Identification of a novel nonsense mutation in kyphoscoliosis peptidase gene in an Iranian patient with myofibrillar myopathy.
ABSTRACT: Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are rare genetic and slowly progressive neuromuscular disorders. Several pathogenic mutations have been reported in MFM-related genes including DES, CRYAB, MYOT, LDB3 or ZASP, FLNC, BAG3, FHL1 and DNAJB6. Although MFMs is commonly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, the inheritance pattern and novel mutated genes are not thoroughly elucidated in some cases. Here, we report discovery of a novel nonsense mutation in a 29-year-old Iranian male patient with motor disorders and deformity in his lower limbs. His parents are second cousins. Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy as initial genetic diagnosis was ruled out. Whole exome sequencing using NGS on Illumina HiSeq4000 platform was performed to identify the disease and possible mutated gene(s). Our data analysis identified a homozygous nonsense unreported c.C415T (p.R139X) variant on kyphoscoliosis peptidase (KY) gene (NM_178554: exon4). Sanger sequencing of this mutation has been performed for his other related family members. Sequencing and segregation analysis was confirmed the NGS results and autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of the disease.
Project description:Myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs) are an expanding and increasingly recognized group of neuromuscular disorders caused by mutations in DES, CRYAB, MYOT, and ZASP. The latest gene to be associated with MFM was FLNC; a p.W2710X mutation in the 24th immunoglobulin-like repeat of filamin C was shown to be the cause of a distinct type of MFM in several German families. We studied an International cohort of 46 patients from 39 families with clinically and myopathologically confirmed MFM, in which DES, CRYAB, MYOT, and ZASP mutations have been excluded. In patients from an unrelated family a 12-nucleotide deletion (c.2997_3008del) in FLNC resulting in a predicted in-frame four-residue deletion (p.Val930_Thr933del) in the seventh repeat of filamin C was identified. Both affected family members, mother and daughter, but not unrelated control individuals, carried the p.Val930_Thr933del mutation. The mutation is transcribed and, based on myopathological features and immunoblot analysis, it leads to an accumulation of dysfunctional filamin C in the myocytes. The study results suggest that the novel p.Val930_Thr933del mutation in filamin C is the cause of MFM but also indicate that filamin C mutations are a comparatively rare cause of MFM.
Project description:Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is an inherited heterogeneous hemolytic anemia, characterized by the presence of spherical-shaped erythrocytes on the peripheral blood smear, and the clinical manifestation ranges from asymptomatic to severely anemic, and transfusion-dependent patients. Mutations in at least five genes (ANK1, EPB42, SLC4A1, SPTA1, and SPTB) have been identified so far, and mutations of ANK1 gene are responsible for the majority of all HS cases. In this study, targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to identify a novel de novo ANK1 c.4276C>T (p.R1426*) nonsense mutation in a Chinese family with a patient of HS who was diagnosed clinically with only 10% spherical-shaped erythrocytes in the peripheral blood and received splenectomy. Sanger sequencing further confirmed that only the patient carried heterozygous ANK1 c.4276C>T nonsense mutation, while none of his parents or his young brother carried this mutation. Moreover, consistent with the genetic findings, the anemia was ameliorated after splenectomy. RBCs increased from 2.74 × 1012/L pre-surgery to 4.76 × 1012/L one month post-surgery, and hemoglobin increased from 66g/L to 126g/L respectively. This is the first report of ANK1 c.4276C>T (p.R1426*) heterozygous nonsense mutation responsible for HS. Our results also demonstrate that targeted NGS may provide a powerful approach for rapid genetic test of HS.
Project description:Background:The next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly facilitated genomic and transcriptomic studies, contributing significantly in expanding the current knowledge on genome and transcriptome. However, the continually evolving variety of sequencing platforms, protocols and analytical pipelines has led the research community to focus on cross-platform evaluation and standardization. As a NGS pioneer in China, the Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) has announced its own NGS platform designated as BGISEQ-500, since 2016. The capability of this platform in large-scale DNA sequencing and small RNA analysis has been already evaluated. However, the comparative performance of BGISEQ-500 platform in transcriptome analysis remains yet to be elucidated. The Illumina series, a leading sequencing platform in China's sequencing market, would be a preferable reference to evaluate new platforms. Methods:To this end, we describe a cross-platform comparative study between BGISEQ-500 and Illumina HiSeq4000 for analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana WT (Col 0) transcriptome. The key parameters in RNA sequencing and transcriptomic data processing were assessed in biological replicate experiments, using aforesaid platforms. Results:The results from the two platforms BGISEQ-500 and Illumina HiSeq4000 shared high concordance in both inter- (correlation, 0.88-0.93) and intra-platform (correlation, 0.95-0.98) comparison for gene quantification, identification of differentially expressed genes and alternative splicing events. However, the two platforms yielded highly variable interpretation results for single nucleotide polymorphism and insertion-deletion analysis. Conclusion:The present case study provides a comprehensive reference dataset to validate the capability of BGISEQ-500 enabling it to be established as a competitive and reliable platform in plant transcriptome analysis.
Project description:Alport syndrome (AS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous, progressive nephropathy caused by mutations in COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5, which encode type IV collagen. The large sizes of these genes and the absence of mutation hot spots have complicated mutational analysis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches. Here, in order to design a rapid and effective method for the genetic diagnosis of AS, we developed a strategy by utilizing targeted capture associated with next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 simultaneously in 20 AS patients. All the coding exons and flanking sequences of COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 from the probands were captured followed by HiSeq 2500 sequencing. Candidate mutations were validated by classic Sanger sequencing and quantitative (q)PCR. Sixteen patients (16/20, 75%) showed X-linked inheritance, and four patients (4/20, 20%) showed autosomal recessive inheritance. None of the individuals had autosomal-dominant AS. Fifteen novel mutations, 6 known mutations, and 2 novel fragment deletions were detected by targeted capture and NGS. Of these novel mutations, 12, 3, and 2 mutations were detected in COL4A5, COL4A4, and COL4A3, respectively. A comparison of the clinical manifestations caused by different types of mutations in COL4A5 suggested that nonsense mutations and glycine substitution by an acidic amino acid are more severe than the other missense mutations. Pathogenic mutations were detected in 20 patients. These novel mutations can expand the genotypic spectrum of AS. Our results demonstrated that targeted capture and NGS technology are effective in the genetic diagnosis of AS.
Project description:Background: Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is a rare congenital developmental disorder with highly variable clinical phenotypes in autosomal dominant inheritance. The aim of this study is to identify disease-causing mutations in a Chinese family with predominant coloboma of choroid. Case report: We described a family (a mother and her daughter) with unclear clinical diagnosis. The mother (proband) presented with bilateral coloboma of choroid, whereas her daughter had a relatively severe phenotype and presented with larger bilateral choroid coloboma and high-vaulted arch. We applied the next generation sequencing (NGS) panel and analyzed 776 genes related to inherited ocular disorders on the proband. Four candidate heterozygous variants in four genes, respectively, were detected in the proband. Validation of these variants were subsequently performed in the family using Sanger sequencing. Among these variants, a novel nonsense mutation c.912C>A, p.(Cys304*) (NM_001042425.2) which in exon 6 of the conserved helix-span-helix domain in TFAP2A results in a premature termination codon. It may trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Both the affected mother and daughter had this variant, whereas it was absent in the asymptomatic father. Together with the silicon tools and clinical features, we concluded that the variant c.912C>A, p.(Cys304*), was the second reported nonsense mutation in TFAP2A gene, which was the disease-causing mutation of the family. Conclusion: There are many hereditary diseases accompanied by ocular anomalies. For instance, BOFS, patients with atypical features are always at risk of being under-diagnosed. NGS is a powerful method to identify the genetic cause and improve genetic counseling for less clarified hereditary ocular diseases.
Project description:Background. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common congenital heart defect with increased prevalence of aortic dilatation and dissection. BAV has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. BAV has been described as an isolated trait or associated with other clinical manifestations in syndromic conditions. Identification of a syndromic condition in a BAV patient is clinically relevant in order to personalize indication to aortic surgery. We aimed to point out how genetic diagnosis by next-generation sequencing (NGS) can improve management of a patient with complex BAV clinical picture. Methods and Results. We describe a 45-year-old Caucasian male with BAV, thoracic aortic root and ascending aorta dilatation, and connective features evocative but inconclusive for clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS). Targeted (91 genes) NGS was used. Proband genetic variants were investigated in first-degree relatives. Proband carried 5 rare variants in 4 genes: FBN1(p.Asn542Ser and p.Lys2460Arg), NOTCH1(p.Val1739Met), LTBP1(p.Arg1330Gln), and TGFBR3(p.Arg423Trp). The two FBN1 variants were inherited in cis by the mother, showing systemic features evocative of MFS, but with a milder phenotype than that observed in the proband. Careful clinical observation along with the presence of the FBN1 variants allowed diagnosis of MFS in the proband and in his mother. NOTCH1 variant was found in mother and brother, not exhibiting BAV, thus not definitely supporting/excluding association with BAV. Interestingly, the proband, his brother and father, all showing root dilatation, and his sister, with upper range aortic root dimension, were carriers of a TGFBR3 variant. LTBP1 might also modulate the vascular phenotype. Conclusions. Our results underline the usefulness of NGS together with family evaluation in diagnosis of patients with monogenic traits and overlapping clinical manifestations due to contribution of the same genes and/or presence of comorbidities determined by different genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hereditary hearing loss is one of the most common heterogeneous disorders, and genetic variants that can cause hearing loss have been identified in over sixty genes. Most of these hearing loss genes have been detected using classical genetic methods, typically starting with linkage analysis in large families with hereditary hearing loss. However, these classical strategies are not well suited for mutation analysis in smaller families who have insufficient genetic information. METHODS: Eighty known hearing loss genes were selected and simultaneously sequenced by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 8 Korean families with autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. RESULTS: Five mutations in known hearing loss genes, including 1 nonsense and 4 missense mutations, were identified in 5 different genes (ACTG1, MYO1F, DIAPH1, POU4F3 and EYA4), and the genotypes for these mutations were consistent with the autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of hearing loss in each family. No mutational hot-spots were revealed in these Korean families. CONCLUSION: Targeted NGS allowed for the detection of pathogenic mutations in affected individuals who were not candidates for classical genetic studies. This report is the first documenting the effective use of an NGS technique to detect pathogenic mutations that underlie hearing loss in an East Asian population. Using this NGS technique to establish a database of common mutations in Korean patients with hearing loss and further data accumulation will contribute to the early diagnosis and fundamental therapies for hereditary hearing loss.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The etiology of conduction disturbances necessitating permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation is often unknown, although familial aggregation of PPM (faPPM) suggests a possible genetic basis. We developed a pan-cardiovascular next generation sequencing (NGS) panel to genetically characterize a selected cohort of faPPM. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We designed and validated a custom NGS panel targeting the coding and splicing regions of 246 genes with involvement in cardiac pathogenicity. We enrolled 112 PPM patients and selected nine (8%) with faPPM to be analyzed by NGS. RESULTS:Our NGS panel covers 95% of the intended target with an average of 229x read depth at a minimum of 15-fold depth, reaching a SNP true positive rate of 98%. The faPPM patients presented with isolated cardiac conduction disease (ICCD) or sick sinus syndrome (SSS) without overt structural heart disease or identifiable secondary etiology. Three patients (33.3%) had heterozygous deleterious variants previously reported in autosomal dominant cardiac diseases including CCD: LDB3 (p.D117N) and TRPM4 (p.G844D) variants in patient 4; TRPM4 (p.G844D) and ABCC9 (p.V734I) variants in patient 6; and SCN5A (p.T220I) and APOB (p.R3527Q) variants in patient 7. CONCLUSION:FaPPM occurred in 8% of our PPM clinic population. The employment of massive parallel sequencing for a large selected panel of cardiovascular genes identified a high percentage (33.3%) of the faPPM patients with deleterious variants previously reported in autosomal dominant cardiac diseases, suggesting that genetic variants may play a role in faPPM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A causal genetic mutation is found in 40% of families with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), leaving a large percentage of families genetically unsolved. This prevents adequate counseling and clear recommendations in these families. We aim to identify novel genes or modifiers associated with DCM. METHODS:We performed computational ranking of human genes based on coexpression with a predefined set of genes known to be associated with DCM, which allowed us to prioritize gene candidates for their likelihood of being involved in DCM. Top candidates will be checked for variants in the available whole-exome sequencing data of 142 DCM patients. RNA was isolated from cardiac biopsies to investigate gene expression. RESULTS:PDLIM5 was classified as the top candidate. An interesting heterozygous variant (189_190delinsGG) was found in a DCM patient with a known pathogenic truncating TTN-variant. The PDLIM5 loss-of-function (LoF) variant affected all cardiac-specific isoforms of PDLIM5 and no LoF variants were detected in the same region in a control cohort of 26,000 individuals. RNA expression of PDLIM5 and its direct interactors (MYOT, LDB3, and MYOZ2) was increased in cardiac tissue of this patient, indicating a possible compensatory mechanism. The PDLIM5 variant cosegregated with the TTN-variant and the phenotype, leading to a high disease penetrance in this family. A second patient was an infant with a homozygous 10 kb-deletion of exon 2 in PDLIM5 resulting in early-onset cardiac disease, showing the importance of PDLIM5 in cardiac function. CONCLUSIONS:Heterozygous PDLIM5 variants are rare and therefore will not have a major contribution in DCM. Although they likely play a role in disease development as this gene plays a major role in contracting cardiomyocytes and homozygous variants lead to early-onset cardiac disease. Other environmental and/or genetic factors are probably necessary to unveil the cardiac phenotype in PDLIM5 mutation carriers.
Project description:NGS-derived liver transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) to microarray and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR) methods and to evaluate protocols for optimal high-throughput data analysis Overall design: We analyzed mRNA profiles in liver of Wild or Ndrg3-deleted (exon4) in C57BL/6 mice