DNA Breaks and End Resection Measured Genome-wide by End Sequencing.
ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) arise during physiological transcription, DNA replication, and antigen receptor diversification. Mistargeting or misprocessing of DSBs can result in pathological structural variation and mutation. Here we describe a sensitive method (END-seq) to monitor DNA end resection and DSBs genome-wide at base-pair resolution in vivo. We utilized END-seq to determine the frequency and spectrum of restriction-enzyme-, zinc-finger-nuclease-, and RAG-induced DSBs. Beyond sequence preference, chromatin features dictate the repertoire of these genome-modifying enzymes. END-seq can detect at least one DSB per cell among 10,000 cells not harboring DSBs, and we estimate that up to one out of 60 cells contains off-target RAG cleavage. In addition to site-specific cleavage, we detect DSBs distributed over extended regions during immunoglobulin class-switch recombination. Thus, END-seq provides a snapshot of DNA ends genome-wide, which can be utilized for understanding genome-editing specificities and the influence of chromatin on DSB pathway choice.
Project description:Two major DNA repair pathways, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), repair double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) in all eukaryotes. Additionally, several alternative end-joining pathways (or subpathways) have been reported that characteristically use short-sequence homologies at the DNA ends to facilitate joining. How a cell chooses which DNA repair pathway to use (at any particular DSB) is a central and largely unanswered question. For one type of DSB, there is apparently no choice. DSBs mediated by the lymphocyte-specific recombination activating gene (RAG) endonuclease are repaired virtually exclusively by NHEJ. Here we demonstrate that non-RAG-mediated DSBs can be similarly forced into the NHEJ pathway by physical association with the RAG endonuclease.
Project description:The structure of broken DNA ends is a critical determinant of the pathway used for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we develop an approach involving the hairpin capture of DNA end structures (HCoDES), which elucidates chromosomal DNA end structures at single-nucleotide resolution. HCoDES defines structures of physiologic DSBs generated by the RAG endonuclease, as well as those generated by nucleases widely used for genome editing. Analysis of G1 phase cells deficient in H2AX or 53BP1 reveals DNA ends that are frequently resected to form long single-stranded overhangs that can be repaired by mutagenic pathways. In addition to 3' overhangs, many of these DNA ends unexpectedly form long 5' single-stranded overhangs. The divergence in DNA end structures resolved by HCoDES suggests that H2AX and 53BP1 may have distinct activities in end protection. Thus, the high-resolution end structures obtained by HCoDES identify features of DNA end processing during DSB repair.
Project description:The structure of broken DNA ends is a critical determinant of the pathway used for DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we develop an approach, hairpin capture of DNA end structures (HCoDES), which elucidates chromosomal DNA end structures at single nucleotide resolution. HCoDES defines structures of physiologic DSBs generated by the RAG endonuclease, as well as those generated by nucleases widely used for genome editing. Analysis of G1-phase cells deficient in H2AX or 53BP1 reveals DNA ends that are frequently resected to form long single-stranded overhangs that can be repaired by mutagenic pathways. In addition to 3’ overhangs, many of these DNA ends unexpectedly form long 5’ single-stranded overhangs. The divergence in DNA end structures resolved by HCoDES suggests that H2AX and 53BP1 may have distinct activities in end protection. Thus, the high-resolution end structures obtained by HCoDES identify new features of DNA end processing during DSB repair. Single stranded DNA ligation of genomic DNA isolated from G1 arrested LigaseIV-/-, LigaseIV-/- 53BP1-/- and LigaseIV-/- H2AX-/- Abelson pre-B cells harboring site specific DSBs generated by the RAG recombinase, Cas9 endonuclease or Zinc Finger Endonuclease.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) activate a canonical DNA damage response, including highly conserved cell cycle checkpoint pathways that prevent cells with DSBs from progressing through the cell cycle. In developing B cells, pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signals initiate immunoglobulin light (Igl) chain gene assembly, leading to RAG-mediated DNA DSBs. The pre-BCR also promotes cell cycle entry, which could cause aberrant DSB repair and genome instability in pre-B cells. Here, we show that RAG DSBs inhibit pre-BCR signals through the ATM- and NF-?B2-dependent induction of SPIC, a hematopoietic-specific transcriptional repressor. SPIC inhibits expression of the SYK tyrosine kinase and BLNK adaptor, resulting in suppression of pre-BCR signaling. This regulatory circuit prevents the pre-BCR from inducing additional Igl chain gene rearrangements and driving pre-B cells with RAG DSBs into cycle. We propose that pre-B cells toggle between pre-BCR signals and a RAG DSB-dependent checkpoint to maintain genome stability while iteratively assembling Igl chain genes.
Project description:DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR) is initiated by CtIP/MRN-mediated DNA end resection to maintain genome integrity. SAMHD1 is a dNTP triphosphohydrolase, which restricts HIV-1 infection, and mutations are associated with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and cancer. We show that SAMHD1 has a dNTPase-independent function in promoting DNA end resection to facilitate DSB repair by HR. SAMHD1 deficiency or Vpx-mediated degradation causes hypersensitivity to DSB-inducing agents, and SAMHD1 is recruited to DSBs. SAMHD1 complexes with CtIP via a conserved C-terminal domain and recruits CtIP to DSBs to facilitate end resection and HR. Significantly, a cancer-associated mutant with impaired CtIP interaction, but not dNTPase-inactive SAMHD1, fails to rescue the end resection impairment of SAMHD1 depletion. Our findings define a dNTPase-independent function for SAMHD1 in HR-mediated DSB repair by facilitating CtIP accrual to promote DNA end resection, providing insight into how SAMHD1 promotes genome integrity.
Project description:Topoisomerases class II (topoII) cleave and re-ligate the DNA double helix to allow the passage of an intact DNA strand through it. Chemotherapeutic drugs such as etoposide target topoII, interfere with the normal enzymatic cleavage/re-ligation reaction and create a DNA double-strand break (DSB) with the enzyme covalently bound to the 5'-end of the DNA. Such DSBs are repaired by one of the two major DSB repair pathways, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination. However, prior to repair, the covalently bound topoII needs to be removed from the DNA end, a process requiring the MRX complex and ctp1 in fission yeast. CtIP, the mammalian ortholog of ctp1, is known to promote homologous recombination by resecting DSB ends. Here, we show that human cells arrested in G0/G1 repair etoposide-induced DSBs by NHEJ and, surprisingly, require the MRN complex (the ortholog of MRX) and CtIP. CtIP's function for repairing etoposide-induced DSBs by NHEJ in G0/G1 requires the Thr-847 but not the Ser-327 phosphorylation site, both of which are needed for resection during HR. This finding establishes that CtIP promotes NHEJ of etoposide-induced DSBs during G0/G1 phase with an end-processing function that is distinct to its resection function.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated by the recombination activating gene (RAG) endonuclease in all developing lymphocytes as they assemble antigen receptor genes. DNA cleavage by RAG occurs only at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and generates two hairpin-sealed DNA (coding) ends that require nucleolytic opening before their repair by classical non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Although there are several cellular nucleases that could perform this function, only the Artemis nuclease is able to do so efficiently. Here, in vivo, we show that in murine cells the histone protein H2AX prevents nucleases other than Artemis from processing hairpin-sealed coding ends; in the absence of H2AX, CtIP can efficiently promote the hairpin opening and resection of DNA ends generated by RAG cleavage. This CtIP-mediated resection is inhibited by ?-H2AX and by MDC-1 (mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1), which binds to ?-H2AX in chromatin flanking DNA DSBs. Moreover, the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase activates antagonistic pathways that modulate this resection. CtIP DNA end resection activity is normally limited to cells at post-replicative stages of the cell cycle, in which it is essential for homology-mediated repair. In G1-phase lymphocytes, DNA ends that are processed by CtIP are not efficiently joined by classical NHEJ and the joints that do form frequently use micro-homologies and show significant chromosomal deletions. Thus, H2AX preserves the structural integrity of broken DNA ends in G1-phase lymphocytes, thereby preventing these DNA ends from accessing repair pathways that promote genomic instability.
Project description:Lymphocyte antigen receptor gene assembly occurs through the process of V(D)J recombination, which is initiated when the RAG endonuclease introduces DNA DSBs at two recombining gene segments to form broken DNA coding end pairs and signal end pairs. These paired DNA ends are joined by proteins of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway of DSB repair to form a coding joint and signal joint, respectively. RAG DSBs are generated in G1-phase developing lymphocytes, where they activate the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) and DNA-PKcs kinases to orchestrate diverse cellular DNA damage responses including DSB repair. Paradoxically, although Atm and DNA-PKcs both function during coding joint formation, Atm appears to be dispensible for signal joint formation; and although some studies have revealed an activity for DNA-PKcs during signal joint formation, others have not. Here we show that Atm and DNA-PKcs have overlapping catalytic activities that are required for chromosomal signal joint formation and for preventing the aberrant resolution of signal ends as potentially oncogenic chromosomal translocations.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly hazardous for genome integrity, because failure to repair these lesions can lead to genomic instability. DSBs can arise accidentally at unpredictable locations into the genome, but they are also normal intermediates in meiotic recombination. Moreover, the natural ends of linear chromosomes resemble DSBs. Although intrachromosomal DNA breaks are potent stimulators of the DNA damage response, the natural ends of linear chromosomes are packaged into protective structures called telomeres that suppress DNA repair/recombination activities. Although DSBs and telomeres are functionally different, they both undergo 5'-3' nucleolytic degradation of DNA ends, a process known as resection. The resulting 3'-single-stranded DNA overhangs enable repair of DSBs by homologous recombination (HR), whereas they allow the action of telomerase at telomeres. The molecular activities required for DSB and telomere end resection are similar, indicating that the initial steps of HR and telomerase-mediated elongation are related. Resection of both DSBs and telomeres must be tightly regulated in time and space to ensure genome stability and cell survival.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most lethal types of DNA damage and frequently cause genome instability. Sequencing-based methods for mapping DSBs have been developed but they allow measurement only of relative frequencies of DSBs between loci, which limits our understanding of the physiological relevance of detected DSBs. Here we propose quantitative DSB sequencing (qDSB-Seq), a method providing both DSB frequencies per cell and their precise genomic coordinates. We induce spike-in DSBs by a site-specific endonuclease and use them to quantify detected DSBs (labeled, e.g., using i-BLESS). Utilizing qDSB-Seq, we determine numbers of DSBs induced by a radiomimetic drug and replication stress, and reveal two orders of magnitude differences in DSB frequencies. We also measure absolute frequencies of Top1-dependent DSBs at natural replication fork barriers. qDSB-Seq is compatible with various DSB labeling methods in different organisms and allows accurate comparisons of absolute DSB frequencies across samples.