Evolutionary dynamics of origin and loss in the deep history of phospholipase D toxin genes.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Venom-expressed sphingomyelinase D/phospholipase D (SMase D/PLD) enzymes evolved from the ubiquitous glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterases (GDPD). Expression of GDPD-like SMaseD/PLD toxins in both arachnids and bacteria has inspired consideration of the relative contributions of lateral gene transfer and convergent recruitment in the evolutionary history of this lineage. Previous work recognized two distinct lineages, a SicTox-like (ST-like) clade including the arachnid toxins, and an Actinobacterial-toxin like (AT-like) clade including the bacterial toxins and numerous fungal homologs. RESULTS:Here we expand taxon sampling by homology detection to discover new GDPD-like SMase D/PLD homologs. The ST-like clade now includes homologs in a wider variety of arthropods along with a sister group in Cnidaria; the AT-like clade now includes additional fungal phyla and proteobacterial homologs; and we report a third clade expressed in diverse aquatic metazoan taxa, a few single-celled eukaryotes, and a few aquatic proteobacteria. GDPD-like SMaseD/PLDs have an ancient presence in chelicerates within the ST-like family and ctenophores within the Aquatic family. A rooted phylogenetic tree shows that the three clades derived from a basal paraphyletic group of proteobacterial GDPD-like SMase D/PLDs, some of which are on mobile genetic elements. GDPD-like SMase D/PLDs share a signature C-terminal motif and a shortened ??1 loop, features that distinguish them from GDPDs. The three major clades also have active site loop signatures that distinguish them from GDPDs and from each other. Analysis of molecular phylogenies with respect to organismal relationships reveals a dynamic evolutionary history including both lateral gene transfer and gene duplication/loss. CONCLUSIONS:The GDPD-like SMaseD/PLD enzymes derive from a single ancient ancestor, likely proteobacterial, and radiated into diverse organismal lineages at least in part through lateral gene transfer.
Project description:Lysoplasmalogen (LyPls)-specific phospholipase D (LyPls-PLD) is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolytic cleavage of the phosphoester bond of LyPls, releasing ethanolamine or choline, and 1-(1-alkenyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (lysoplasmenic acid). Little is known about LyPls-PLD and metabolic pathways of plasmalogen (Pls). Reportedly, Pls levels in human serum/plasma correlate with several diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and arteriosclerosis as well as a variety of biological processes including apoptosis and cell signaling. We identified a LyPls-PLD from Thermocrispum sp. strain RD004668, and the enzyme was purified, characterized, cloned, and expressed using pET24a(+)/Escherichia coli with a His tag. The enzyme's preferred substrate was choline LyPls (LyPlsCho), with only modest activity toward ethanolamine LyPls. Under optimum conditions (pH 8.0 and 50 °C), steady-state kinetic analysis for LyPlsCho yielded Km and kcat values of 13.2 ?m and 70.6 s-1, respectively. The ORF of LyPls-PLD gene consisted of 1005 bp coding a 334-amino-acid (aa) protein. The deduced aa sequence of LyPls-PLD showed high similarity to those of glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GDPDs); however, the substrate specificity differed completely from those of GDPDs and general phospholipase Ds (PLDs). Structural homology modeling showed that two putative catalytic residues (His46, His88) of LyPls-PLD were highly conserved to GDPDs. Mutational and kinetic analyses suggested that Ala55, Asn56, and Phe211 in the active site of LyPls-PLD may participate in the substrate recognition. These findings will help to elucidate differences among LyPls-PLD, PLD, and GDPD with regard to function, substrate recognition mechanism, and biochemical roles.Thermocrispum sp. strain RD004668 and its 16S rDNA sequence were deposited in the NITE Patent Microorganisms Depositary (NPMD; Chiba, Japan) as NITE BP-01628 and in the DDBJ database under the accession number AB873024. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rDNA of strain RD004668 and the LyPls-PLD gene were deposited in the DDBJ database under the accession numbers AB873024 and AB874601, respectively.EC number EC 126.96.36.199.
Project description:The six-transmembrane protein glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 2 (GDE2) induces spinal motor neuron differentiation by inhibiting Notch signaling in adjacent motor neuron progenitors. GDE2 function requires activity of its extracellular domain that shares homology with glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GDPDs). GDPDs metabolize glycerophosphodiesters into glycerol-3-phosphate and corresponding alcohols, but whether GDE2 inhibits Notch signaling by this mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that GDE2, unlike classical GDPDs, cleaves glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. GDE2 GDPD activity inactivates the Notch activator RECK (reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs) by releasing it from the membrane through GPI-anchor cleavage. RECK release disinhibits ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) protease-dependent shedding of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1), leading to Notch inactivation. This study identifies a previously unrecognized mechanism to initiate neurogenesis that involves GDE2-mediated surface cleavage of GPI-anchored targets to inhibit Dll1-Notch signaling.
Project description:Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GDPDs; EC 188.8.131.52) typically hydrolyze glycerophosphodiesters to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (Gro3P) and their corresponding alcohol during patho/physiological processes in bacteria and eukaryotes. GDPD(-like) domains were identified in the structural particle of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) specifically infecting Gram-positive bacteria. The GDPD of phage 17 (Ld17; GDPDLd17), representative of the group b Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Ldb)-infecting bacteriophages, was shown to hydrolyze, besides the simple glycerophosphodiester, two complex surface-associated carbohydrates of the Ldb17 cell envelope: the Gro3P decoration of the major surface polysaccharide d-galactan and the oligo(glycerol phosphate) backbone of the partially glycosylated cell wall teichoic acid, a minor Ldb17 cell envelope component. Degradation of cell wall teichoic acid occurs according to an exolytic mechanism, and Gro3P substitution is presumed to be inhibitory for GDPDLd17 activity. The presence of the GDPDLd17 homotrimer in the viral baseplate structure involved in phage-host interaction together with the dependence of native GDPD activity, adsorption, and efficiency of plating of Ca(2+) ions supports a role for GDPDLd17 activity during phage adsorption and/or phage genome injection. In contrast to GDPDLd17, we could not identify any enzymatic activity for the GDPD-like domain in the neck passage structure of phage 340, a 936-type Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bacteriophage.
Project description:Phospholipase D (PLD), an important enzyme involved in signal transduction in mammals, is also secreted by many microorganisms. A highly conserved HKD motif has been identified in most PLD homologs in the PLD superfamily. However, the Ca(2+)-dependent PLD from Streptomyces chromofuscus exhibits little homology to other PLDs. We have cloned (using DNA isolated from the ATCC type strain), overexpressed in Escherichia coli (two expression systems, pET-23a(+) and pTYB11), and purified the S. chromofuscus PLD. Based on attempts at sequence alignment with other known Ca(2+)-independent PLD enzymes from Streptomyces species, we mutated five histidine residues (His72, His171, His187, His200, His226) that could be part of variants of an HKD motif. Only H187A and H200A showed dramatically reduced activity. However, mutation of these histidine residues to alanine also significantly altered the secondary structure of PLD. Asparagine replacements at these positions yielded enzymes with structure and activity similar to the recombinant wild-type PLD. The extent of phosphatidic acid (PA) activation of PC hydrolysis by the recombinant PLD enzymes differed in magnitude from PLD purified from S. chromofuscus culture medium (a 2-fold activation rather than 4-5-fold). One of the His mutants, H226A, showed a 12-fold enhancement by PA, suggesting this residue is involved in the kinetic activation. Another notable difference of this bacterial PLD from others is that it has a single cysteine (Cys123); other Streptomyces Ca(2+)-independent PLDs have eight Cys involved in intramolecular disulfide bonds. Both C123A and C123S, with secondary structure and stability similar to recombinant wild-type PLD, exhibited specific activity reduced by 10(-5) and 10(-4). The Cys mutants still bound Ca(2+), so that it is likely that this residue is part of the active site of the Ca(2+)-dependent PLD. This would suggest that S. chromofuscus PLD is a member of a new class of PLD enzymes.
Project description:Prion-like domains (PLDs) are low complexity sequences found in RNA binding proteins associated with the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recently, PLDs have been implicated in mediating gene regulation via liquid-phase transitions that drive ribonucleoprotein granule assembly. In this paper, we report many PLDs in proteins associated with paraspeckles, subnuclear bodies that form around long noncoding RNA. We mapped the interactome network of paraspeckle proteins, finding enrichment of PLDs. We show that one protein, RBM14, connects key paraspeckle subcomplexes via interactions mediated by its PLD. We further show that the RBM14 PLD, as well as the PLD of another essential paraspeckle protein, FUS, is required to rescue paraspeckle formation in cells in which their endogenous counterpart has been knocked down. Similar to FUS, the RBM14 PLD also forms hydrogels with amyloid-like properties. These results suggest a role for PLD-mediated liquid-phase transitions in paraspeckle formation, highlighting this nuclear body as an excellent model system for understanding the perturbation of such processes in neurodegeneration.
Project description:In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol.
Project description:The venom enzyme sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) in the spider family Sicariidae (brown or fiddleback spiders [Loxosceles] and six-eyed sand spiders [Sicarius]) causes dermonecrosis in mammals. SMase D is in a gene family with multiple venom-expressed members that vary in functional specificity. We analyze molecular evolution of this family and variation in SMase D activity among crude venoms using a data set that represents the phylogenetic breadth of Loxosceles and Sicarius. We isolated a total of 190 nonredundant nucleotide sequences encoding 168 nonredundant amino acid sequences of SMase D homologs from 21 species. Bayesian phylogenies support two major clades that we name alpha and beta, within which we define seven and three subclades, respectively. Sequences in the alpha clade are exclusively from New World Loxosceles and Loxosceles rufescens and include published genes for which expression products have SMase D and dermonecrotic activity. The beta clade includes paralogs from New World Loxosceles that have no, or reduced, SMase D and no dermonecrotic activity and also paralogs from Sicarius and African Loxosceles of unknown activity. Gene duplications are frequent, consistent with a birth-and-death model, and there is evidence of purifying selection with episodic positive directional selection. Despite having venom-expressed SMase D homologs, venoms from New World Sicarius have reduced, or no, detectable SMase D activity, and Loxosceles in the Southern African spinulosa group have low SMase D activity. Sequence conservation mapping shows >98% conservation of proposed catalytic residues of the active site and around a plug motif at the opposite end of the TIM barrel, but alpha and beta clades differ in conservation of key residues surrounding the apparent substrate binding pocket. Based on these combined results, we propose an inclusive nomenclature for the gene family, renaming it SicTox, and discuss emerging patterns of functional diversification.
Project description:Phospholipase D (PLD) in plants plays vital roles in growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of PLDs in pineapple remains poorly understood. In this study, 10 putative PLD genes, designated as AcPLD1-AcPLD10, were identified based on the pineapple genome database. The 10 AcPLDs could be clustered into five of the six known PLD families according to sequence characterization. Their deduced amino acid sequences displayed similarities to PLDs from other plant species. Expression analyses of PLD mRNAs from pineapple pulp were performed. The 10 PLDs exhibited differential expression patterns during storage periods of fruits treated with hexaldehyde (a specific PLD inhibitor) which could alleviate internal browning (IB) of pineapple after harvest. Functional subcellular localization signaling assays of two PLD proteins (AcPLD2 and AcPLD9) were performed by fluorescence microscopy. To further detect the potential action mechanism underlying PLD involved in the IB defense response, PLD, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2 associated with antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, NADPH, and ascorbate peroxidase were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This report is the first to provide a genome-wide description of the pineapple PLD gene family, and the results should expand knowledge of this family.
Project description:Prion-like domains (PLDs), defined by their low sequence complexity and intrinsic disorder, are present in hundreds of human proteins. Although gain-of-function mutations in the PLDs of neuronal RNA-binding proteins have been linked to neurodegenerative disease progression, the physiological role of PLDs and their range of molecular functions are still largely unknown. Here, we show that the PLD of Drosophila Imp, a conserved component of neuronal ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, is essential for the developmentally-controlled localization of Imp RNP granules to axons and regulates in vivo axonal remodeling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Imp PLD restricts, rather than promotes, granule assembly, revealing a novel modulatory function for PLDs in RNP granule homeostasis. Swapping the position of Imp PLD compromises RNP granule dynamic assembly but not transport, suggesting that these two functions are uncoupled. Together, our study uncovers a physiological function for PLDs in the spatio-temporal control of neuronal RNP assemblies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The phospholipase D (PLD) family has been identified in plants by recent molecular studies, fostered by the emerging importance of plant PLDs in stress physiology and signal transduction. However, the presence of multiple isoforms limits the power of conventional biochemical and pharmacological approaches, and calls for a wider application of genetic methodology. RESULTS:Taking advantage of sequence data available in public databases, we attempted to provide a prerequisite for such an approach. We made a complete inventory of the Arabidopsis thaliana PLD family, which was found to comprise 12 distinct genes. The current nomenclature of Arabidopsis PLDs was refined and expanded to include five newly described genes. To assess the degree of plant PLD diversity beyond Arabidopsis we explored data from rice (including the genome draft by Monsanto) as well as cDNA and EST sequences from several other plants. Our analysis revealed two major PLD subfamilies in plants. The first, designated C2-PLD, is characterised by presence of the C2 domain and comprises previously known plant PLDs as well as new isoforms with possibly unusual features catalytically inactive or independent on Ca2+. The second subfamily (denoted PXPH-PLD) is novel in plants but is related to animal and fungal enzymes possessing the PX and PH domains. CONCLUSIONS:The evolutionary dynamics, and inter-specific diversity, of plant PLDs inferred from our phylogenetic analysis, call for more plant species to be employed in PLD research. This will enable us to obtain generally valid conclusions.