The Therapeutic Effect of STAT3 Signaling-Suppressed MSC on Pain and Articular Cartilage Damage in a Rat Model of Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis.
ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that induces pain, cartilage deformation, and joint inflammation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential therapeutic agents for treatment of OA. However, MSC therapy can cause excessive inflammation. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) modulates secretion of many proinflammatory cytokines. Experimental OA was induced by intra-articular (IA) injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) to the right knee of rats. MSCs from OA patients (OA-MSCs) were treated with STA21, a small molecule that blocks STAT3 signaling, by IA or intravenous (IV) injection after MIA injection. Pain severity was quantified by assessment of secondary tactile allodynia using the von Frey assessment test. Cartilage degradation was measured by microcomputed tomography image analysis, histological analysis, and the Mankin score. Protein and gene expression was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. MSCs increased production of proinflammatory cytokines under inflammatory conditions. STA21 significantly decreased expression of these proinflammatory molecules via inhibition of STAT3 activity but increased gene expression of molecules related to migration potential and immunomodulation in OA-MSCs. STAT3-inhibited OA-MSCs administrated by IV or IA injection decreased pain severity and cartilage damage in rats with MIA-induced OA rats by decreasing proinflammatory cytokines in the joints. Combined IA and IV-injected STAT3-inhibited OA-MSCs had an additive effect of pain relief in MIA-induced OA rats. STAT3 inhibition may optimize the therapeutic activities of MSCs for treating OA by attenuating pain and progression of MIA by inhibiting inflammation and cartilage damage.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major degenerative joint condition that causes articular cartilage destruction. It was recently found that enhancement of chondroclasts and suppression in Treg cell differentiation are involved in the pathogenesis of OA. Kartogenin (KGN) is a small drug-like molecule that induces chondrogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study aimed to identify whether KGN can enhance severe pain behavior and improve cartilage repair in OA rat model. Induction of OA model was loaded by IA-injection of MIA. In the OA rat model, treatment an intra-articular injection of KGN. Pain levels were evaluated by analyzing PWL and PWT response in animals. Histological analysis and micro-CT images of femurs were used to analyze cartilage destruction. Gene expression was measured by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed to detect protein expression. KGN injection significantly decreased pain severity and joint destruction in the MIA-induced OA model. KGN also increased mRNA levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in OA patients' chondrocytes stimulated by IL-1?. Decreased chondroclast expression, and increased Treg cell expression. KGN revealed therapeutic activity with the potential to reduce pain and improve cartilage destruction. Thus, KGN could be a therapeutic molecule for OA that inhibits cartilage damage.
Project description:Because inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA) is related to the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling cascades, TLR4 is a reasonable target for developing therapeutics for OA. Thus, we investigated whether TAP2, a peptide antagonist of TLR4, reduces the monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritic pain and cartilage degradation in rats. TLR4 expression of human OA chondrocytes and synoviocytes and the knee joint tissue of MIA-induced arthritis were evaluated. MIA-induced arthritic model using Sprague-Dawley rats (6 week-old-male) were treated with TAP2, a TLR4 antagonist, and evaluated with behavioral test, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR. TLR4 was highly expressed in the knee joints of patients with OA and the MIA-induced rat model. Further, a single intraarticular injection of TAP2 (25 nmol/rat) molecules targeting TLR4 on day 7 after MIA injection dramatically attenuated pain behavior for about 3 weeks and reduced cartilage loss in the knee joints and microglial activation in the spinal dorsal horns. Likewise, the mRNA levels of TNF? and IL-1?, reactive oxygen species, and the expression of MMP13 in the knee joints of TAP2-treated rats was significantly decreased by TAP2 treatment compared with the control. Moreover, interestingly, the duration of OA pain relief by TAP2 was much longer than that of chemical TLR4 antagonists, such as C34 and M62812. In conclusion, TAP2 could effectively attenuate MIA-induced arthritis in rats by blocking TLR4 and its successive inflammatory cytokines and MMP13. Therefore, TAP2 could be a prospective therapeutic to treat patients with OA.
Project description:To address the hypothesis that different types of established osteoarthritis (OA) pain behaviours have associations with different aspects of articular pathology, we investigated the relationship between structural knee joint pathology and pain behaviour following injection of a low vs a high dose of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) in the rat.Rats received a single intra-articular injection of 0.1 mg or 1 mg MIA or saline (control). Pain behaviour (hind limb weight bearing asymmetry (WB) and hindpaw withdrawal threshold (PWT) to punctate stimulation) was assessed. Cartilage and synovium were examined by macroscopic visualisation of articular surfaces and histopathology.Both doses of MIA lowered PWTs, 1 mg MIA also resulted in WB asymmetry. Both doses were associated with cartilage macroscopic appearance, proteoglycan loss, abnormal chondrocyte morphology, increased numbers of vessels crossing the osteochondral junction, synovitis and macrophage infiltration into the synovium. PWTs were more strongly associated with chondrocyte morphology, synovitis and macrophage infiltration than with loss of cartilage surface integrity.Both pain behaviours were associated with OA structural severity and synovitis. Differences in pain phenotype following low vs higher dose of MIA were identified despite similar structural pathology. OA structural pathology as traditionally measured only partially explains the MIA-induced pain phenotype.
Project description:Background:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteoarthritic (OA) joint pathology and pain. The aims of this study were to determine the influence of a passage number on the effects of MSCs on pain behaviour and cartilage and bone features in a rodent model of OA. Methods:Rats underwent either medial meniscal transection (MNX) or sham surgery under anaesthesia. Rats received intra-articular injection of either 1.5?×?106 late passage MSCs labelled with 10??g/ml SiMAG, 1.5?×?106 late passage mesenchymal stem cells, the steroid Kenalog (200??g/20??L), 1.5?×?106 early passage MSCs, or serum-free media (SFM). Sham-operated rats received intra-articular injection of SFM. Pain behaviour was quantified until day 42 postmodel induction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to localise the labelled cells within the knee joint. Results:Late passage MSCs and Kenalog attenuated established pain behaviour in MNX rats, but did not alter MNX-induced joint pathology at the end of the study period. Early passage MSCs exacerbated MNX-induced pain behaviour for up to one week postinjection and did not alter joint pathology. Conclusion:Our data demonstrate for the first time the role of a passage number in influencing the therapeutic effects of MSCs in a model of OA pain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint disease with characteristics that involve the progressive degradation of articular cartilage and resulting chronic pain. Previously, we reported that Astragalus membranaceus and Lithospermum erythrorhizon showed significant anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoarthritis activities. The objective of this study was to examine the protective effects of ALM16, a new herbal mixture (7:3) of ethanol extracts of A. membranaceus and L. erythrorhizon, against OA in in vitro and in vivo models. METHODS:The levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3 and?-?13 and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in interleukin (IL)-1? or ALM16 treated SW1353 cells were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent and quantitative kit, respectively. In vivo, the anti-analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ALM16 were assessed via the acetic acid-induced writhing response and in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model in ICR mice, respectively. In addition, the chondroprotective effects of ALM16 were analyzed using a single-intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) in the right knee joint of Wister/ST rat. All samples were orally administered daily for 2 weeks starting 1?week after the MIA injection. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) in MIA-injected rats was measured by the von Frey test using the up-down method. Histopathological changes of the cartilage in OA rats were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. RESULTS:ALM16 remarkably reduced the GAG degradation and MMP levels in IL-1? treated SW1353 cells. ALM16 markedly decreased the thickness of the paw edema and writhing response in a dose-dependent manner in mice. In the MIA-induced OA rat model, ALM16 significantly reduced the PWT compared to the control group. In particular, from histological observations, ALM16 showed clear improvement of OA lesions, such as the loss of necrotic chondrocytes and cartilage erosion of more than 200?mg/kg b.w., comparable to or better than a positive drug control (JOINS™, 200?mg/kg) in the cartilage of MIA-OA rats. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that ALM16 has a strong chondroprotective effect against the OA model in vitro and in vivo, likely attributed to its anti-inflammatory activity and inhibition of MMP production.
Project description:Background:Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of joint disease associated with cartilage breakdown. However, the role played by mitochondrial dysfunction in OA remains inadequately understood. Therefore, we investigated the role played by p66shc during oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in OA and the effects of p66shc downregulation on OA progression. Methods:Monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), which is commonly used to generate OA animal models, inhibits glycolysis and biosynthetic processes in chondrocytes, eventually causing cell death. To observe the effects of MIA and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles, histological analysis, immunohistochemistry, micro-CT, mechanical paw withdrawal thresholds, quantitative PCR, and measurement of oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate were conducted. Results:p-p66shc was highly expressed in cartilage from OA patients and rats with MIA-induced OA. MIA caused mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the inhibition of p66shc phosphorylation attenuated MIA-induced ROS production in human chondrocytes. Inhibition of p66shc by PLGA-based nanoparticles-delivered siRNA ameliorated pain behavior, cartilage damage, and inflammatory cytokine production in the knee joints of MIA-induced OA rats. Conclusion:p66shc is involved in cartilage degeneration in OA. By delivering p66shc-siRNA-loaded nanoparticles into the knee joints with OA, mitochondrial dysfunction-induced cartilage damage can be significantly decreased. Thus, p66shc siRNA PLGA nanoparticles may be a promising option for the treatment of OA.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease manifested by movement limitations and chronic pain. Endocannabinoid system (ECS) may modulate nociception via cannabinoid and TRPV1 receptors. The purpose of our study was to examine alterations in the spinal and joint endocannabinoid system during pain development in an animal model of OA. Wistar rats received intra-articular injection of 3mg of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA) into the knee joint. Animals were sacrificed on day 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 after injection and lumbar spinal cord, cartilage and synovium were collected. Changes in the transcription levels of the ECS elements were measured. At the spinal level, gene expression levels of the cannabinoid and TRPV1 receptors as well as enzymes involved in anandamide synthesis and degradation were elevated in the advanced OA phase. In the joint, an important role of the synovium was demonstrated, since cartilage degeneration resulted in attenuation of the changes in the gene expression. Enzymes responsible for anandamide synthesis and degradation were upregulated particularly in the early stages of OA, presumably in response to early local joint inflammation. The presented study provides missing information about the MIA-induced OA model and encourages the development of a therapy focused on the molecular role of ECS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and debilitating chronic degenerative disease of the joints. Currently, cell-based therapy is being explored to address the repair of damaged articular cartilage in the knee joint. METHODS:The in vitro differentiation potential of adult human bone marrow-derived, cultured, pooled, allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (Stempeucel®) was determined by differentiating the cells toward the chondrogenic lineage and quantifying sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG). The mono-iodoacetate (MIA)-induced preclinical model of OA has been used to demonstrate pain reduction and cartilage formation. In the clinical study, 60 OA patients were randomized to receive different doses of cells (25, 50, 75, or 150 million cells) or placebo. Stempeucel® was administered by intra-articular (IA) injection into the knee joint, followed by 2 ml hyaluronic acid (20 mg). Subjective evaluations-visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain (ICOAP), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC-OA) index-were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee was performed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up for cartilage evaluation. RESULTS:Stempeucel® differentiated into the chondrogenic lineage in vitro with downregulation of Sox9 and upregulation of Col2A genes. Furthermore, Stempeucel® differentiated into chondrocytes and synthesized a significant amount of sGAG (30?±?1.8 ?g/?g GAG/DNA). In the preclinical model of OA, Stempeucel® reduced pain significantly and also repaired damaged articular cartilage in rats. In the clinical study, IA administration of Stempeucel® was safe, and a trend towards improvement was seen in the 25-million-cell dose group in all subjective parameters (VAS, ICOAP, andWOMAC-OA scores), although this was not statistically significant when compared to placebo. Adverse events were predominant in the higher dose groups (50, 75, and 150 million cells). Knee pain and swelling were the most common adverse events. The whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score of the knee did not reveal any difference from baseline and the placebo group. CONCLUSION:Intra-articular administration of Stempeucel® is safe. A twenty-five-million-cell dose may be the most effective among the doses tested for pain reduction. Clinical studies with a larger patient population are required to demonstrate a robust therapeutic efficacy of Stempeucel® in OA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01453738 . Registered 13 October 2011.
Project description:Increases in oxidative stress are thought to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Eupatilin, one of the major compounds present in artemisia species, was shown to have both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we investigated the in vivo effects of eupatilin on pain severity and cartilage degradation in an experimental rat model of OA, along with the mechanisms of action underlying these effects. Experimental OA was induced via an intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), with oral administration of eupatilin initiated on the day of MIA injection. Pain was assessed by measuring the paw withdrawal latency and threshold. Cartilage destruction was analyzed macroscopically and histomorphologically. The effects of eupatilin on mRNA expression were investigated in interleukin-1? (IL-1?)-stimulated human OA chondrocytes. Eupatilin treatment exhibited clear antinociceptive effects, along with an attenuation of cartilage degradation in OA rats. Additionally, the number of osteoclasts present in the subchondral bone region was significantly decreased following eupatilin treatment. Eupatilin reduced the expression of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitrotyrosine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cartilage. mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), MMP13, and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-5 (ADAMTS-5) were reduced in IL-1?-stimulated human OA chondrocytes, while tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) was induced. Phosphorylated protein levels of the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was reduced by eupatilin. Taken together, these results suggest that eupatilin suppresses oxidative damage and reciprocally enhances extracellular matrix production in articular chondrocytes, making eupatilin a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of OA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Pain is the main reason patients report Osteoarthritis (OA), yet current analgesics remain relatively ineffective. This study investigated both peripheral and central mechanisms that lead to the development of OA associated chronic pain. DESIGN:The monoiodoacetate (MIA) model of OA was investigated at early (2-6 days post injection) and late (>14 days post injection) time points. Pain-like behaviour and knee histology were assessed to understand the extent of pain due to cartilage degradation. Electrophysiological single-unit recordings were taken from spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons to investigate Diffuse Noxious Inhibitory Controls (DNIC) as a marker of potential changes in descending controls. Immunohistochemistry was performed on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to assess any MIA induced neuronal damage. Furthermore, qPCR was used to measure levels of glia cells and cytokines in the dorsal horn. RESULTS:Both MIA groups develop pain-like behaviour but only late phase (LP) animals display extensive cartilage degradation. Early phase animals have a normally functioning DNIC system but there is a loss of DNIC in LP animals. We found no evidence for neuronal damage caused by MIA in either group, yet an increase in IL-1β mRNA in the dorsal horn of LP animals. CONCLUSION:The loss of DNIC in LP MIA animals suggests an imbalance in inhibitory and facilitatory descending controls, and a rise in the mRNA expression of IL-1β mRNA suggest the development of central sensitisation. Therefore, the pain associated with OA in LP animals may not be attributed to purely peripheral mechanisms.