Beta-1-Adrenergic Receptor Antibodies in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Is Less Sometimes More?
ABSTRACT: Background: Anti-beta-1-adrenergic receptor antibodies (anti-?1AR Ab) are associated with ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM). Evidence continues to emerge supporting an autoimmune component to various cardiac diseases. This study compares anti-?1AR Ab concentrations in patients with different entities of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) to asymptomatic non-ACS patients with positron-emission computed tomography (PET/CT)-proven atherosclerosis, and healthy controls. Methods: Serum anti-?1AR Ab IgG concentrations were measured in 212 ACS patients, 100 atherosclerosis patients, and 62 controls using ELISA. All ACS patients underwent coronary angiography. All 374 patients participating completed a structured questionnaire regarding traditional cardiovascular risk factors. ACS patients were followed up for 6 months. Results: Patients with ACS exhibited lower anti-?1AR Ab levels compared to patients with atherosclerosis or healthy controls (both p < 0.001). No differences in the ab levels were evident between healthy controls and patients with atherosclerosis. In the ACS groups, lower concentrations were found in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (0.67 ?g/ml) compared to patients with angina pectoris (AP) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (both 0.76 ?g/ml, p = 0.008). Anti-?1AR Ab levels ? 0.772 ?g/ml were predictive for death and reinfarction (AUC 0.77, p = 0.006). No significant correlations between anti-?1AR Ab levels and atherosclerotic burden or traditional cardiovascular risk factors were identified. Conclusions: Lower anti-?1AR Ab concentrations appear to characterize ACS phenotypes and could serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers independent from traditional risk factors for atheroscle. The prognostic predictive value of anti-?1AR Ab in ACS remains to be confirmed in larger studies.
Project description:Atherosclerosis is considered the pathophysiology underlying cardiovascular (CVD), cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases. Evidence supporting an autoimmune component is emerging, with imaging studies correlating MYC-associated zinc finger protein antibody (MAZ-Ab) optical density (OD) with plaque activity. This study compares MAZ-Ab OD on ELISA testing among patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) to healthy controls and investigates the association of MAZ-Ab to traditional CVD risk factors.Patients admitted with ACSs between August 2007 and July 2011 were included. Serum samples taken at presentation were retrospectively tested for MAZ-Ab and compared with serum from healthy volunteers with no CVD risk factors. Large-scale assessment of post-ACS prognostic relevance was performed using the established PLATO cohort.In total 174 ACS patients and 96 controls were included. Among ACS patients, median MAZ-Ab OD was higher compared with controls (0.46 vs. 0.27; p?=?0.001). Although the majority of ACS patients (116/174; 67%) had suffered from a ST-elevation myocardial infarction, no significant differences in MAZ-Ab titers were evident between ACS subtypes (p?=?0.682). No associations between MAZ-Ab OD and conventional CVD risk factors were identified. Large-scale testing revealed no prognostic stratification regarding reinfarction (OR 1.04 [95% CI: 0.94-1.16]; p?=?0.436).MAZ-Ab OD was higher or all ACS phenotypes compared with controls. Given current understanding of MAZ-Ab function, these findings support an autoimmune component to CVD independent of conventional risk factors and indeed the extent of end-organ damage.
Project description:Although several risk factors exist for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) no biomarkers for survival or risk of re-infarction have been validated. Previously, reduced serum concentrations of anti-ß1AR Ab have been implicated in poorer ACS outcomes. This study further evaluates the prognostic implications of anti-ß1AR-Ab levels at the time of ACS onset. Serum anti-ß1AR Ab concentrations were measured in randomly selected patients from within the PLATO cohort. Stratification was performed according to ACS event: ST-elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI) vs. non-ST elevation myocardial infarct (NSTEMI). Antibody concentrations at ACS presentation were compared to 12-month all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, as well as 12-month re-infarction. Sub-analysis, stratifying for age and the correlation between antibody concentration and conventional cardiac risk-factors was subsequently performed. Serum anti-ß1AR Ab concentrations were measured in 400/799 (50%) STEMI patients and 399 NSTEMI patients. Increasing anti-ß1AR Ab concentrations were associated with STEMI (p = 0.001). Across all ACS patients, no associations between anti-ß1AR Ab concentration and either all-cause cardiovascular death or myocardial re-infarction (p = 0.14) were evident. However among STEMI patients ≤60 years with anti-ß1AR Ab concentration <median higher rates of re-infarction were observed, compared to those with anti-ß1AR Ab concentrations > median (14/198 (7.1%) vs. 2/190 (1.1%)); p = 0.01). Similarly, the same sub-group demonstrated greater risk of cardiovascular death in year 1, including re-infarction and stroke (22/198 (11.1%) vs. 10/190 (5.3%); p = 0.017). ACS Patients ≤60 years, exhibiting lower concentrations of ß1AR Ab carry a greater risk for early re-infarction and cardiovascular death. Large, prospective studies quantitatively assessing the prognostic relevance of Anti-ß1AR Ab levels should be considered.
Project description:Although immune reactions against heat shock proteins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, conflicting associations between Hsp70, anti-Hsp70 antibody and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been reported. This study assessed whether there is a significant association between extracellular human Hsp70, anti-Hsp70 antibody and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable angina (SA), and examined dynamic changes in Hsp70 and anti-Hsp70 antibody levels induced by acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Plasma Hsp70 and anti-Hsp70 antibody levels in 291 patients with ACS (179 AMI, 112 unstable angina), 126 patients with SA and 417 age and sex-matched healthy subjects, and in 40 patients after admission for AMI, and on day 2, 3, and 7 after the onset of AMI were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Hsp70 levels were significantly higher in ACS and SA and anti-Hsp70 antibody levels were only markedly lower in ACS than controls. After adjustment for traditional CHD risk factors, increasing levels of Hsp70 were significantly associated with an increased risk and severity of ACS (P for trend < 0.001), whereas increasing levels of anti-Hsp70 antibody were associated with a decreased risk of ACS (P for trend = 0.0003). High levels of Hsp70 combined with low levels of anti-Hsp70 antibody had a joint effect on the risk of ACS (OR, 5.14, 95% CI, 3.00-8.79; P < 0.0001). In patients with AMI, Hsp70 levels decreased rapidly from days 1-7 after onset, whereas anti-Hsp70 antibody levels increased in patients with AMI. These findings suggest that higher Hsp70 levels or lower anti-Hsp70 antibody levels are independently associated with a higher risk of ACS. Higher Hsp70 levels and lower anti-Hsp70 antibody levels combine to further increase this risk.
Project description:Although severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases including coronary artery disease (CAD), there is no reliable biomarker of CAD risks in patients with OSA. This study aimed to test our hypothesis that circulating autoantibodies against neuroblastoma suppressor of tumorigenicity 1 (NBL1-Abs) are associated with the prevalence of CAD in patients with OSA.Eighty-two adults diagnosed with OSA by polysomnography, 96 patients with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 64 healthy volunteers (HVs) were consecutively enrolled. Serum samples were collected from patients with OSA at diagnostic polysomnography and from patients with ACS at disease onset. Serum NBL1-Ab level was measured by amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay and its association with clinical variables related to atherosclerosis was evaluated.NBL1-Ab level was significantly elevated in patients with both OSA and ACS compared with HVs. Subgroup analyses showed that NBL1-Ab level was markedly higher in patients with severe OSA and OSA patients with a history of CAD. Weak associations were observed between NBL1-Ab level and apnea-hypopnea index, age, mean SpO2 and arousal index, whereas significantly higher NBL1-Ab levels were observed in OSA patients with a history of CAD than in those without a history of CAD. Sensitivity analysis using a logistic regression model also demonstrated that increased NBL1-Ab levels were associated with the previous history of CAD in patients with OSA.Elevated NBL1-Ab levels may be associated with the prevalence of CAD in patients with OSA, which needs to be confirmed further.
Project description:AIM: Omentin-1, a novel adipokine expressed in visceral adipose tissue, is negatively correlated with insulin resistance and obesity. Decreased omentin-1 expression has been found in many chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the role of omentin-1 in coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine whether serum concentration of omentin-1 was independently associated with CAD. METHODS: One hundred and fifty five patients with CAD were divided into two groups: acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable angina pectoris (SAP). A total of 52 healthy participants served as controls. Serum concentrations of omentin-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured using ELISA. The association of omentin-1 with CAD and cardiovascular disease risk factors was evaluated. RESULTS: Serum omentin-1 levels were lower in patients with ACS or SAP compared with controls (ACS, 113.08±61.43 ng/mL; SAP, 155.41±66.89 ng/mL; control, 254.00±72.9 ng/mL; P<0.01). Patients with ACS also had lower serum concentrations of omentin-1 compared with patients with SAP (P<0.01). Serum concentration of omentin-1 was negatively correlated with body mass index (r=-0.17, P<0.05) and serum IL-6 concentration (r=-0.19, P<0.05). Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that serum omentin-1 concentrations were independently correlated with CAD. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that serum concentrations of omentin-1 are related to CAD.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is known to be caused by Th1 cell-dependent autoimmunity. Recently, we reported that TYK2 promoter variant serves as a putative virus-induced diabetes susceptibility gene associated with deteriorated interferon-dependent antiviral response. TYK2 is also related to HIES, that is, Th2 cell-dependent. Therefore, TYK2 promoter variant may be also associated with the pathogenesis of T1D, modulating Th1/Th2 balance.We assessed the association between anti- GAD Ab, IgE levels, and TYK2 promoter variant among 313 T1D patients, 184 T2D patients, and 264 YH controls in the Japanese.T1D patients had elevated IgE (median, 56.7U/ml; p<0.0001) compared with T2D patients (22.5U/ml) and controls (43.3U/ml). Contrary to our expectations, there was no correlation between TYK2 promoter variant and IgE levels. We found that T1D could be subtyped as four groups based on anti-GAD Ab and IgE profile: Subtype 1, anti-GAD Ab positive and non-elevated IgE (47.0%); Subtype 2, anti-GAD Ab negative and non-elevated IgE (35.1%); Subtype 3, anti-GAD Ab positive and elevated IgE (10.9%); and Subtype 4, anti-GAD Ab negative and elevated IgE (7.0%). In Subtype 2, a significantly higher incidence was observed in T1D cases carrying the TYK2 promoter variant (OR, 2.60; 95%CI, 1.03-6.97; p=0.032), and also showing a flu-like syndrome at diabetes onset (OR, 2.34; 95%CI, 1.27-4.35; p=0.003).Anti-GAD Ab and IgE profiling helps classifying T1D into four groups that recognize variable pathogenic bases of T1D.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Primary membranous nephritis (PMN) is an autoimmune disease induced by the deposit of antibodies (Ab) to the phospholipase receptor A2 receptor (PLA2R) on podocytes. In this context, we aimed to assess the relationships between anti-PLA2R Ab, PLA2R rs4664308 SNP, PLA2R mRNA levels and PMN susceptibility and outcome. METHODS:Sixty-eight PMN patients, 30 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with secondary MN and 30 healthy control subjects served for anti-PLA2R Ab measurement by ELISA and PLA2R rs4664308 SNP genotyping by a commercial real-time PCR. Twenty patients with tubulo-interstitial nephritis (TIN) were used as controls for renal PLA2R mRNA quantification in PMN patients from kidney biopsies. PLA2R mRNA quantification was carried-out by real-time PCR after RNA extraction. RESULTS:Forty-three (63.2%) PMN patients received initial therapy consisting of alternating monthly cycles of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide. Twelve (17.6%) patients had resistant PMN to initial therapy and were consecutively treated by cyclosporine or tacrolimus. Anti-PLA2R Ab were positive in 54 (79.4%) PMN patients, while all SLE patients and controls were negative, p<0.0001. Moreover, anti-PLA2R Ab levels were significantly higher in PMN patients (134.85 [41.25-256.97] RU/ml) than in SLE patients (3.35 [2.3-4.35] RU/ml) and controls (2 [2-2.3]), p<0.0001. Consequently, a ROC curve showed for 100% specificity a sensitivity of 94.1% at a threshold of 2.6 RU/ml. Besides, Anti-PLA2R antibodies levels were significantly associated to non-remission; p = 0.002. The rs4664308*A wild-type allele was significantly more frequent in PMN patients (0.809) than in controls (0.633) and SLE patients (0.65); p = 0.008, OR [95% CI] = 2.44 [1.24-4.82] and p = 0.016, OR [95% CI] = 2.27 [1.15-4.5], respectively. Renal PLA2R mRNA levels were significantly higher in PMN patients (218.29 [66.05-486.07]) than in TIN patients (22.09 [13.62-43.34]), p<0.0001. Moreover, PLA2R mRNA levels were significantly higher in non-remission patients (fold-factor vs. partial remission = 2.46 and fold-factor vs. complete remission = 12.25); p = 1.56 10E-8. In addition, PLA2R mRNA and anti-PLA2R Ab levels were significantly correlated, Spearman Rho = 0.958, p<0.0001. CONCLUSION:Anti-PLA2R Ab and renal PLA2R mRNA could be useful markers for PMN outcome predicting. The PLA2R rs6446308 SNP is associated with PMN susceptibility in Tunisians.
Project description:The human cationic anti-microbial peptide LL-37 is a T cell self-antigen in patients with psoriasis, who have increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, the role of LL-37 as a T cell self-antigen in the context of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The objective of this study was to test for the presence of T cells reactive to LL-37 in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Furthermore, the role of T cells reactive to LL-37 in atherosclerosis was assessed using apoE-/- mice immunized with the LL-37 mouse ortholog, mCRAMP. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with ACS were stimulated with LL-37. PBMCs from stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients or self-reported subjects served as controls. T cell memory responses were analyzed with flow cytometry. Stimulation of PBMCs with LL-37 reduced CD8+ effector T cell responses in controls and patients with stable CAD but not in ACS and was associated with reduced programmed cell death protein 1 (PDCD1) mRNA expression. For the mouse studies, donor apoE-/- mice were immunized with mCRAMP or adjuvant as controls, then T cells were isolated and adoptively transferred into recipient apoE-/- mice fed a Western diet. Recipient mice were euthanized after 5 weeks. Whole aortas and hearts were collected for analysis of atherosclerotic plaques. Spleens were collected for flow cytometric and mRNA expression analysis. Adoptive transfer experiments in apoE-/- mice showed a 28% reduction in aortic plaque area in mCRAMP T cell recipient mice (P < 0.05). Fifty six percent of adjuvant T cell recipient mice showed calcification in atherosclerotic plaques, compared to none in the mCRAMP T cell recipient mice (Fisher's exact test P = 0.003). Recipients of T cells from mice immunized with mCRAMP had increased IL-10 and IFN-? expression in CD8+ T cells compared to controls. In conclusion, the persistence of CD8+ effector T cell response in PBMCs from patients with ACS stimulated with LL-37 suggests that LL-37-reactive T cells may be involved in the acute event. Furthermore, studies in apoE-/- mice suggest that T cells reactive to mCRAMP are functionally active in atherosclerosis and may be involved in modulating plaque calcification.
Project description:Cytokines play a critical role in the pathogenesis and development of cardiovascular diseases. However, data linking cytokines to risk and severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are still limited. We measured plasma profile of 280 cytokines using a quantitative protein microarray in 12 ACS patients and 16 healthy controls, and identified 15 differentially expressed cytokines for ACS. Osteopontin, chemokine ligand 23, brain derived neurotrophic factor and C-reactive protein (CRP) were further validated using immunoassay in two independent case-control studies with a total of 210 ACS patients and 210 controls. We further examined their relations with incident ACS among 318 case-control pairs nested within the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort, and found plasma osteopontin and CRP concentrations were associated with incident ACS, and the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.29 (1.06-1.57) per 1-SD increase for osteopontin and 1.30 (1.02-1.66) for CRP, respectively. Higher levels of circulating osteopontin were also correlated with higher severity of ACS, and earlier ACS onset time. Adding osteopontin alone or in combination with CRP modestly improved the predictive ability of ACS beyond the Framingham risk scores. Our findings suggested that osteopontin might be a biomarker for incident ACS, using osteopontin adds moderately to traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
Project description:Since urine samples more directly reflect kidney alterations and damage than blood samples, we investigated whether urine anti-PLA2R antibody (uPLA2R-Ab) could be utilized similarly to serum anti-PLA2R antibody (sPLA2R-Ab) as a noninvasive biomarker of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). In this study, we performed a qualitative analysis using an indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) and measured uPLA2R-Ab and sPLA2R-Ab concentrations using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 28 patients with biopsy-proven IMN and 12 patients with secondary membranous nephropathy (SMN). Overall, 64.3% (n=18) of patients with IMN had IIFT-positive sPLA2R-Ab, 67.9% (n=19) of patients with IMN had IIFT-positive uPLA2R-Ab, and none of the SMN patients had IIFT-positive sPLA2R-Ab or uPLA2R-Ab. The titers of the anti-PLA2R antibody from the IMN patients in the urine (10.72±22.24 RU/?mol, presented as uPLA2R-Ab/urine creatinine) and serum (107.36±140.93 RU/ml) were higher than those from the SMN patients (0.51±0.46 RU/?mol, 0.008±0.029 RU/ml, respectively, p<0.05). Statistical analyses indicated that there were positive correlations between uPLA2R-Ab and gPLA2R, sPLA2R-Ab or urinary protein and negative correlations between uPLA2R-Ab and serum albumin in patients with IMN. In conclusion, uPLA2R-Ab is a novel biomarker of IMN. sPLA2R-Ab combined with uPLA2R-Ab might be more helpful for diagnosis and activity in PLA2R associated MN.