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Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 8 salivary shedding in HIV positive men who have sex with men with controlled and uncontrolled plasma HIV viremia: a 24-month longitudinal study.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:This longitudinal study described Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA, Epstein-Barr (EBV) DNA and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA asymptomatic salivary shedding in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to 1-analyze frequency and persistence of herpesvirus shedding, 2-correlate herpesvirus positivity and HIV viroimmunological parameters and 3-assess the association between HIV-RNA suppression and herpesvirus replication. METHODS:Herpesvirus DNA was tested with an in-house real-time PCR in 2 salivary samples obtained at T0 and T1 (24 months after T0). HIV-RNA was evaluated in the 24 months prior to T0 and in the 24 months prior to T1; MSM were classified as successfully suppressed patients (SSPs), viremic patients (VPs) and partially suppressed patients (PSPs). EBV DNA load was classified as low viral load (EBV-LVL, value ≤10,000 copies/ml) and as high viral load (EBV-HVL,> 10,000 copies/ml). Mann-Whitney U test tested the difference of the median between groups of patients. Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test compared categorical variables according to the frequencies. Kruskal-Wallis test compared continuous data distributions between levels of categorical variables. RESULTS:Ninety-two patients (median CD4+ count 575 cells/mm3, median nadir 330 CD4+ cells/mm3) were included: 40 SSPs,33 VPs and 19 PSPs. The more frequently single virus detected was EBV, both at T0 and at T1 (in 67.5 and 70% of SSPs, in 84.8 and 81.8% of VPs and in 68.4 and 73.7% of SPSs) and the most frequently multiple positivity detected was EBV + HHV-8. At T1, the percentage of CMV positivity was higher in VPs than in SSPs (36.4% vs 5%, p < 0.001), the combined shedding of HHV-8, CMV and EBV was present only in VPs (15.1%, p = 0.01 respect to SSPs) and no VPs confirmed the absence of shedding found at T0 (vs 17.5% of SSPs, p = 0.01). EBV-HVL was more frequent in VPs than in SSPs: 78.6% at T0 (p = 0.03) and 88.9% at T1 (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:The relationship between uncontrolled plasma HIV viremia and CMV, EBV, and HHV-8 shedding is multifaceted, as demonstrated by the focused association with EBV DNA load and not with its frequency and by the persistent combined detection of two oncogenic viruses as EBV and HHV-8 regardless of HIV virological control.

SUBMITTER: Basso M 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6300014 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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