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Effectiveness of citrulline and N-carbamoyl glutamate as arginine precursors on reproductive performance in mammals: A systematic review.

ABSTRACT: The use of functional nutrients has been proposed to reduce the occurrence of intrauterine growth retardation in animals at birth in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to verify the effectiveness of citrulline and N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) dietary supplementation as arginine precursors for mammalian species, and the effects on fetal development through a systematic review. The search for studies was performed during August 2018 in the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus databases. The literature search was conducted using "arginine precursor", "citrulline", or "N-carbamylglutamate" as keywords, combined with "gestation", "pregnancy", "fetus", "newborn", or "reproduction". Studies in which arginine precursors were evaluated in gestating mammals and their effects on parameters related to the intrauterine development of the conceptus were selected. Of 1,379 articles, 18 were selected, primarily based on the title and the abstract. Supplementation with NCG (0.5 g to 2 g/kg of feed) increased maternal plasma arginine concentrations in all studies that evaluated this variable. Fetal number increased in 55.56% of the studies that evaluated it, and fetal weight increased in the majority (62.5%) of the studies evaluating this variable. By supplementing citrulline, only fetal weight was improved, with an increase in maternal plasma arginine in 40% of the studies. In conclusion, N-carbamoyl glutamate seems to be an arginine precursor more effective than L-citrulline during gestation; however, both precursors, beside L-Arginine, should be evaluated in similar conditions to confirm the existence of specific particularities such as periods and levels of supplementation, which need to be considered for different species of animals. The supplementation of NCG increases arginine concentrations in maternal plasma, thus improving mammalian reproductive efficiency and fetal development, mainly by promoting higher birth weight.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC6301651 | BioStudies | 2018-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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