Tyro3 is a podocyte protective factor in glomerular disease.
ABSTRACT: Our previous work demonstrated a protective role of protein S in early diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Protein S exerts antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects through the activation of TYRO3, AXL, and MER (TAM) receptors. Among the 3 TAM receptors, we showed that the biological effects of protein S were mediated largely by TYRO3 in diabetic kidneys. Our data now show that TYRO3 mRNA expression is highly enriched in human glomeruli and that TYRO3 protein is expressed in podocytes. Interestingly, glomerular TYRO3 mRNA expression increased in mild DKD but was suppressed in progressive DKD, as well as in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Functionally, morpholino-mediated knockdown of tyro3 altered glomerular filtration barrier development in zebrafish larvae, and genetic ablation of Tyro3 in murine models of DKD and Adriamycin-induced nephropathy (ADRN) worsened albuminuria and glomerular injury. Conversely, the induction of TYRO3 overexpression specifically in podocytes significantly attenuated albuminuria and kidney injury in mice with DKD, ADRN, and HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Mechanistically, TYRO3 expression was suppressed by activation of TNF-α/NF-κB pathway, which may contribute to decreased TYRO3 expression in progressive DKD and FSGS, and TYRO3 signaling conferred antiapoptotic effects through the activation of AKT in podocytes. In conclusion, TYRO3 plays a critical role in maintaining normal podocyte function and may be a potential new drug target to treat glomerular diseases.
Project description:Using the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network Consortium data set and other publicly available transcriptomic data sets, we identified retinoic acid receptor responder protein 1 (RARRES1) as a gene whose expression positively correlated with renal function decline in human glomerular disease. The glomerular expression of RARRES1, which is largely restricted to podocytes, increased in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). TNF-? was a potent inducer of RARRES1 expression in cultured podocytes, and transcriptomic analysis showed the enrichment of cell death pathway genes with RARRES1 overexpression. The overexpression of RARRES1 indeed induced podocyte apoptosis in vitro. Notably, this effect was dependent on its cleavage in the extracellular domain, as the mutation of its cleavage site abolished the apoptotic effect. Mechanistically, the soluble RARRES1 was endocytosed and interacted with and inhibited RIO kinase 1 (RIOK1), resulting in p53 activation and podocyte apoptosis. In mice, podocyte-specific overexpression of RARRES1 resulted in marked glomerular injury and albuminuria, while the overexpression of RARRES1 cleavage mutant had no effect. Conversely, podocyte-specific knockdown of Rarres1 in mice ameliorated glomerular injury in the setting of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Our study demonstrates an important role and the mechanism of RARRES1 in podocyte injury in glomerular disease.
Project description:Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick, and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarly, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD), HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b) is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.
Project description:<b>Background</b> Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of ESRD in the United States, but the molecular mechanisms mediating the early stages of DN are unclear.<b>Methods</b> To assess global changes that occur in early diabetic kidneys and to identify proteins potentially involved in pathogenic pathways in DN progression, we performed proteomic analysis of diabetic and nondiabetic rat glomeruli. Protein S (PS) among the highly upregulated proteins in the diabetic glomeruli. PS exerts multiple biologic effects through the Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) receptors. Because increased activation of Axl by the PS homolog Gas6 has been implicated in DN progression, we further examined the role of PS in DN.<b>Results</b> In human kidneys, glomerular PS expression was elevated in early DN but suppressed in advanced DN. However, plasma PS concentrations did not differ between patients with DN and healthy controls. A prominent increase of PS expression also colocalized with the expression of podocyte markers in early diabetic kidneys. In cultured podocytes, high-glucose treatment elevated PS expression, and PS knockdown further enhanced the high-glucose-induced apoptosis. Conversely, PS overexpression in cultured podocytes dampened the high-glucose- and TNF-<i>?</i>-induced expression of proinflammatory mediators. Tyro3 receptor was upregulated in response to high glucose and mediated the anti-inflammatory response of PS. Podocyte-specific PS loss resulted in accelerated DN in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, whereas the transient induction of PS expression in glomerular cells <i>in vivo</i> attenuated albuminuria and podocyte loss in diabetic OVE26 mice.<b>Conclusions</b> Our results support a protective role of PS against glomerular injury in DN progression.
Project description:Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the single most common cause of albuminuria and end-stage kidney disease in the United States. We found increased expression of Wnt/?-catenin (Ctnnb1) pathway transcripts and proteins in glomeruli and podocytes of patients and mouse models of DKD. Mice with podocyte-specific expression of stabilized Ctnnb1 exhibited basement membrane abnormalities, albuminuria, and increased susceptibility to glomerular injury. Mice with podocyte-specific deletion of Ctnnb1 or podocyte-specific expression of the canonical Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk1) also showed increased susceptibility to DKD. Podocytes with stabilized Ctnnb1 were less motile and less adhesive to different matrices. Deletion of Ctnnb1 in cultured podocytes increased the expression of podocyte differentiation markers and enhanced cell motility; however, these cells were more susceptible to apoptosis. These results indicate that Wnt/Ctnnb1 signaling in podocytes plays a critical role in integrating cell adhesion, motility, cell death, and differentiation. Balanced Ctnnb1 expression is critical for glomerular filtration barrier maintenance.
Project description:Abstract Glomerular podocytes play a key role in proteinuric diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that cGMP signaling has podocyte protective effects. The major source of cGMP generation in podocytes is natriuretic peptides. The natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPRC) binds and degrades natriuretic peptides. As a result, NPRC inhibits natriuretic peptide‐induced cGMP generation. To enhance cGMP generation in podocytes, we blocked natriuretic peptide clearance using the specific NPRC ligand ANP(4‐23). We then studied the effects of NPRC blockade in both cultured podocytes and in a mouse transgenic (TG) model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) created in our laboratory. In this model, a single dose of the podocyte toxin puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) causes robust albuminuria in TG mice, but only mild disease in non‐TG animals. We found that natriuretic peptides protected cultured podocytes from PAN‐induced apoptosis, and that ANP(4‐23) enhanced natriuretic peptide‐induced cGMP generation in vivo. PAN‐induced heavy proteinuria in vehicle‐treated TG mice, and this increase in albuminuria was reduced by treatment with ANP(4‐23). Treatment with ANP(4‐23) also reduced the number of mice with glomerular injury and enhanced urinary cGMP excretion, but these differences were not statistically significant. Systolic BP was similar in vehicle and ANP(4‐23)‐treated mice. These data suggest that: 1. Pharmacologic blockade of NPRC may be useful for treating glomerular diseases such as FSGS, and 2. Treatment outcomes might be improved by optimizing NPRC blockade to inhibit natriuretic peptide clearance more effectively. The effects of blocking natriuretic peptide clearance from the circulation was examined in a mouse model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We found that blockade of the natriuretic clearance receptor protected glomerular podocytes from apoptosis and inhibited albuminuria in FSGS.
Project description:The main manifestations of nephrotic syndrome include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema, hyperlipidemia and lipiduria. Common causes of nephrotic syndrome are diabetic nephropathy, minimal change disease (MCD), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and membranous nephropathy. Among the primary glomerular diseases, MCD is usually sensitive to glucocorticoid treatment, whereas the other diseases show variable responses. Despite the identification of key structural proteins in the glomerular capillary loop which may contribute to defects in ultrafiltration, many of the disease mechanisms of nephrotic syndrome remain unresolved. In this study, we show that the glomerular expression of angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4), a secreted glycoprotein, is glucocorticoid sensitive and is highly upregulated in the serum and in podocytes in experimental models of MCD and in the human disease. Podocyte-specific transgenic overexpression of Angptl4 (NPHS2-Angptl4) in rats induced nephrotic-range, and selective, proteinuria (over 500-fold increase in albuminuria), loss of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) charge and foot process effacement, whereas transgenic expression specifically in the adipose tissue (aP2-Angptl4) resulted in increased circulating Angptl4, but no proteinuria. Angptl4(-/-) mice that were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or nephritogenic antisera developed markedly less proteinuria than did control mice. Angptl4 secreted from podocytes in some forms of nephrotic syndrome lacks normal sialylation. When we fed the sialic acid precursor N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) to NPHS2-Angptl4 transgenic rats it increased the sialylation of Angptl4 and decreased albuminuria by more than 40%. These results suggest that podocyte-secreted Angptl4 has a key role in nephrotic syndrome.
Project description:Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) is a primary kidney disease that is commonly associated with proteinuria and progressive loss of glomerular function, leading to development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). FSGS is characterized by podocyte injury and depletion and collapse of glomerular capillary segments. Progression of FSGS is associated with TGF-? activation in podocytes; however, it is not clear how TGF-? signaling promotes disease. Here, we determined that podocyte-specific activation of TGF-? signaling in transgenic mice and BALB/c mice with Adriamycin-induced glomerulosclerosis is associated with endothelin-1 (EDN1) release by podocytes, which mediates mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in adjacent endothelial cells via paracrine EDN1 receptor type A (EDNRA) activation. Endothelial dysfunction promoted podocyte apoptosis, and inhibition of EDNRA or scavenging of mitochondrial-targeted ROS prevented podocyte loss, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. We confirmed reciprocal crosstalk between podocytes and endothelial cells in a coculture system. Biopsies from patients with FSGS exhibited increased mitochondrial DNA damage, consistent with EDNRA-mediated glomerular endothelial mitochondrial oxidative stress. Our studies indicate that segmental glomerulosclerosis develops as a result of podocyte-endothelial crosstalk mediated by EDN1/EDNRA-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and suggest that targeting the reciprocal interaction between podocytes and endothelia may provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention in FSGS.
Project description:FSGS, the most common primary glomerular disorder causing ESRD, is a complex disease that is only partially understood. Progressive sclerosis is a hallmark of FSGS, and genetic tracing studies have shown that parietal epithelial cells participate in the formation of sclerotic lesions. The loss of podocytes triggers a focal activation of parietal epithelial cells, which subsequently form cellular adhesions with the capillary tuft. However, in the absence of intrinsic podocyte alterations, the origin of the pathogenic signal that triggers parietal epithelial cell recruitment remains elusive. In this study, investigation of the role of the endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 (EPAS1), a regulatory <i>?</i> subunit of the hypoxia-inducible factor complex, during angiotensin II-induced hypertensive nephropathy provided novel insights into FSGS pathogenesis in the absence of a primary podocyte abnormality. We infused angiotensin II into endothelial-selective <i>Epas1</i> knockout mice and their littermate controls. Although the groups presented with identical high BP, endothelial-specific <i>Epas1</i> gene deletion accentuated albuminuria with severe podocyte lesions and recruitment of pathogenic parietal glomerular epithelial cells. These lesions and dysfunction of the glomerular filtration barrier were associated with FSGS in endothelial <i>Epas1</i>-deficient mice only. These results indicate that endothelial EPAS1 has a global protective role during glomerular hypertensive injuries without influencing the hypertensive effect of angiotensin II. Furthermore, these findings provide proof of principle that endothelial-derived signaling can trigger FSGS and illustrate the potential importance of the EPAS1 endothelial transcription factor in secondary FSGS.
Project description:High levels of circulating TNF and its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, predict the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), but their contribution to organ damage in DKD remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the function of local and systemic TNF in podocyte injury. We cultured human podocytes with sera collected from DKD patients, who displayed elevated TNF levels, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) patients, whose TNF levels resembled those of healthy patients. Exogenous TNF administration or local TNF expression was equally sufficient to cause free cholesterol-dependent apoptosis in podocytes by acting through a dual mechanism that required a reduction in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated (ABCA1-mediated) cholesterol efflux and reduced cholesterol esterification by sterol-O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1). TNF-induced albuminuria was aggravated in mice with podocyte-specific ABCA1 deficiency and was partially prevented by cholesterol depletion with cyclodextrin. TNF-stimulated free cholesterol-dependent apoptosis in podocytes was mediated by nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1). ABCA1 overexpression or cholesterol depletion was sufficient to reduce albuminuria in mice with podocyte-specific NFATc1 activation. Our data implicate an NFATc1/ABCA1-dependent mechanism in which local TNF is sufficient to cause free cholesterol-dependent podocyte injury irrespective of TNF, TNFR1, or TNFR2 serum levels.
Project description:Podocyte injury is a common hallmark in various glomerular diseases. The level of LRRC55 was increased in podocytes of patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), diabetic nephropathy (DN), and membranous nephropathy (MN). Upregulated LRRC55 and increased intracellular Ca2+ led to BK channel activation and the loss of intracellular potassium, resulting in apoptosome formation and caspase-3 activation in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated podocytes. Knockout of Lrrc55 or the BK channel prevented the BK current and ameliorated podocyte injury in Ang II-treated mice. Upstream, NFATc3 regulated the expression of LRRC55. Increased LRRC55 expression in podocytes was also evident in animal models of FSGS, DN, and MN. Treatment with losartan or LRRC55 siRNA suppressed LRRC55 expression, prevented BK channel activation, and attenuated podocyte injury in animal models of FSGS, DN, and MN. In conclusion, upregulated LRRC55 promotes BK channel activation and aggravates cell injury in podocytes in FSGS, DN, and MN. LRRC55 inhibition may represent a new therapeutic approach for podocyte injury.