Species Designations Belie Phenotypic and Genotypic Heterogeneity in Oral Streptococci.
ABSTRACT: Health-associated oral Streptococcus species are promising probiotic candidates to protect against dental caries. Ammonia production through the arginine deiminase system (ADS), which can increase the pH of oral biofilms, and direct antagonism of caries-associated bacterial species are desirable properties for oral probiotic strains. ADS and antagonistic activities can vary dramatically among individuals, but the genetic basis for these differences is unknown. We sequenced whole genomes of a diverse set of clinical oral Streptococcus isolates and examined the genetic basis of variability in ADS and antagonistic activities. A total of 113 isolates were included and represented 10 species: Streptococcus australis, A12-like, S. cristatus, S. gordonii, S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. oralis including S. oralis subsp. dentisani, S. parasanguinis, S. salivarius, and S. sanguinis. Mean ADS activity and antagonism on Streptococcus mutans UA159 were measured for each isolate, and each isolate was whole genome shotgun sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq. Phylogenies were built of genes known to be involved in ADS activity and antagonism. Several approaches to correlate the pan-genome with phenotypes were performed. Phylogenies of genes previously identified in ADS activity and antagonism grouped isolates by species, but not by phenotype. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified additional genes potentially involved in ADS activity or antagonism across all the isolates we sequenced as well as within several species. Phenotypic heterogeneity in oral streptococci is not necessarily reflected by genotype and is not species specific. Probiotic strains must be carefully selected based on characterization of each strain and not based on inclusion within a certain species. IMPORTANCE Representative type strains are commonly used to characterize bacterial species, yet species are phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous. Conclusions about strain physiology and activity based on a single strain therefore may be inappropriate and misleading. When selecting strains for probiotic use, the assumption that all strains within a species share the same desired probiotic characteristics may result in selection of a strain that lacks the desired traits, and therefore makes a minimally effective or ineffective probiotic. Health-associated oral streptococci are promising candidates for anticaries probiotics, but strains need to be carefully selected based on observed phenotypes. We characterized the genotypes and anticaries phenotypes of strains from 10 species of oral streptococci and demonstrate poor correlation between genotype and phenotype across all species.
Project description:Streptococcus oralis subspecies dentisani is explored as an anti-cariogenic probiotic. Here, subjecting freshly stimulated saliva samples of 35 healthy volunteers, six epidemiologically unrelated and two related strains were isolated (prevalence around 20%) applying a newly developed three-step procedure. Furthermore, the probiotic strain S. dentisani 7746 (AB-Dentisanium®) was tested under a variety of environmental conditions for its inhibitory effect on six S. mutans, two S. sobrinus, 15 other oral or intestinal streptococci, 15 S. dentisani strains, and six representatives of other species including periodontopathogens. All except one of the S. mutans strains were inhibited by 7746 colonies or culture supernatant concentrate but only if either the test cell number was low or the producer or its bacteriocin concentration, respectively, was high. S. sanguinis OMI 332, S. salivarius OMI 315, S. parasanguinis OMI 335, S. vestibularis OMI 238, and the intestinal S. dysgalactiae OMI 339 were not inhibited, while the other 10 streptococcal strains (especially S. oralis OMI 334 and intestinal S. gallolyticus OMI 326) showed a certain degree of inhibition. From the panel of other bacterial species only Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was slightly inhibited. With the exception of OMI 285 and OMI 291 that possessed a 7746 bacteriocin-like gene cluster, all S. dentisani strains and especially type strain 7747T were strongly inhibited by 7746. In conclusion, probiotic strain 7746 might antagonize the initiation and progression of dental caries by reducing S. mutans if not too abundant. S. dentisani strains inhibit each other, but strains with similar bacteriocin-related gene clusters, including immunity genes, are able to co-exist due to cross-resistance. In addition, development of resistance and adaptation to 7746-bacteriocins was observed during our study and needs attention. Hence, mechanisms underlying such processes need to be further investigated using omics-approaches. On the manufacturing level, probiotic strains should be continuously tested for function. Further clinical studies investigating inhibition of S. mutans by AB-Dentisanium® are required that should also monitor the impact on the oral microbiome composition including resident S. dentisani strains.
Project description:Non-mutans low pH oral streptococci are postulated to contribute to caries etiology.This study was undertaken to investigate whether the acidogenicity and acid tolerance of clinical strains of Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus mitis correlate with health or early-stage enamel caries.S. oralis and S. mitis were isolated from plaque samples taken from the occlusal surfaces of second molars sampled at two different visits 4 years apart. All sites were sound at Visit 1; subjects were segregated into one of three groups based on the status of the site at Visit 2 and caries elsewhere in the dentition. Strains of S. oralis and S. mitis were evaluated for acidogenicity and acid tolerance, and the results correlated with the clinical status of the sites from which they were isolated. Mutans streptococci (MS) isolated from the plaque samples were also quantified, and the presence or absence of growth on pH 5.5 media or on media selective for bifidobacteria was recorded.No significant positive correlations were found between the acidogenicity properties of the S. oralis and S. mitis clones and caries at either visit. Similar results were obtained for acid tolerance of S. oralis clones but were inconclusive for S. mitis clones. A statistically significant positive correlation between MS levels and caries (or future caries) was evident at both visits, but there were no statistical correlations with the growth on pH 5.5 media or media selective for bifidobacteria.The low pH potential likely varies considerably among oral streptococcal species and is least likely to be found among strains of S. mitis. Accordingly, the concept and constitution of 'low pH streptococci' may need to be re-evaluated.
Project description:Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguinis are members of the Mitis group of streptococci and agents of oral biofilm, dental plaque and infective endocarditis, disease processes that involve bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Their close relative, the human pathogen S. pneumoniae uses pilus-islet 2 (PI-2)-encoded pili to facilitate adhesion to eukaryotic cells.PI-2 pilus-encoding genetic islets were identified in S. oralis, S. mitis, and S. sanguinis, but were absent from other isolates of these species. The PI-2 islets resembled the genetic organization of the PI-2 islet of S. pneumoniae, but differed in the genes encoding the structural pilus proteins PitA and PitB. Two and three variants of pitA (a pseudogene in S. pneumoniae) and pitB, respectively, were identified that showed ?20% difference in nucleotide as well as corresponding protein sequence. Species-independent combinations of pitA and pitB variants indicated prior intra- and interspecies horizontal gene transfer events. Polyclonal antisera developed against PitA and PitB of S. oralis type strain ATCC35037 revealed that PI-2 pili in oral streptococci were composed of PitA and PitB. Electronmicrographs showed pilus structures radiating >700 nm from the bacterial surface in the wild type strain, but not in an isogenic PI-2 deletion mutant. Anti-PitB-antiserum only reacted with pili containing the same PitB variant, whereas anti-PitA antiserum was cross-reactive with the other PitA variant. Electronic multilocus sequence analysis revealed that all PI-2-encoding oral streptococci were closely-related and cluster with non-PI-2-encoding S. oralis strains.This is the first identification of PI-2 pili in Mitis group oral streptococci. The findings provide a striking example of intra- and interspecies horizontal gene transfer. The PI-2 pilus diversity provides a possible key to link strain-specific bacterial interactions and/or tissue tropisms with pathogenic traits in the Mitis group streptococci.
Project description:Interbacterial adhesion between streptococci and actinomyces promotes early dental plaque biofilm development. Recognition of coaggregation receptor polysaccharides (RPS) on strains of Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus oralis by Actinomyces spp. type 2 fimbriae is the principal mechanism of these interactions. Previous studies of genetic loci for synthesis of RPS (rps) and RPS precursors (rml, galE1 and galE2) in S. gordonii 38 and S. oralis 34 revealed differences between these strains. To determine whether these differences are strain-specific or species-specific, we identified and compared loci for polysaccharide biosynthesis in additional strains of these species and in several strains of the previously unstudied species, S. sanguinis. Genes for synthesis of RPS precursors distinguished the rps loci of different streptococci. Hence, rml genes for synthesis of TDP-L-Rha were in rps loci of S. oralis strains but at other loci in S. gordonii and S. sanguinis. Genes for two distinct galactose epimerases were also distributed differently. Hence, galE1 for epimerization of UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal was in galactose operons of S. gordonii and S. sanguinis strains but surprisingly, this gene was not present in S. oralis. Moreover, galE2 for epimerization of both UDP-Glc and UDP-Gal and UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GalNAc was at a different locus in each species, including rps operons of S. sanguinis. The findings provide insight into cell surface properties that distinguish different RPS-producing streptococci and open an approach for identifying these bacteria based on the arrangement of genes for synthesis of polysaccharide precursors.
Project description:Streptococcus oralis is a member of the normal human oral microbiota, capable of opportunistic pathogenicity; like related oral streptococci, it exhibits appreciable phenotypic and genetic variation. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for S. oralis was developed and the resultant data analysed to examine the population structure of the species. Analysis of 113 isolates, confirmed as belonging to the S. oralis/mitis group by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, characterized the population as highly diverse and undergoing inter- and intra-species recombination with a probable clonal complex structure. ClonalFrame analysis of these S. oralis isolates along with examples of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae grouped the named species into distinct, coherent populations and did not support the clustering of S. pseudopneumoniae with S. mitis as reported previously using distance-based methods. Analysis of the individual loci suggested that this discrepancy was due to the possible hybrid nature of S. pseudopneumoniae. The data are available on the public MLST website (http://pubmlst.org/soralis/).
Project description:Viridans streptococci were obtained from primates (great apes, rhesus monkeys, and ring-tailed lemurs) held in captivity, as well as from free-living animals (chimpanzees and lemurs) for whom contact with humans is highly restricted. Isolates represented a variety of viridans streptococci, including unknown species. Streptococcus oralis was frequently isolated from samples from great apes. Genotypic methods revealed that most of the strains clustered on separate lineages outside the main cluster of human S. oralis strains. This suggests that S. oralis is part of the commensal flora in higher primates and evolved prior to humans. Many genes described as virulence factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae were present also in other viridans streptococcal genomes. Unlike in S. pneumoniae, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) gene clusters were common among viridans streptococci, and many S. oralis strains were type PI-2 (pilus islet 2) variants. S. oralis displayed a remarkable diversity of genes involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan (penicillin-binding proteins and MurMN) and choline-containing teichoic acid. The small noncoding cia-dependent small RNAs (csRNAs) controlled by the response regulator CiaR might contribute to the genomic diversity, since we observed novel genomic islands between duplicated csRNAs, variably present in some isolates. All S. oralis genomes contained a β-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase gene absent in S. pneumoniae, which in contrast frequently harbors the neuraminidases NanB/C, which are absent in S. oralis. The identification of S. oralis-specific genes will help us to understand their adaptation to diverse habitats. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare example of a human-pathogenic bacterium among viridans streptococci, which consist of commensal symbionts, such as the close relatives Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis. We have shown that S. oralis can frequently be isolated from primates and a variety of other viridans streptococci as well. Genes and genomic islands which are known pneumococcal virulence factors are present in S. oralis and S. mitis, documenting the widespread occurrence of these compounds, which encode surface and secreted proteins. The frequent occurrence of CRISP-Cas gene clusters and a surprising variation of a set of small noncoding RNAs are factors to be considered in future research to further our understanding of mechanisms involved in the genomic diversity driven by horizontal gene transfer among viridans streptococci.
Project description:Streptococcus oralis, a commensal species of the human oral cavity, belongs to the Mitis group of streptococci, which includes one of the major human pathogens as well, S. pneumoniae. We report here the first complete genome sequence of this species. S. oralis Uo5, a high-level penicillin- and multiple-antibiotic-resistant isolate from Hungary, is competent for genetic transformation under laboratory conditions. Comparative and functional genomics of Uo5 will be important in understanding the evolution of pathogenesis among Mitis streptococci and their potential to engage in interspecies gene transfer.
Project description:Streptococcus tigurinus is a novel species of viridans streptococci, shown to cause severe invasive infections such as infective endocarditis, spondylodiscitis and meningitis. S. tigurinus belongs to the Streptococcus mitis group and is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Streptococcus infantis. The presence of S. tigurinus in the human oral cavity has been documented, including in patients with periodontal disease. This review addresses the available scientific knowledge on S. tigurinus and its association with closely related streptococci, and discusses its putative involvement in common oral infections. While there is as yet no strong evidence on the involvement of S. tigurinus with oral infections, its presence in the oral cavity and its association with endocarditis warrants special attention for a link between oral and systemic infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infections of the ears, paranasal sinuses, nose and throat are very common and represent a serious issue for the healthcare system. Bacterial biofilms have been linked to upper respiratory tract infections and antibiotic resistance, raising serious concerns regarding the therapeutic management of such infections. In this context, novel strategies able to fight biofilms may be therapeutically beneficial and offer a valid alternative to conventional antimicrobials. Biofilms consist of mixed microbial communities, which interact with other species in the surroundings and communicate through signaling molecules. These interactions may result in antagonistic effects, which can be exploited in the fight against infections in a sort of "bacteria therapy". Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis are ?-hemolytic streptococci isolated from the human pharynx of healthy individuals. Several studies on otitis-prone children demonstrated that their intranasal administration is safe and well tolerated and is able to reduce the risk of acute otitis media. The aim of this research is to assess S. salivarius 24SMB and S. oralis 89a for the ability to interfere with biofilm of typical upper respiratory tract pathogens. METHODS:To investigate if soluble substances secreted by the two streptococci could inhibit biofilm development of the selected pathogenic strains, co-cultures were performed with the use of transwell inserts. Mixed-species biofilms were also produced, in order to evaluate if the inhibition of biofilm formation might require direct contact. Biofilm production was investigated by means of a spectrophotometric assay and by confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS:We observed that S. salivarius 24SMB and S. oralis 89a are able to inhibit the biofilm formation capacity of selected pathogens and even to disperse their pre-formed biofilms. Diffusible molecules secreted by the two streptococci and lowered pH of the medium revealed to be implied in the mechanisms of anti-biofilm activity. CONCLUSIONS:S. salivarius 24SMB and S. oralis 89a possess desirable characteristics as probiotic for the treatment and prevention of infections of the upper airways. However, the nature of the inhibition appear to be multifactorial and additional studies are required to get further insights.
Project description:N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and glucosamine (GlcN) enhance the competitiveness of the laboratory strain DL1 of Streptococcus gordonii against the caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans Here, we examine how amino sugars affect the interaction of five low-passage-number clinical isolates of abundant commensal streptococci with S. mutans by utilizing a dual-species biofilm model. Compared to that for glucose, growth on GlcN or GlcNAc significantly reduced the viability of S. mutans in cocultures with most commensals, shifting the proportions of species. Consistent with these results, production of H2O2 was increased in most commensals when growing on amino sugars, and inhibition of S. mutans by Streptococcus cristatus, Streptococcus oralis, or S. gordonii was enhanced by amino sugars on agar plates. All commensals except S. oralis had higher arginine deiminase activities when grown on GlcN and, in some cases, GlcNAc. In ex vivo biofilms formed using pooled cell-containing saliva (CCS), the proportions of S. mutans were drastically diminished when GlcNAc was the primary carbohydrate. Increased production of H2O2 could account in large part for the inhibitory effects of CCS biofilms. Surprisingly, amino sugars appeared to improve mutacin production by S. mutans on agar plates, suggesting that the commensals have mechanisms to actively subvert antagonism by S. mutans in cocultures. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that amino sugars can enhance the beneficial properties of low-passage-number commensal oral streptococci and highlight their potential for moderating the cariogenicity of oral biofilms.IMPORTANCE Dental caries is driven by dysbiosis of oral biofilms in which dominance by acid-producing and acid-tolerant bacteria results in loss of tooth mineral. Our previous work demonstrated the beneficial effects of amino sugars GlcNAc and GlcN in promoting the antagonistic properties of a health-associated oral bacterium, Streptococcus gordonii, in competition with the major caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans Here, we investigated 5 low-passage-number clinical isolates of the most common streptococcal species to establish how amino sugars may influence the ecology and virulence of oral biofilms. Using multiple in vitro models, including a human saliva-derived microcosm biofilm, experiments showed significant enhancement by at least one amino sugar in the ability of most of these bacteria to suppress the caries pathogen. Therefore, our findings demonstrated the mechanism of action by which amino sugars may affect human oral biofilms to promote health.