Neuropeptide Y-Positive Neurons in the Dorsomedial Hypothalamus Are Involved in the Anorexic Effect of Angptl8.
ABSTRACT: Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (Angptl8), a recently identified member of the angiopoietin-like protein family (ANGPTLs), is a 22-kDa peptide synthesized in the liver. It participates in lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, consequently increasing the triglyceride levels. Despite evidence that Angptl8 is involved in feeding control, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Central and peripheral injections of Angptl8 significantly decreased food intake. Angptl8 was widely expressed in appetite-related nuclei, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), the ventromedial hypothalamus, and the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in the hypothalamus. Peripheral Angptl8 administration decreased c-Fos-positive neurons in the DMH. Central Angptl8 administration decreased c-Fos-positive neurons in the DMH and PVN but increased these neurons in the ARC. Angptl8 inhibited appetite via neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons in the DMH. Furthermore, the chronic administration of Angptl8 decreased body weight gain and altered adipose tissue deposits. Nevertheless, neither peripheral nor central Angptl8 influenced the brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology or uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp-1) expression in BAT. Taken together, these data suggested that Angptl8 modulates appetite and energy homeostasis.
Project description:Central cholinergic neural circuits play a role in the regulation of feeding behavior. The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) is considered the appetite-stimulating center and contains cholinergic neurons. Here, we study the role of DMH cholinergic neurons in the control of food intake.To selectively stimulate DMH cholinergic neurons, we expressed stimulatory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) and channelrhodopsins in DMH cholinergic neurons by injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors into the DMH of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IRES-Cre mice. We also generated transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsins in cholinergic neurons with the Cre-LoxP technique. To delete the Chat gene exclusively in the DMH, we injected an AAV carrying a Cre recombinase transgene into the DMH of floxed ChAT mice. Food intake was measured with and without selective stimulation of DMH cholinergic neurons.Mice lacking the Chat gene in the DMH show reduced body weight as compared to control. Chemogenetic activation of DMH cholinergic neurons promotes food intake. This orexigenic effect is further supported by experiments of optogenetic stimulation of DMH cholinergic neurons. DMH cholinergic neurons innervate pro-opiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). Treatment with acetylcholine (ACh) enhances GABAergic inhibitory transmission to ARC POMC neurons that is blocked by the muscarinic receptor antagonist. Direct activation of cholinergic fibers in the ARC readily stimulates food intake that is also abolished by the muscarinic receptor antagonist.ACh released from DMH cholinergic neurons regulates food intake and body weight. This effect is mediated in part through regulation of ARC POMC neurons. Activation of muscarinic receptors on GABAergic axon terminals enhances inhibitory tone to ARC POMC neurons. Hence, this novel DMHACh ? ARCPOMC pathway plays an important role in the control of food intake and body weight.
Project description:Within the central neural circuitry for thermoregulation, the balance between excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) determines the level of activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. We employed neuroanatomical and in vivo electrophysiological techniques to identify a source of excitation to thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the DMH that is required for cold defense and fever. Inhibition of median preoptic area (MnPO) neurons blocked the BAT thermogenic responses during both PGE2-induced fever and cold exposure. Disinhibition or direct activation of MnPO neurons induced a BAT thermogenic response in warm rats. Blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the DMH, or brain transection rostral to DMH, blocked cold-evoked or NMDA in MnPO-evoked BAT thermogenesis. RNAscope technique identified a glutamatergic population of MnPO neurons that projects to the DMH and expresses c-Fos following cold exposure. These discoveries relative to the glutamatergic drive to BAT sympathoexcitatory neurons in DMH augment our understanding of the central thermoregulatory circuitry in non-torpid mammals. Our data will contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to induce therapeutic hypothermia for treating drug-resistant fever, and for improving glucose and energy homeostasis.
Project description:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical to maintain homoeothermia and is centrally controlled via sympathetic outputs. Body temperature and BAT activity also impact energy expenditure, and obesity is commonly associated with decreased BAT capacity and sympathetic tone. Severely obese mice that lack leptin or its receptor (LepRb) show decreased BAT capacity, sympathetic tone, and body temperature and thus are unable to adapt to acute cold exposure (Trayhurn et al., 1976). LepRb-expressing neurons are found in several hypothalamic sites, including the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and median preoptic area (mPOA), both critical sites to regulate sympathetic, thermoregulatory BAT circuits. Specifically, a subpopulation in the DMH/dorsal hypothalamic area (DHA) is stimulated by fever-inducing endotoxins or cold exposure (Dimicco and Zaretsky, 2007; Morrison et al., 2008). Using the retrograde, transsynaptic tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) injected into the BAT of mice, we identified PRV-labeled LepRb neurons in the DMH/DHA and mPOA (and other sites), thus indicating their involvement in the regulation of sympathetic BAT circuits. Indeed, acute cold exposure induced c-Fos (as a surrogate for neuronal activity) in DMH/DHA LepRb neurons, and a large number of mPOA LepRb neurons project to the DMH/DHA. Furthermore, DMH/DHA LepRb neurons (and a subpopulation of LepRb mPOA neurons) project and synaptically couple to rostral raphe pallidus neurons, consistent with the current understanding of BAT thermoregulatory circuits from the DMH/DHA and mPOA (Dimicco and Zaretsky, 2007; Morrison et al., 2008). Thus, these data present strong evidence that LepRb neurons in the DMH/DHA and mPOA mediate thermoregulatory leptin action.
Project description:Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). First, we found that ArcN NPY/AgRP fibers closely appose PVN and DMH presympathetic neurons. Second, nanoinjections of NPY or an NPY receptor Y1 (NPY1R) antagonist into PVN or DMH decreased or increased SSNA, respectively. Third, blockade of DMH NPY1R reversed the sympathoinhibition elicited by selective, DREADD-mediated activation of ArcN NPY/AgRP neurons. Finally, stimulation of ArcN NPY/AgRP terminal fields in the PVN and DMH decreased SSNA. Considering that chronic obesity decreases ArcN NPY content, we propose that the ArcN NPY neuropathway to the PVN and DMH is pivotal in obesity-induced elevations in SNA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The medial hypothalamus mediates leptin-induced glucose uptake in peripheral tissues, and brain melanocortin receptors (MCRs) mediate certain central effects of leptin. However, the contributions of the leptin receptor and MCRs in individual medial hypothalamic nuclei to regulation of peripheral glucose uptake have remained unclear. We examined the effects of an injection of leptin and the MCR agonist MT-II into medial hypothalamic nuclei on glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Leptin or MT-II was injected into the ventromedial (VMH), dorsomedial (DMH), arcuate nucleus (ARC), or paraventricular (PVH) hypothalamus or the lateral ventricle (intracerebroventricularly) in freely moving mice. The MCR antagonist SHU9119 was injected intracerebroventricularly. Glucose uptake was measured by the 2-[(3)H]deoxy-d-glucose method. RESULTS: Leptin injection into the VMH increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and heart, whereas that into the ARC increased glucose uptake in BAT, and that into the DMH or PVH had no effect. SHU9119 abolished these effects of leptin injected into the VMH. Injection of MT-II either into the VMH or intracerebroventricularly increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, BAT, and heart, whereas that into the PVH increased glucose uptake in BAT, and that into the DMH or ARC had no effect. CONCLUSIONS: The VMH mediates leptin- and MT-II-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, BAT, and heart. These effects of leptin are dependent on MCR activation. The leptin receptor in the ARC and MCR in the PVH regulate glucose uptake in BAT. Medial hypothalamic nuclei thus play distinct roles in leptin- and MT-II-induced glucose uptake in peripheral tissues.
Project description:Spexin (SPX, NPQ), a novel endogenous neuropeptide, was firstly identified by bioinformatics. Spexin gene and protein widely distributed in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as the hypothalamus and digestive tract. The role of spexin in appetite regulation in mammalian is still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism and effect of peripheral spexin on food intake in mice. During the light period, an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of spexin (10?nmol/mouse) significantly inhibited cumulative food intake at 2, 4, and 6?h after treatment in fasted mice. During the dark period, spexin (1 and 10?nmol/mouse, i.p.) significantly suppressed cumulative food intake at 4 and 6?h after treatment in freely feeding mice. The GALR3 antagonist SNAP37889, not GALR2 antagonist, significantly antagonized the inhibitory effect on cumulative food intake (0-6?h) induced by spexin. Spexin significantly reduced the mRNA level of Npy mRNA, not Agrp, Pomc, Cart, Crh, Orexin, or Mch, in the hypothalamus. Spexin (10?nmol/mouse, i.p.) increased the number of c-Fos positive neurons in hypothalamic AHA and SCN, but not in ARC, DMN, LHA, PVN, SON, or VMH. The hypothalamic p-CaMK2 protein expression was upregulated by spexin. This study indicated that acute peripheral injection of spexin inhibited mouse food intake. The anorectic effect may be mediated by GALR3, and inhibiting neuropeptide Y (NPY) via p-CaMK2 and c-Fos in the hypothalamus.
Project description:Secretin (Sct) is released into the circulation postprandially from the duodenal S-cells. The major functions of Sct originated from the gastrointestinal system are to delay gastric emptying, stimulate fluid secretion from pancreas and liver, and hence optimize the digestion process. In recent years, Sct and its receptor (Sctr) have been identified in discrete nuclei of the hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the arcuate nucleus (Arc). These nuclei are the primary brain sites that are engaged in regulating body energy homeostasis, thus providing anatomical evidence to support a functional role of Sct in appetite control. In this study, the effect of Sct on feeding behavior was investigated using wild-type (wt), Sct(-/-), and secretin receptor-deficient (Sctr(-/-)) mice. We found that both central and peripheral administration of Sct could induce Fos expression in the PVN and Arc, suggesting the activation of hypothalamic feeding centers by this peptide. Consistent with this notion, Sct was found to increase thyrotropin-releasing hormone and melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) transcripts in the PVN, and augment proopiomelanocortin, but reduces agouti-related protein mRNA expression in the Arc. Injection of Sct was able to suppress food intake in wt mice, but not in Sctr(-/-) mice, and that this effect was abolished upon pretreatment with SHU9119, an antagonist for Mc4r. In summary, our data suggest for the first time that Sct is an anorectic peptide, and that this function is mediated by the melanocortin system.
Project description:The supramammillary nucleus (SuM) has an emerging role in appetite control. We have shown that the rat SuM is activated during hunger or food anticipation, or by ghrelin administration. In the present study, we characterised the connectivity between the SuM and key appetite- and motivation-related nuclei in the rat. In adult wild-type rats, or rats expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter (TH-Cre rats), we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to visualise and correlate the activation of medial SuM (SuMM) with activation in the lateral hypothalamic area (LH), the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) or the ventral tegmental area (VTA) after voluntary consumption of a high-sugar, high-fat food. To determine neuroanatomical connectivity, we used retrograde and anterograde tracing methods to specifically investigate the neuronal inputs and outputs of the SuMM. After consumption of the food there were positive correlations between c-Fos expression in the SuMM and the LH, DMH and VTA (P = 0.0001, 0.01 and 0.004). Using Fluoro-Ruby as a retrograde tracer, we demonstrate the existence of inputs from the LH, DMH, VTA and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) to the SuMM. The SuMM showed reciprocal inputs to the LH and DMH, and we identified a TH-positive output from SuMM to DMH. We co-labelled retrogradely-labelled sections for TH in the VMH, or for TH, orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone in the LH and DMH. However, we did not observe any colocalisation of immunoreactivity with any retrogradely-labelled cells. Viral mapping in TH-Cre rats confirms the existence of a reciprocal SuMM-DMH connection and shows that TH-positive cells project from the SuMM and VTA to the lateral septal area and cingulate cortex, respectively. These data provide evidence for the connectivity of the SuMM to brain regions involved in appetite control, and form the foundation for functional and behavioural studies aiming to further characterise the brain circuitry controlling eating behaviours.
Project description:Genetic evidence indicates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through the TrkB receptor plays a critical role in the control of energy balance. Mutations in the BDNF or the TrkB-encoding NTRK2 gene have been found to cause severe obesity in humans and mice. However, it remains unknown which brain neurons express TrkB to control body weight. Here, we report that TrkB-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) regulate food intake. We found that the DMH contains both glutamatergic and GABAergic TrkB-expressing neurons, some of which also express the leptin receptor (LepR). As revealed by Fos immunohistochemistry, a significant number of TrkB-expressing DMH (DMHTrkB) neurons were activated upon either overnight fasting or after refeeding. Chemogenetic activation of DMHTrkB neurons strongly suppressed feeding in the dark cycle when mice are physiologically hungry, whereas chemogenetic inhibition of DMHTrkB neurons greatly promoted feeding in the light cycle when mice are physiologically satiated, without affecting feeding in the dark cycle. Neuronal tracing revealed that DMHTrkB neurons do not innervate neurons expressing agouti-related protein in the arcuate nucleus, indicating that DMHTrkB neurons are distinct from previously identified LepR-expressing GABAergic DMH neurons that suppress feeding. Furthermore, selective Ntrk2 deletion in the DMH of adult mice led to hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and obesity. Thus, our data show that DMHTrkB neurons are a population of neurons that are necessary and sufficient to suppress appetite and maintain physiological satiation. Pharmacological activation of these neurons could be a therapeutic intervention for the treatment of obesity.
Project description:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical in maintaining body temperature. The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) integrates cutaneous thermosensory signals and regulates adaptive thermogenesis. Here, we study the function and synaptic connectivity of input from DMH cholinergic neurons to sympathetic premotor neurons in the raphe pallidus (Rpa).In order to selectively manipulate DMH cholinergic neuron activity, we generated transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in cholinergic neurons (choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre::ChR2-YFP) with the Cre-LoxP technique. In addition, we used an adeno-associated virus carrying the Cre recombinase gene to delete the floxed Chat gene in the DMH. Physiological studies in response to optogenetic stimulation of DMH cholinergic neurons were combined with gene expression and immunocytochemical analyses.A subset of DMH neurons are ChAT-immunopositive neurons. The activity of these neurons is elevated by warm ambient temperature. A phenotype-specific neuronal tracing shows that DMH cholinergic neurons directly project to serotonergic neurons in the Rpa. Optical stimulation of DMH cholinergic neurons decreases BAT activity, which is associated with reduced body core temperature. Furthermore, elevated DMH cholinergic neuron activity decreases the expression of BAT uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1 ? (Pgc1?) mRNAs, markers of BAT activity. Injection of M2-selective muscarinic receptor antagonists into the 4th ventricle abolishes the effect of optical stimulation. Single cell qRT-PCR analysis of retrogradely identified BAT-projecting neurons in the Rpa shows that all M2 receptor-expressing neurons contain tryptophan hydroxylase 2. In animals lacking the Chat gene in the DMH, exposure to warm temperature reduces neither BAT Ucp1 nor Pgc1? mRNA expression.DMH cholinergic neurons directly send efferent signals to sympathetic premotor neurons in the Rpa. Elevated cholinergic input to this area reduces BAT activity through activation of M2 mAChRs on serotonergic neurons. Therefore, the direct DMH(ACh)-Rpa(5-HT) pathway may mediate physiological heat-defense responses to elevated environmental temperature.