Multimodality Imaging of a Rare Case of Bronchogenic Cyst Presenting as New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in a Young Woman.
ABSTRACT: Highlights•Bronchogenic cyst is a rare cause of new-onset atrial fibrillation.•Cysts are often discovered incidentally on diagnostic imaging.•Multimodality imaging is critical for effectively diagnosing bronchogenic cysts.
Project description:Bronchogenic and other duplication cysts are congenital abnormalities that can present at any age including adulthood years. They are usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on radiological imaging of the chest. They are commonly treated by surgical resection. Recently, endobronchial ultrasound has been used to assist in diagnosis when radiologic imaging is not definitive. Endobronchial ultrasound has been used rarely to drain infected cysts, a rare complication of the bronchogenic cyst. We present a unique case of an infected large bronchogenic cyst treated with endobronchial ultrasound drainage combined with conservative medical therapy. We also review the scarce available literature describing such an approach and its potential complications and add recommendations based on our experience in managing these anomalies.
Project description:Bronchogenic cysts originate from abnormal budding of the tracheal diverticula during the embryological period. Inaccuracy in the process of growing of the ventral foregut will give rise to bronchogenic cyst. Scapular bronchogenic cyst is an extremely rare form of this anomaly. A three years old boy suffered for 2 years with left sided suprascapular cystic lesion which was gradually increasing in size. The swelling was 4 × 3 cm in size and non tender. The cyst was evaluated by CT scan that showed complex cystic lesion over the left scapular spine. Total excision of the cyst was done and histopathology showed cutaneous bronchogenic cyst. The proposed mechanism for such cutaneous lesion is that the accessory buds from the tracheobronchial tree/primitive foregut migrated from the thorax in an aberrant manner to lie in periscapular positions. The definitive treatment of scapular lesions is total surgical excision. The final diagnosis is based on the histopathological findings in the majority of cases.
Project description:A 71-year-old woman presented with dysphagia and acute shortness of breath. Surgical history included a prior thoracotomy overseas for a bronchogenic mesothelial cyst 19 years before. Computed tomography demonstrated a mass within the posterior mediastinum measuring 69 × 70 × 74 mm. A median sternotomy was performed, and after removal of the cyst, repair of the left atrium and pulmonary vessels was undertaken due to the invading nature of the cyst. Intrapericardial bronchogenic cysts are a rare form of congenital cysts arising from the primitive foregut. The cardiac primordia are in close proximity to the foregut and primitive tracheobronchial tree, and thus, abnormal budding of the tracheobronchial tree can arise in a myocardial location. Irrespective of the method of approach in redo surgery, complete resection must be performed in order to minimize the chance of recurrence, relieve symptoms, eliminate risk of infection, and prevent malignant degeneration.
Project description:We present a case of symptomatic complex bronchopulmonary foregut malformation (BPFM), including extralobar pulmonary sequestration and a bronchogenic cyst, in the left anterior mediastinum of a 15-year-old boy. Preoperative computed tomography showed a cystic mass with heterogeneous enhancement of adjacent soft tissue components and pleural effusion. We suggested the infected bronchogenic cyst as the first impression. However, pathological examination after surgical resection revealed extralobar pulmonary sequestration and a bronchogenic cyst with unusual manifestation, which was located in the left upper hemithorax and supplied by the pulmonary artery. In patients presenting with a cystic mass with features of inflammation or infection and collateral vasculature, the possibility of a complex bronchopulmonary foregut malformation should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Project description:Left ventricular clefts (LVCs) are defined as deep, tight blood-filled invaginations within the ventricular myocardium localized predominantly in the basal posterior septum and LV-free wall. Usually, they are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered during diagnostic imaging procedures. LVC has been reported both in healthy volunteers and in patients affected with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Clinicians should be able to recognize LVC and to distinguish this entity from other myocardial wall defects with different pathological profile and clinical significance. We describe a case of multimodality imaging of multiple septal myocardial clefts in an asymptomatic teenager.
Project description:Pancreatic cysts are common and often pose a management dilemma, because some cysts are precancerous, whereas others have little risk of developing into invasive cancers. We used supervised machine learning techniques to develop a comprehensive test, CompCyst, to guide the management of patients with pancreatic cysts. The test is based on selected clinical features, imaging characteristics, and cyst fluid genetic and biochemical markers. Using data from 436 patients with pancreatic cysts, we trained CompCyst to classify patients as those who required surgery, those who should be routinely monitored, and those who did not require further surveillance. We then tested CompCyst in an independent cohort of 426 patients, with histopathology used as the gold standard. We found that clinical management informed by the CompCyst test was more accurate than the management dictated by conventional clinical and imaging criteria alone. Application of the CompCyst test would have spared surgery in more than half of the patients who underwent unnecessary resection of their cysts. CompCyst therefore has the potential to reduce the patient morbidity and economic costs associated with current standard-of-care pancreatic cyst management practices.
Project description:Here, we report the case of a young patient admitted to the emergency department because of abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a mass within her right heart. Through serial multimodality imaging testing, including computed tomography, three-dimensional (2D)- and three-dimensional echocardiography, as well as cardiac magnetic resonance, the diagnosis of cardiac involvement in the course of <i>Echinococcus granulosus</i> infection was hypothesized.
Project description:Retroperitoneal cysts are not common. Primary retroperitoneal cysts are essentially benign in nature. Mostly, they are detected incidentally. At times, they may attain a huge size and may present with large abdominal lump. In our case, a 55-year-old man had a left-sided large idiopathic retroperitoneal cyst, for which complete curative excision was performed.
Project description:Multimodality optical imaging probes have emerged as powerful tools that improve detection sensitivity and accuracy, important in disease diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we focus on recent developments of optical fluorescence imaging (OFI) probe integration with other imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and photoacoustic imaging (PAI). The imaging technologies are briefly described in order to introduce the strengths and limitations of each techniques and the need for further multimodality optical imaging probe development. The emphasis of this account is placed on how design strategies are currently implemented to afford physicochemically and biologically compatible multimodality optical fluorescence imaging probes. We also present studies that overcame intrinsic disadvantages of each imaging technique by multimodality approach with improved detection sensitivity and accuracy.
Project description:Coronary artery fistulas are rare congenital anomalies usually discovered incidentally on imaging studies. Coronary artery pseudoaneurysms are unusual complications of coronary artery fistulas, which can be due to atherosclerosis, inflammatory, traumatic or iatrogenic causes. We present a case of a 55 year old female with no known atherosclerotic risk factors, history of trauma or connective tissue disease referred because of recurrent palpitations. Work ups revealed a cardiac mass with an initial assessment of pericardial cyst. A multi modality approach of two dimensional echocardiography with Doppler studies, multidetector computed tomography and coronary angiogram revealed coronary artery fistula draining into a pericardial mass. The patient underwent surgical excision of the mass and ligation of the feeding vessel. Histopathology revealed features suggestive of a pseudoaneurysm. Postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged stable and improved. Coronary artery fistula complicated by pseudoaneurysm is a rare clinical entity especially in patients without history of trauma or other risk factors. It can have an unusual presentation which can confound the diagnosis. Multimodality imaging is essential and adjunctive in order to determine a conclusive assessment. <Learning objective: Coronary artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to a congenital coronary artery fistula is an unusual cardiovascular pathology and can present as a rare diagnostic challenge for the clinician. This case emphasizes the importance of meticulous integration of both clinical assessment and complementary multimodality imaging approaches to better define the best therapeutic plan and facilitation of definitive surgical management.>.