Neuraxial anesthesia for postpartum tubal ligation at an academic medical center.
ABSTRACT: Background: Use of an in situ epidural catheter has been suggested to be efficient to provide anesthesia for postpartum tubal ligation (PPTL). Reported epidural reactivation success rates vary from 74% to 92%. Predictors for reactivation failure include poor patient satisfaction with labor analgesia, increased delivery-to-reactivation time and the need for top-ups during labor. Some have suggested that this high failure rate precludes leaving the catheter in situ after delivery for subsequent reactivation attempts. In this study, we sought to evaluate the success rate of neuraxial techniques for PPTL and to determine if predictors of failure can be identified. Methods: After obtaining IRB approval, a retrospective chart review of patients undergoing PPTL after vaginal delivery from July 2010 to July 2016 was conducted using CPT codes, yielding 93 records for analysis. Demographic, obstetric and anesthetic data (labor analgesia administration, length of epidural catheter in epidural space, top-up requirements, time of catheter reactivation, final anesthetic technique and corresponding doses for spinal and epidural anesthesia) were obtained. Results: A total of 70 patients received labor neuraxial analgesia. Reactivation was attempted in 33 with a success rate of 66.7%. Patient height, epidural volume of local anesthetic and administered fentanyl dose were lower in the group that failed reactivation. Overall, spinal anesthesia was performed in 60 patients, with a success rate of 80%. Conclusions: Our observed rate of successful postpartum epidural reactivation for tubal ligation was lower than the range reported in the literature. Our success rates for both spinal anesthesia and epidural reactivation for PPTL were lower than the generally accepted rates of successful epidural and spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. This gap may reflect a lower level of motivation on behalf of both the patients and anesthesia providers to tolerate "imperfect" neuraxial anesthesia once fetal considerations are removed.
Project description:Achondroplasia is a type of disproportionate dwarfism with short limbs and a normal-sized torso. This condition results in a potential spinal abnormality and a difficult airway may increase the anesthetic risk, not only in neuraxial anesthesia, but also in general anesthesia. We report a 25-year-old primigravida with achondroplasia who underwent cesarean section under epidural anesthesia with the assistance of real-time ultrasound guidance. A total dose of 17 mL 2% lidocaine with 7.5 μg sufentanil was administered via epidural catheter intermittently. The level of anesthesia reached T4. No other anesthetic was administered during the operation and the procedure was uneventful. The mother and her newborn were routinely discharged without any adverse events. During the follow-up at 10 months postoperatively, the patient did not have any discomfort. We suggest that titrated epidural anesthesia at the time of real-time ultrasound-guidance is a safe and effective epidural anesthesia for patients with achondroplasia.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This report aimed to describe the characteristics and impact of subdural hematoma (SDH) after labor epidural analgesia. CASE REPORTS:Eleven obstetric patients had SDHs associated with the use of labor epidural analgesia over 7 years at a tertiary care hospital. Ten of 11 patients had signs consistent with postdural puncture headache before the diagnosis of SDH. Five patients (45%) had a recognized unintentional dural puncture, 1 (9%) had a combined spinal-epidural with a 24-gauge needle, and 5 (45%) had no recognized dural puncture. For 10 of the 11 cases, SDH was diagnosed at a mean of 4.1 days (range, 1-7 days) after performance of labor epidural analgesia; one case was diagnosed at 25 days. Ten (91%) of 11 cases had a second hospital stay for a mean of 2.8 days (range, 2-4 days) for observation, without further requirement for neurosurgical intervention. One case (9%) had decompressive hemicraniectomy after becoming unresponsive. The observed rate of labor epidural analgesia-associated SDH was 0.026% (11 in 42,969, approximately 1:3900), and the rate of SDH was 1.1% (5 in 437, approximately 1:87) if a recognized dural puncture occurred during epidural catheter placement. CONCLUSIONS:Subdural hematoma after labor epidural anesthesia is rare but potentially more common than historically estimated. Cases of postdural puncture headache after labor epidural anesthesia should be monitored closely for severe neurologic signs and symptoms that could herald SDH.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>If conversion of labor epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia fails, the anesthesiologist can be confronted with a challenging clinical dilemma. Optimal management of a failed epidural top up continues to be debated in the absence of best practice guidelines.<h4>Method</h4>All members of the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association in the United Kingdom were emailed an online survey in May 2017. It obtained information on factors influencing the decision to utilize an existing labor epidural for cesarean section and, if epidural top up resulted in no objective sensory block, bilateral T10 sensory block, or unilateral T6 sensory block, factors influencing the management and selection of anesthetic technique. Differences in management options between respondents were compared using the chi-squared test.<h4>Results</h4>We received 710 survey questionnaires with an overall response rate of 41%. Most respondents (89%) would consider topping up an existing labor epidural for a category-one cesarean section. In evaluating whether or not to top up an existing labor epidural, the factors influencing decision-making were how effective the epidural had been for labor pain (99%), category of cesarean section (73%), and dermatomal level of blockade (61%). In the setting of a failed epidural top up, the most influential factors determining further anesthetic management were the category of cesarean section (92%), dermatomal level of blockade (78%), and the assessment of maternal airway. Spinal anesthesia was commonly preferred if an epidural top up resulted in no objective sensory block (74%), bilateral T10 sensory block (57%), or unilateral T6 sensory block (45%). If the sensory block level was higher or unilateral, then a lower dose of intrathecal local anesthetic was selected and alternative options such as combined-spinal epidural and general anesthesia were increasingly favored.<h4>Discussion</h4>Our survey revealed variations in the clinical management of a failed epidural top up for cesarean delivery, suggesting guidelines to aid decision-making are needed.
Project description:Introduction:Neuraxial labor analgesia has become an integral part of modern obstetric anesthetic practice. Presence of a familiar person during its placement may be beneficial to the patient. A survey was sent to anesthesiologists practicing obstetric anesthesia in the USA to determine their views. Methods:The survey queried the following: existence of a written policy; would they allow a visitor; visitor's view, sitting or standing; reasons to allow or not allow a visitor; and influence by other staff on the decision. The responses were analyzed using multiple chi-square analyses. Results:Most practitioners supported allowing a visitor during placement. Reduction of patient anxiety and fulfillment of patient request were the major reasons for allowing a visitor. Sitting position and no view of the workspace were preferred. Visitor interference and safety were cited as the major reasons for precluding a visitor. Nonanesthesia providers rarely influenced the decision. Epidural analgesia was the preferred technique. Essentially no bias was found in the responses; there was statistical uniformity regardless of procedures done per week, years in practice, professional certification, geographic region (rural, urban, or suburban), or academic, private, or government responders. Conclusion:The practice of visitor presence during the placement of neuraxial labor analgesia is gaining acceptance.
Project description:Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of connective tissue, characterized by variable clinical features and multisystem complications. The anesthetic management during delivery is debated. Regional anesthesia has been used with success during cesarean delivery, but in some MFS patients there is a probability of erratic and inadequate spread of intrathecal local anesthetics as a result of dural ectasia. In these cases, epidural anesthesia may be a particularly useful technique during cesarean delivery because it allows an adequate spread and action of local anesthetic with a controlled onset of anesthesia, analgesia, and sympathetic block and a low risk of perioperative complications. We report the perioperative management of a patient with MFS and dural ectasia who successfully underwent cesarean section using epidural technique anesthesia. The previous pregnancy of this woman ended with cesarean section with a failed spinal anesthesia that was converted to general anesthesia due to unknown dural ectasia at that time.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Early randomized controlled trials have suggested that neuraxial blockade may reduce cardiorespiratory complications after non-cardiothoracic surgery, but recent larger trials have been inconclusive. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large multicentre randomized controlled trial in Canada.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>After Research Ethics Board approvals from the participating institutions, subjects were recruited if they were > or = 45 years old, had an expected hospital stay > or = 48 hours, were undergoing a noncardiothoracic procedure amenable to epidural analgesia, met one of six risk criteria, and did not have contraindications to neuraxial blockade. After informed consent, subjects were randomly allocated to combined epidural analgesia (epidural group) and neuraxial anesthesia, with or without general anesthesia, or intravenous opioid analgesia (IV group) and general anesthesia. The primary outcomes were the rate of recruitment and the percents of eligible patients recruited, crossed over, and followed completely. Feasibility targets were defined a priori. A blinded, independent committee adjudicated the secondary clinical outcomes. Subjects were followed daily while in hospital and then at 30 days after surgery. Analysis was intention-to-treat. Over a 15-month period, the recruitment rate was 0.5+/-0.3 (mean+/-SEM) subjects per week per centre; 112/494 (22.7%) eligible subjects were recruited at four tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Canada. Thirteen (26.5%) of 49 subjects in the epidural group crossed over to the IV group; seven (14.3%) were due to failed or inadequate analgesia or complications from epidural analgesia. Five (9.8%) of 51 subjects in the IV group crossed over to the epidural group but none were due to inadequate analgesia or complications. Ninety-eight (97.0%) of 101 subjects were successfully followed up until 30 days after their surgery.<h4>Conclusion/significance</h4>Of the criteria we defined for the feasibility of a full-scale trial, only the follow-up target was met. The other feasibility outcomes did not meet our preset criteria for success. The results suggest that a large multicentre trial may not be a feasible design to study the perioperative effects of neuraxial blockade.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 0221260 Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN 35629817.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The epidural pressure is pulsatile and synchronized with arterial pulsations. Monitoring the epidural waveform has been suggested as a technique to reliably confirm the appropriate localization of the epidural catheter.<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Computer Controlled Drug Delivery System with continuous pressure and waveform sensing technology (CCDDS) (CompuFlo<sup>®</sup> CathCheck™) as an instrument to assess the correct placement of the catheter in the epidural space in parturients who have received combined spinal-epidural technique (CSE) for labor analgesia.<h4>Methods</h4>We enrolled 40 consecutive healthy patients undergoing CSE labor analgesia with successful analgesia. All the cases in which pulsatile waveforms in synchrony with heart rate were detected were considered to be true positives; all the cases in which there was the absence of pulsatile waves were followed up. If these patients had to eventually relocate or manipulate the epidural catheter, they were considered to be true negative. If the absence of pulse waves was observed in the presence of successful analgesia during labor, the patients were considered to be false negatives.<h4>Results</h4>Pulsatile waveforms synchronous with heart rate were observed in 33 cases associated with adequate analgesia. In 5 cases, the pulsatile waveforms were absent due to unilateral analgesia or catheter occlusion (true negatives). In 2 cases, the patients had effective analgesia but we were not able to observe a distinct pulsatile waveform. The pressure waveform analysis through the epidural catheter had a sensitivity of 95%, a positive predictive value of 100%, a specificity of 100% and a negative predictive value of 60%.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Pulsatile pressure waveform recording with CCDDS through the epidural catheter resulted in high sensitivity and positive predictive value which can help the proper placement of the epidural catheter.
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> Childhood asthma is a common chronic illness that has been associated with mode of delivery. However, the effect of cesarean delivery alone does not fully account for the increased prevalence of childhood asthma. We tested the hypothesis that neuraxial anesthesia used for labor analgesia and cesarean delivery alters the risk of developing childhood asthma.<b>Methods:</b> Within the Newborn Epigenetics Study birth cohort, 196 mother and child pairs with entries in the electronic anesthesia records were included. From these records, data on maternal anesthesia type, duration of exposure, and drugs administered peripartum were abstracted and combined with questionnaire-derived prenatal risk factors and medical records and questionnaire-derived asthma diagnosis data in children. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between type of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia, and the development of asthma in males and females.<b>Results:</b> We found that longer duration of epidural anesthesia was associated with a lower risk of asthma in male children (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.66-0.95) for each hour of epidural exposure. Additionally, a unit increase in the composite dose of local anesthetics and opioid analgesics administered <i>via</i> the spinal route was associated with a lower risk of asthma in both male (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.36-0.96) and female children (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.82).<b>Conclusion:</b> Our data suggest that peripartum exposure to neuraxial anesthesia may reduce the risk of childhood asthma primarily in males. Larger human studies and model systems with longer follow-up are required to elucidate these findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Residency training includes positive and negative aspects. Well-trained doctors must be educated, but the process may bring additional risks to patients. Anesthesiologists' performance when conducting neuraxial anesthesia is related to their experience. We hypothesized that a modified neuraxial anesthesia method would improve both residency training and patient safety. METHODS:We recruited 518 patients who were scheduled for a cesarean section and used spinal anesthesia (n?=?256), epidural anesthesia (n?=?154), and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (SEA; n?=?108). We observed and evaluated the anesthesia performance of five second-year resident anesthesiologists in elective cesarean sections using the conventional and modified methods. The number of attempts, implant error rate, and the incidence of complications were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS:Better success puncture attempts occurred in all three groups when the modified method was applied. For the groups with an implant assessment, the complication rate and implant error rate were lower when using the modified method. We employed generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis to correct for possible confounding factors. When using the conventional method, the resident anesthesiologists required more attempts, made more implant errors, and caused more complications in patients. CONCLUSIONS:We found that a modified method for neuraxial anesthesia could improve residency performance and patient safety. The modified method may be a suitable training process for resident anesthesiologists when practicing neuraxial anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of National Taiwan University (IRB:200812040R) Clinicaltrials register: NCT03389672 .
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Dural puncture epidural (DPE) has been shown to improve labor analgesia over epidural (EPL), with fewer side effects than a combined spinal-epidural (CSE). However, there is some debate regarding the superiority of DPE over EPL and CSE. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of EPL, DPE, and CSE without intrathecal opioids on the epidural local anesthetic (LA) consumption and occurrence of side effects in early labor.<h4>Material and methods</h4>We randomly assigned parturient to one of the 3 groups; EPL, DPE, or CSE. EPL and DPE groups received a 10 mL loading dose of 0.1% bupivacaine with fentanyl 2 μg/mL. CSE group received intrathecal 2.5 mg bupivacaine (without opioids). Labor analgesia was maintained in all patients via patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). The primary outcome was the mean hourly consumption of epidural LA.<h4>Results</h4>The mean hourly consumption of epidural LA anesthetic was significantly lower in CSE (9.55 mL), compared with the EPL (11 mL), and DPE (10.5 mL), <i>P</i> < 0.01; but no significant difference was seen between EPL and DPE. Compared with EPL and DPE, CSE achieved faster time to complete analgesia defined as a numeric rating pain scale (NRPS) ≤1 and sensory block, lower NRPS in the first hour and higher frequencies of complete analgesia. There were no differences between groups in terms of physician top-up boluses, the occurrence of side-effects, mode of delivery, Apgar scores, and maternal satisfaction.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Compared with EPL and DPE, CSE without intrathecal opioids, had a less epidural LA consumption, faster onset of analgesia, with no difference in the incidence of side effects.<h4>Trial registration</h4>This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03980951).