,611 were assigned enzyme commission numbers, which encoded 142 biological pathways. These included ethylene and flavor related secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways, as well as those involved in metabolism of starch, sucrose, amino acids and fatty acids. Differential regulation (p-value???0.05) of thousands of transcripts was evident in various stages of fruit development and ripening. Novel transcripts for biosynthesis of mono-terpenes, sesqui-terpenes, di-terpenes, lactones and furanones involved in flavor formation were identified. Large number of transcripts encoding cell wall modifying enzymes was found to be steady in their expression, while few were differentially regulated through these stages. Novel 79 transcripts of inhibitors of cell wall modifying enzymes were simultaneously detected throughout Alphonso fruit development and ripening, suggesting controlled activity of these enzymes involved in fruit softening.